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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(13)2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753512

RESUMO

Island Southeast Asia has recently produced several surprises regarding human history, but the region's complex demography remains poorly understood. Here, we report ∼2.3 million genotypes from 1,028 individuals representing 115 indigenous Philippine populations and genome-sequence data from two ∼8,000-y-old individuals from Liangdao in the Taiwan Strait. We show that the Philippine islands were populated by at least five waves of human migration: initially by Northern and Southern Negritos (distantly related to Australian and Papuan groups), followed by Manobo, Sama, Papuan, and Cordilleran-related populations. The ancestors of Cordillerans diverged from indigenous peoples of Taiwan at least ∼8,000 y ago, prior to the arrival of paddy field rice agriculture in the Philippines ∼2,500 y ago, where some of their descendants remain to be the least admixed East Asian groups carrying an ancestry shared by all Austronesian-speaking populations. These observations contradict an exclusive "out-of-Taiwan" model of farming-language-people dispersal within the last four millennia for the Philippines and Island Southeast Asia. Sama-related ethnic groups of southwestern Philippines additionally experienced some minimal South Asian gene flow starting ∼1,000 y ago. Lastly, only a few lowlanders, accounting for <1% of all individuals, presented a low level of West Eurasian admixture, indicating a limited genetic legacy of Spanish colonization in the Philippines. Altogether, our findings reveal a multilayered history of the Philippines, which served as a crucial gateway for the movement of people that ultimately changed the genetic landscape of the Asia-Pacific region.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/história , Grupos Populacionais/história , Agricultura , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Austrália/etnologia , Feminino , Deriva Genética , Genômica , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Oryza , Filipinas , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Taiwan/etnologia
2.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(4): 1191-1199, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586030

RESUMO

Population and geographic assignment are frequently undertaken using DNA sequences on the mitochondrial genome. Assignment to broad continental populations is common, although finer resolution to subpopulations can be less accurate due to shared genetic ancestry at a local level and members of different ancestral subpopulations cohabiting the same geographic area. This study reports on the accuracy of population and subpopulation assignment by using the sequence data obtained from the 3070 mitochondrial genomes and applying the K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm. These data also included training samples used for continental and population assignment comprised of 1105 Europeans (including Austria, France, Germany, Spain, and England and Caucasian countries), 374 Africans (including North and East Africa and non-specific area (Pan-Africa)), and 1591 Asians (including Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan). Subpopulations included in this study were 1153 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 12 subpopulations in Taiwan (including Han, Hakka, Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Tsou, Tao, and Pingpu). Additionally, control region sequence data from a further 50 samples, obtained from the Sigma Company, were included after they were amplified and sequenced. These additional 50 samples acted as the "testing samples" to verify the accuracy of the population. In this study, based on genetic distances as genetic metric, we used the KNN algorithm and the K-weighted-nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm weighted by genetic distance to classify individuals into continental populations, and subpopulations within the same continent. Accuracy results of ethnic inferences at the level of continental populations and of subpopulations among KNN and KWNN algorithms were obtained. The training sample set achieved an overall accuracy of 99 to 82% for assignment to their continental populations with K values from 1 to 101. Population assignment for subpopulations with K assignments from 1 to 5 reached an accuracy of 77 to 54%. Four out of 12 Taiwanese populations returned an accuracy of assignment of over 60%, Ami (66%), Atayal (67%), Saisiyat (66%), and Tao (80%). For the testing sample set, results of ethnic prediction for continental populations with recommended K values as 5, 10, and 35, based on results of the training sample set, achieved overall an accuracy of 100 to 94%. This study provided an accurate method in population assignment for not only continental populations but also subpopulations, which can be useful in forensic and anthropological studies.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Região de Controle de Locus Gênico , Filogenia , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/genética , Taiwan/etnologia
3.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 50(1): 117-142, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555538

RESUMO

Telling about emotionally significant events is a basic activity in human relationships and plays an integral role in the process of psychotherapy, in film and literature, and in other contexts where emotional experiences are shared using language. Bringing events and images to mind activates feelings anew; talking about them may further activate and perhaps alter the experiences as registered in the speaker's memory. We review the results of five studies where participants were asked to bring an emotionally significant event to mind and report how they felt at the time (time 1); report how they feel now in the moment of thinking about it (time 2); tell about the event, and report how they felt after telling (time 3). Overall, we see a pattern whereby participants' ratings of emotional intensity are high at time 1, lower at time 2 and high again at time 3. Most participants reported some change in the characterization of their emotions after describing the event, e.g. angry to neutral, and a smaller proportion reported more marked changes e.g. happy to sad. Language style indicating the presence of a referential process was shown to be moderately related to change in characterization of emotion in two of the three studies in which language measures were applied. In combination the studies suggest that change in emotional characterization comes about in the context of the referential process associated with an increase in reflection. Revisions of the paradigm in future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Memória , Narração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan/etnologia , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113267, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822822

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sleep disorders affect an estimated 150 million people worldwide and result in adverse health, safety, and work performance-related outcomes that have important economic consequences. In Taiwan, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a complementary natural medicine and has been widely used as an adjunctive therapy. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effect of CHM on dementia risk in patients with sleep disorders in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 124,605 patients with sleep disorders between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Of these, 5876 CHM users and 5876 non-CHM users were matched according to age and gender. The chi-squared test, Cox proportional hazard model, Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank test were used for the comparisons. Association rule mining and network analysis were applied to determine a CHM pattern specialized for sleep disorders. RESULTS: More CHM users did not use sleeping pills than non-CHM users. CHM users had a lower risk of dementia than non-CHM users after adjusting for age, gender, and sleeping pill use (hazard ratio (HR): 0.469, 95% CI = 0.289-0.760; p-value = 0.002). The cumulative incidence of dementia was lower among CHM users (long-rank test, p-value < 0.001). Association rule mining and network analysis showed that Ye-Jiao-Teng (YJT; Caulis Polygoni Multiflori; Polygonum multiflorum Thunb), Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (SZRT), Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS), He-Huan-Pi (HHP; Cortex Albizziae; Albizia julibrissin Durazz.), and Suan-Zao-Ren (SZR; Semen Zizyphi Spinosae; Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) were important CHMs for patients with sleep disorders in Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive list of herbal medicines may be useful for the clinical treatment of patients with sleep disorders, and for future scientific investigations into the prevention of dementia in these patients.


Assuntos
Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/etnologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etnologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/etnologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Br J Sociol ; 71(5): 1016-1030, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924143

RESUMO

Research on race and ethnicity has focused on conditions under which solidarity will be developed to consolidate collective benefits. For example, facing racial discrimination can bring large-scale affiliations (e.g., people of color, Latinos, or Asians) to fight against racial injustice. Focusing on the negotiation and struggle between ethnicity and nationalism among Taiwanese migrants in Australia-a politicizing context associated with a prior definition of Chinese category, despite inherent differences within it, this article shows the complexity of ethnicity when ethnic identity/solidarity intersects with nationalism and racial discrimination. I argue that Taiwanese migrants attach specific meanings to the ethnic (Chinese) category and constantly connect to and shift its boundaries in different contexts. Meanwhile, they also make a distinction between racial discrimination from white Australians and political hostility from PRC-Chinese. This article proposes a procedural and contextual understanding of ethnic identity, solidarity, nationalism, and boundary making/unmaking within the Chinese category as it is enacted in Taiwanese migrants' everyday lives. It also examines situational variability in the salience of ethnic identifications, racialization of the ethnic category, and people's interpretation of ethnic and national identity when facing racial discrimination.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Taiwan/etnologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706821

RESUMO

Proper endotracheal tube (ETT) size selection and identification of potentially difficult airways are important to reduce laryngeal injury during intubation. However, controversies exist concerning transverse subglottic diameter-the narrowest part of the airway-and the distance to pre-epiglottic space. Because few studies have reported the distance from skin to the midpoint of the epiglottis (DSE) among normal individuals, whether the DSE varies between individuals and by ethnicity remains uncertain. The present study aims to investigate the sonographic subglottic diameter and DSE among healthy Chinese adults. Healthy volunteers were recruited at National Taiwan University Hospital between October and November 2019. Exclusion criteria included pre-existing airway or respiratory diseases, neck tumors, and a history of neck operation. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), sonographic DSE, and transverse subglottic diameter were recorded. A total of 124 participants were enrolled. The average age was 32.5 ± 10.4 years and 63 participants (51%) were males. The subglottic diameter was positively associated with sex (males, 14.40 mm; females, 11.10 mm, p < 0.001) and BMI (underweight, 12.13 mm; normal weight, 12.47 mm; overweight, 13.80 mm; obese, 13.67 mm, p = 0.007). Moreover, the DSE was shorter in males (male, 16.18 mm; females, 14.54 mm, p < 0.001) and participants with increased BMI (underweight, 13.70 mm; normal weight, 15.06 mm; overweight, 16.58 mm; obese, 18.18 mm, p < 0.001). As compared with other ethnicity, a smaller size of subglottic diameter and a shorter DSE were noted among Chinese participants, and we suggest that a relatively smaller size of endotracheal tube selection should be considered in tracheal intubations.


Assuntos
Epiglote/anatomia & histologia , Glote/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan/etnologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 15(1): 1756686, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340564

RESUMO

Background: Adolescents with brain stem dysfunction may undergo many invasive treatments, and parents are often faced with making the decision to withdraw treatment. However, in the face of their child's death, the spiritual practices of parents dealing with end-of-life decision-making remain under investigated.Purpose: This study explores the spiritual practices in parents making end-of-life decisions for adolescents on life support with brain stem dysfunction.Method: A descriptive phenomenological study was conducted through in-depth interviews with three parents of two adolescents in Taiwan. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven-step protocol.Results: Three main themes emerged: (1) faith during decision-making, (2) struggles during decision-making, (3) transformation during decision-making. The findings indicate that "transforming the nature of hope" is the essence of the experience.Conclusion: Family-centred care, gaining insight into parental spiritual practices, and developing culturally-appropriate care are recommended.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Pais/psicologia , Espiritualidade , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taiwan/etnologia
9.
Biomolecules ; 10(2)2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033407

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is one of the strong risk factors for ischemic heart disease. Using the Taiwan Biobank (TWB) database, we evaluated the risk of hyperlipidemia and its interaction with sex and rs688 polymorphism on the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Data collection in the biobank started in 2008 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed on the participants' data collected between 2008 and 2015. In general, 27.92% of the 9237 female participants and 32.65% of the 8690 male participants were identified with hyperlipidemia. Compared to the C/C genotype, C/T and T/T genotypes were not significant risk factors for hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.061, CI: 0.976-1.153 for C/T and OR = 1.052, CI: 0.845-1.309 for T/T genotype) in the general model. However, there was a significant interaction between sex and rs6888 on hyperlipidemia risk (p-interaction = 0.0321). With the male sex/CC genotype being the reference group, only the female sex/CT and T/T genotypes were closely associated with hyperlipidemia, with respective ORs of 1.153 (CI: 1.014-1.311) and 1.423 (CI: 1.056-1.917). Our data indicate that rs688 C/T and T/T genotypes may be associated with increased risk of hyperlipidemia in Taiwanese women. These findings may be relevant in lipid-modification therapy.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de LDL/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Razão de Chances , Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Taiwan/etnologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120367

RESUMO

Relating information to oneself can enhance memory for young and older adults. However, most studies investigating self-referencing have focused on Western populations, for whom the self is considered an independent and distinct entity. Whether self-referencing as a mnemonic strategy similarly benefits East Asians, cultures associated with interdependent self-construal, has been investigated little, particularly with age. In this study, we investigated the effect of self-reference on memory for both younger and older adults from American and Taiwanese cultures, predicting that self-referencing would be a less effective strategy for younger and older adults from Taiwan compared to Americans. Results reveal some cultural differences with age, with Taiwanese older adults benefitting less from self-referencing than younger Taiwanese, though the effect did not differ with age for Americans, or between younger adults across cultures. Thus, our results suggest that the potential mnemonic benefits of self-referencing may be limited in older adults from Eastern cultures.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Ego , Memória , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 14(1): 97-105, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124309

RESUMO

AIM: Intervention during the clinical high-risk phase for psychosis (CHR) can reduce duration of untreated psychosis and associated negative outcomes. Early treatment access and sustained engagement are important to understand for effective intervention. Understanding stigma and help-seeking processes is particularly important for groups that experience mental healthcare disparities such as those of Chinese heritage living in the United States. METHODS: Chinese and Taiwanese participants (N = 215) residing in the United States were randomly assigned to one of three CHR vignette conditions based on the "what matters most" stigma framework for Chinese groups, which identifies capacities that define "personhood" and thereby shapes stigma for members of a particular cultural group. Participants completed measures of help-seeking attitudes, family stigma and individual stigma. RESULTS: More stigma towards the CHR vignette character's family was associated with positive CHR help-seeking attitudes. Participants who read the vignette describing CHR affecting family obligations, "what matters most" and participants who read the vignette describing CHR symptomology only had more positive CHR help-seeking attitudes compared to participants who read the vignette describing CHR affecting individual aspirations. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese and Taiwanese residing in the United States may perceive professional mental healthcare to be especially relevant for persons with CHR when symptoms are particularly stigmatizing for the person's family and when symptoms threaten the person's ability to fulfil family obligations (ie, "what matters most"). Clinical implications of findings include the importance of emphasizing positive treatment outcomes that increase an individual's ability to engage in valued life domains.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estereotipagem , Taiwan/etnologia , Estados Unidos
12.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 97, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As obesity is becoming pandemic, morbid obesity (MO), an extreme type of obesity, is an emerging issue worldwide. It is imperative to understand the factors responsible for huge weight gain in certain populations in the modern society. Very few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted on MO patients. This study is the first MO-GWAS study in the Han-Chinese population in Asia. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage GWAS with 1110 MO bariatric patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 35 kg/m2) from Min-Sheng General Hospital, Taiwan. The first stage involved 575 patients, and 1729 sex- and age-matched controls from the Taiwan Han Chinese Cell and Genome Bank. In the second stage, another 535 patients from the same hospital were genotyped for 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in the first stage, and 9145 matched controls from Taiwan Biobank were matched for confirmation analysis. RESULTS: The results of the joint analysis for the second stage revealed six top ranking SNPs, including rs8050136 (p-value = 7.80 × 10- 10), rs9939609 (p-value = 1.32 × 10- 9), rs1421085 (p-value = 1.54 × 10- 8), rs9941349 (p-value = 9.05 × 10- 8), rs1121980 (p-value = 7.27 × 10- 7), and rs9937354 (p-value = 6.65 × 10- 7), which were all located in FTO gene. Significant associations were also observed between MO and RBFOX1, RP11-638 L3.1, TMTC1, CBLN4, CSMD3, and ERBB4, respectively, using the Bonferroni correction criteria for 52 SNPs (p < 9.6 × 10- 4). CONCLUSION: The most significantly associated locus of MO in the Han-Chinese population was the well-known FTO gene. These SNPs located in intron 1, may include the leptin receptor modulator. Other significant loci, showing weak associations with MO, also suggested the potential mechanism underlying the disorders with eating behaviors or brain/neural development.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/etnologia , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptor ErbB-4/genética , Taiwan/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 39(6): 644-648, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688448

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine clearance is influenced by sex, smoking status, ethnicity, coprescription of inducers or inhibitors, obesity, and inflammation. In 126 Beijing inpatients, we measured repeated trough steady-state serum concentrations and identified 4% (5/126) who were phenotypical poor metabolizers (PMs); none were ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs). They were defined as being 2 SDs beyond the means of total clozapine concentration/dose ratios stratified by sex and smoking. Using this definition, this study explores the prevalence of PMs and UMs using data from 4 already published Asian samples. Three samples were East Asian (Beijing 2, Taipei, and Seoul); one was from South India (Vellore). FINDINGS/RESULTS: The prevalence of phenotypical PMs ranged from 2% to 13%, but inflammation was not excluded. The prevalence was 7% (14/191) for Beijing 2, 11% (8/70) for Taipei, 13% (9/67) for Seoul, and 2% (2/101) for the Vellore sample. Five phenotypic PMs appeared to be associated with extreme obesity. Phenotypic UM prevalence ranged from 0% to 1.6% but may be partly explained by lack of adherence. A Vellore phenotypic UM appeared to be associated with induction through high coffee intake. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 10% of Asians may be clozapine PMs and may need only 50 to 150 mg/d to get therapeutic concentrations. Future studies combining gene sequencing for new alleles with repeated concentrations and careful control of confounders including inhibitors, inflammation, and obesity should provide better estimations of the prevalence of phenotypic clozapine PMs across races. Clozapine UM studies require excluding potent inducers, careful supervision of compliance in inpatient settings, and multiple serum concentrations.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Clozapina/metabolismo , Café/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Pequim/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Prevalência , República da Coreia/etnologia , Taiwan/etnologia
14.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 72(12): 2033-2040, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defining three-dimensional (3D) normal craniofacial morphology in healthy children could provide craniofacial surgeons a reference point to assess disease, plan surgical reconstruction, and evaluate treatment outcome. The purposes of this study were to report normal craniofacial form and quantify craniofacial asymmetry of healthy children in Taiwan by implementing the 3D stereophotogrammetry technique. METHODS: Healthy Taiwanese elementary school children (n = 652) aged 6-12 years with no known craniofacial anomaly were recruited. After the 3dMD scanning procedure, 32 landmarks were manually placed on the 3D cranial images. Thin plate spline algorithm based on landmarks and closest point matching was applied to deform a symmetric 3D template into the scale of each scanned images. Skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were calculated using 3dMD vultus and MATLAB. Average head shape models were also presented. RESULTS: Overall, the mean head transverse width, height, anteroposterior length, and circumferences were 163.02, 220.79, 179.07, and 526.55 mm, respectively. On average, the skull asymmetry and facial asymmetry were 2.47 ± 1.26 mm and 0.96 ± 0.53 mm, respectively, with no significant (all p > 0.05) differences found when comparing males and females. In the average head shape model, certain craniofacial areas on the right side were found to be more protruded than those on the left side. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the baseline craniofacial form of the Taiwanese elementary school children is asymmetric with a tendency of more protrusion of the head on the right side.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Assimetria Facial/patologia , Criança , Assimetria Facial/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan/etnologia
16.
Ethn Health ; 24(7): 779-789, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343279

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the prevalence of four common health conditions related to cardiovascular disease risk among Asians in Los Angeles County. Methods: A survey of Asians in Los Angeles County was conducted utilizing purposive sampling to recruit from the region's Service Planning Areas 3 and 4; these underserved areas contain high density of Asian populations. Descriptive and multivariable regression analyses were performed to explore and describe potential associations between self-reported diagnoses of prediabetes, diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol and body mass index (measured with non-Asian versus Asian cut points) by race/ethnicity (Chinese/Filipino/Korean/Taiwanese/Thai/Vietnamese). Results: The survey response rate was nearly 60%. The analysis included 1,377 Asians, self-identified as either Chinese (n = 700), Filipino (n = 69), Korean (n = 339), Taiwanese (n = 48), Thai (n = 115), or Vietnamese (n = 106). Results showed that, in comparison to other Asians, Filipinos had the highest risks for two of the four conditions described. Other results by subgroup affirmed a similar heterogeneous pattern of Asian health locally. Conclusions: These and other results from the survey point to potential gaps in healthcare needs of Asians, and to opportunities where local public health efforts could help increase these populations' access to cardiovascular disease-related health and social services.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , China/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/etnologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , República da Coreia/etnologia , Taiwan/etnologia , Tailândia/etnologia , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(4): e13069, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066140

RESUMO

We assessed the quality of life (QoL) associated with patient's characteristics and different cancer treatments among Chinese breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 where 193 patients with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative metastatic breast cancer were recruited. Three QoL questionnaires were administered: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), its breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23) and EQ-5D-5L. Multiple linear regression was performed to assess the association between QoL and cancer treatments, with adjustment for patient's characteristics. The mean age of study participants was 55.52 years. Simple linear regression showed that cancer stage and receiving chemotherapy were significantly associated with QoL scores (p < 0.05). Significant adverse effects of chemotherapy on QoL were found among early-stage cancer women (i.e., I or II), including poor cognitive and sexual functioning, and a higher symptom burden (i.e., dyspnoea, constipation, systematic therapy side effects). Multiple linear regression also revealed that receiving chemotherapy was significantly associated with poor QoL (e.g., lower functional health and higher symptom burden measured by the QLQ-BR23), compared to none chemotherapy (p < 0.05). Receiving chemotherapy was associated with poor QoL, especially among early-stage breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan/etnologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etnologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/psicologia
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 274: 287-293, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826576

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The 36-item Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) and Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) were developed to assess flow experience in daily and specific activities. Although their validity and reliability had been examined in general populations and different cultures, little is known for schizophrenic subjects. Thus, this study aimed to validate Traditional-Chinese DFS-2 (TCDFS-2) and FSS-2 (TCFSS-2) in Taiwanese subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. METHODS: We recruited 229 adult participants from outpatient clinics, day care centers, and psychiatric rehabilitation centers in Taipei. They filled out 36-item TCDFS-2 and TCFSS-2 under guidance. The LISREL 9.30 software was used to conduct exploratory factor analysis for exploring measurement structures, and then confirmatory factor analysis for identifying factor models. RESULTS: The six first-order factor and one second-order factor measurement models were obtained for both 36-item TCDFS-2 (Chi-square statistic = 999.1, df = 545, p < 0.0001, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation [RMSEA] = 0.0603, and Comparative Fit Index [CFI] = 0.9213) and TCFSS-2 (Chi-square statistic = 987.9, df = 539, p < 0.0001, RMSEA = 0.0603, and CFI = 0.9213). CONCLUSION: Our factor models differed remarkably from those of 36-item DFS-2 and FSS-2. Yet, they were barely acceptable to be used to measure flow experiences in schizophrenic subjects in clinical applications. Since the factor scores, measurement structures, or even definitions of flow experiences could differ substantially between healthy people and patients with mental illness, disease-specific instruments of flow experiences should be considered in the future.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/etnologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Taiwan/etnologia
19.
J Soc Psychol ; 159(5): 531-545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199319

RESUMO

This study examined the moderation of classroom ethnic composition and the mediation of group identification in the relationships between upward comparisons, depression, and self-efficacy in a sample of 359 Taiwanese aboriginal students. A stronger negative effect was found in highly ethnically concentrated classes. Upward comparisons were found to reinforce depression, decrease self-esteem, and reduce school belonging in aborigines-only classes but not in mainstream classes. Two pathways-self-esteem and school belonging-were found to process the negative indirect effects on depression and academic and social self-efficacy. The indirect effect through school belonging was particularly strong in the aborigines-only classes compared with the mainstream classes. The suppression effect showed that when self-esteem and school belonging were sustained, the aboriginal students in aborigines-only classes could increase their social self-efficacy through upward comparisons.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Processos Grupais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Estudantes , Humanos , Taiwan/etnologia
20.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(2): 307-329, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255392

RESUMO

This study examines the nature of stop accuracy and substitute patterns of word-initial Japanese and Mandarin stops produced by Mandarin-Japanese bilingual children. The purpose of the study is to understand phonological development in bilinguals. The sample consists of 36 bilingual children between the ages of three and six, who simultaneously acquired Japanese and Mandarin from birth. The results were as follows: (1) most of the bilingual children were able to produce Mandarin and Japanese stops by the age of three and the accuracy of the target stops were found to develop with age; (2) the age of developing the target consonants is slightly different in the two languages; (3) substitution patterns observed in each language reveals a mixture of child-specific patterns, language specific systems and language influence as well as individual differences. These findings indicate that Mandarin-Japanese bilingual children possess a unique phonological development system, which is a monolinguallike pattern with cross-linguistic interaction. These results constitute a new body of descriptive reference materials documenting the phonological development of bilingual children for speech therapists or pathologists.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Fonética , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/etnologia , Idioma , Masculino , Taiwan/etnologia
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