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2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 112: 355-365, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955218

RESUMO

We measured the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg, and the stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) in 87 fish samples within 12 economic fish species collected from the Dongting Lake, the second largest freshwater lake in China. With few exceptions in concentration of Cr, most of fish species showed lower concentrations of the 8 metals than legislation thresholds. Piscivorous fishes had significantly higher values of δ15N (possessing higher trophic level) and metal concentrations than planktivorous and herbivorous fishes. Moreover, demersal fishes showed higher concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than pelagic and benthopelagic fishes. We found positive correlations between concentrations of Fe, Pb and Hg and δ15N ratio, confirming the biomagnification of the three metals through trophic transfer. In contrast, fishes showed clear growth dilution effect for Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and Hg, indicated by the negative correlations between their concentrations and fish weight or length. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that growth dilution and biomagnification effects simultaneously governed the metal concentrations in fish muscle, and the two effects' importance varied among different metals. The human health risk assessment indicated that all 8 metals gave target hazard quotient (THQ) values < 1.0, i.e., the estimated daily intake (EDI) of metals did not exceed the oral reference dose (RfD), indicating a safe consumption of these fish species for consumer. Our study provides comprehensive approaches to better understand the determining processes and potential risk of heavy metals in freshwater lake fishes.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Hábitos , Humanos , Lagos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959908

RESUMO

In order to explore the association between trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and diabetes and to assess the effectiveness of the models to predict diabetes among Chinese prediabetic people, we conducted this study. Using a national longitudinal study, 1529 cases were involved for analyzing the association between diabetes and BMI trajectories or MUAC trajectories. Growth mixture modeling was conducted among the prediabetic Chinese population to explore the trajectories of BMI and MUAC, and logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between these trajectories and the risk of diabetes. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and the area under the curve (AUC) were applied to assess the feasibility of prediction. BMI and MUAC were categorized into 4-class trajectories, respectively. Statistically significant associations were observed between diabetes in certain BMI and MUAC trajectories. The AUC for trajectories of BMI and MUAC to predict diabetes was 0.752 (95% CI: 0.690-0.814). A simple cross-validation using logistic regression indicated an acceptable efficiency of the prediction. Diabetes prevention programs should emphasize the significance of body weight control and maintaining skeletal muscle mass and resistance training should be recommended for prediabetes.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261645, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932599

RESUMO

Research has reported that both men and women experience body dissatisfaction. Among other instruments, a widely used method to assess perceived body size and body dissatisfaction are figure rating scales. Although a variety of illustration methods (e.g., three-dimensional, or 3D, models and line-drawing models) have been used to create these figure rating scales, to date, they have not been directly compared to one another. Thus, in the first study, which includes 511 participants at a mean age of 46 years old (range: 20-70), the present research work aims to assess how the line-drawing and 3D model scales, representing different body illustration methods, relate to each other. Furthermore, the first study assesses the validity of the indication of body dissatisfaction measured using these figure rating scales by comparing them to body checking or scrutinizing behavior and body appreciation levels. The project's second study examines the two figure rating scales using objectively measured anthropometric data. In total, 239 participants at a mean age of 54 years (range: 18-94) were included. The results show that figure rating scales can be considered tools that measure perceptual body image due to their positive correlations with body checking behavior (for women) and their negative correlations with body appreciation. The 3D model and line-drawing scales show good to excellent inter-scale reliability, and both scales agree equally well with body mass index (BMI) measurements. Thus, the 3D model and line-drawing scales both seem well suited for assessing perceived body size and perceptual body dissatisfaction, suggesting that neither illustration method is superior to the other.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Ilustração Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Anatômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 94, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carcass length is very important for body size and meat production for swine, thus understanding the genetic mechanisms that underly this trait is of great significance in genetic improvement programs for pigs. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs, very few have been fine-mapped to the level of the causal mutations. The aim of this study was to identify potential causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for carcass length by integrating a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and functional assays. RESULTS: Here, we present a GWAS in a commercial Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) population that reveals a prominent association signal (P = 4.49E-07) on pig chromosome 17 for carcass length, which was further validated in two other DLY populations. Within the detected 1 Mb region, the BMP2 gene stood out as the most likely causal candidate because of its functions in bone growth and development. Whole-genome gene expression studies showed that the BMP2 gene was differentially expressed in the cartilage tissues of pigs with extreme carcass length. Then, we genotyped an additional 267 SNPs in 500 selected DLY pigs, followed by further whole-genome SNP imputation, combined with deep genome resequencing data on multiple pig breeds. Reassociation analyses using genotyped and imputed SNP data revealed that the rs320706814 SNP, located approximately 123 kb upstream of the BMP2 gene, was the strongest candidate causal mutation, with a large association with carcass length, with a ~ 4.2 cm difference in length across all three DLY populations (N = 1501; P = 3.66E-29). This SNP segregated in all parental lines of the DLY (Duroc, Large White and Landrace) and was also associated with a significant effect on body length in 299 pure Yorkshire pigs (P = 9.2E-4), which indicates that it has a major value for commercial breeding. Functional assays showed that this SNP is likely located within an enhancer and may affect the binding affinity of transcription factors, thereby regulating BMP2 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that the rs320706814 SNP on pig chromosome 17 is a putative causal mutation for carcass length in the widely used DLY pigs and has great value in breeding for body size in pigs.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Suínos , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Genótipo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Suínos/genética
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9528787, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745254

RESUMO

Scale and standardization are essential to the prosperity of the breeding industry. During large-scale, standardized breeding, the selective breeding of good livestock breeds hinges on the accurate measurement of body parameters for live animals. However, the complex shooting environment brings several urgent problems, such as the missing of many local data in the point cloud and the difficulty in the automatic acquisition of body data. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a method for parameter measurement of live animals based on the mirror of multiview point cloud. Firstly, the acquisition and stitching principles were given for the multiview point cloud data on body parameters of live animals. Next, the authors presented a way to make up for the data missing areas in the point cloud. Finally, this paper acquires the body mirror data of live animals and scientifically calculates the body parameters. The proposed measurement method was proved effective through experiments.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal
8.
Zootaxa ; 5039(4): 551-560, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811063

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Pseudochydorus Fryer, 1968 is described from Central Mexico. P. margaritalfonsorum sp. nov. differs from the Old World species of the genus, P. globosus (Baird, 1843) and P. bopingi Sinev, Garibian Gu, 2016 in the morphology of thoracic limbs IIII. Analysis of existing literature data on distribution and morphology of Pseudochydorus in America suggest than P. margaritalfonsorum sp. nov. is an endemic of Central Mexican Plateau, and at least two more species of the genus are present in other regions of America.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peixes , México
9.
Zootaxa ; 5039(3): 352-362, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811078

RESUMO

Oberea acuta Gressitt, 1951 is redescribed, the diagnosis of O. notata Pic, 1936 and O. bisbipunctata Pic, 1916 were provided based on examination of type material and additional specimens. Illustrations of habitus and genitalia are provided, and a key to separate these three species is presented. Their distribution is critically examined, notably that of O. bisbipunctata, whose previous records in China are invalidated. Oberea shimomurai Kurihara N. Ohbayashi, 2007 is considered a junior synonym of Oberea notata Pic, 1936.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão
10.
Zootaxa ; 5039(2): 252-262, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811084

RESUMO

The family Ophryoscolecidae (Ciliophora, Entodiniomorphida) constitutes a diverse and monophyletic group of symbiotic ciliates of herbivorous mammals. The family includes approximately 200 species, distributed in three subfamilies and sixteen genera. The subfamily Diplodiniinae is the most diverse group in Ophryoscolecidae and comprises the genus Ostracodinium, which includes species with two retractable ciliary zones in the anterior body portion, a broad skeletal plate covering almost all the right surface of the body and a variable number of contractile vacuoles. The genus currently comprises 28 species, classified according to body size and shape, position and shape of the nuclear apparatus, number and position of contractile vacuoles, and number and shape of caudal projections. The present study performs a systematic review of the genus Ostracodinium, based on morphological and molecular data, and provides data about geographic distribution and hosts of each species.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Animais , Tamanho Corporal
11.
Zootaxa ; 5032(1): 143-146, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811137

RESUMO

The genus Parapentacentrus Shiraki, 1930 includes two species with long wings. In this paper, we report one new species, P. brevipennis He sp. nov., from Jinping, Yunnan, China. The new species have short forewings and hindwings, and have differences in the shape of supra-anal plate and male genitalia. DNA Barcode (COI gene) of this new species are provided. The type specimens are deposited in Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Gryllidae/genética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
12.
Zootaxa ; 5027(4): 587-596, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811152

RESUMO

The Chinese species of Larnaca are reviewed. A new species, Larnaca (Larnaca) walle sp. nov. is described from China. Female of Larnaca (Larnaca) emarginata Bian, Guo Shi, 2015 is described for the first time. The type specimen is deposited in Museum of Biology, East China Normal University.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Feminino , Tamanho do Órgão
13.
Zootaxa ; 5060(2): 33-64, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811176

RESUMO

The present paper deals with the diversity of nephtyid polychaetes (Nephtyidae) from the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Three species belonging to two genera (Micronephthys and Nephtys) were found in the Black Sea (coast of Turkey) and six species belonging to three genera (Inermonephtys, Micronephthys and Nephtys) were found in the Sea of Marmara. The material includes two species new to science, Inermonephtys turcica n. sp. and Nephtys sinopensis n. sp., and a species record (Nephtys kersivalensis McIntosh, 1908) new to the Sea of Marmaras marine fauna. Nephtys sinopensis n. sp. is mainly characterized by having 14 geniculate chaetae in the postacicular position of the parapodia; digitiform antennae, palps, and ventral cirri at chaetiger 1 with swollen tips; small and cirriform branchiae present from chaetiger 4 to the end of the body; poorly developed parapodial prechaetal lamellae in median and posterior chaetigers and long ventral cirri along the body. Inermonephtys turcica n. sp. is mainly characterized by having cushion-like palps with digitiform tips; well developed neuropodial postchaetal lamellae; barred chaetae in preacicular position of the anterior and median parapodia; and branchiae first appearing between chaetiger 3 and 13 (depending on body size).


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Gastrópodes , Poliquetos , Animais , Mar Negro , Tamanho Corporal
14.
Zootaxa ; 5057(2): 285-294, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811208

RESUMO

A new species of Aloninae, Karualona arcana sp. nov. (Cladocera: Chydoridae) is described from Northeast Thailand. It differs from other species of the genus Karualona Dumont Silva-Briano, 2000 by: (1) the inner distal lobe of limb I bearing two setae; (2) shape of the postabdomen; (3) setae on the apical segment of the antenna endopodite of equal thickness; and (4) the presence of setules on the anterior margin of labrum. Some morphological characteristics of this taxon do not match well with the genus diagnosis, but share several important characteristics as well, such as: (1) presence of two main head pores and minute lateral pores; (2) presence of a lateral indentation on labral plate; (3) presence of denticles on the posteroventral angle of valves; (4) two flaming-torch setae on endite of limb IV; and (5) lack of composite denticles on postabdomen.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Tailândia
15.
Zootaxa ; 5027(2): 254-268, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811232

RESUMO

We describe a distinct new species of the genus Hemiphyllodactylus based on three specimens collected from semi-urban areas in Goa state of India. The new species can be easily distinguished from all peninsular Indian congeners by its small body size (SVL up to 32.4 mm), having 1618 dorsal scales and 13 or 14 ventral scales at mid-body contained within one longitudinal eye diameter, nine or ten precloacal pores separated by 15 poreless scales from a series of 1012 femoral pores on each thigh in males, lamellar formula of manus 2222 and of pes 2323 2333, as well as subtle colour pattern differences. Mitochondrial sequence divergence confirms the distinctiveness of the new species, which is not closely allied to either the South Indian or Eastern Ghats clades of Indian Hemiphyllodactylus and appears to be a member of a third Indian Hemiphyllodactylus clade. Hemiphyllodactylus goaensis sp. nov. is the first member of the genus to be described from the northern Western Ghats region as well as Goa state, and also only the second Indian Hemiphyllodactylus known from 100 m asl. Hemiphyllodactylus goaensis sp. nov. extends the known distribution of the genus in western India ~ 560 km north in aerial distance and highlights that the genus is more widely distributed than previously thought and most likely contains numerous undescribed species. We also provide final museum numbers for type specimens of H. arakuensis and the holotype of H. kolliensis.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Índia , Lagartos/genética , Masculino , Filogenia
16.
Zootaxa ; 5005(1): 77-84, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811279

RESUMO

Ceramphis Casey is the only genus of Scydmaenini restricted to North America. Despite previous redescriptions of the only included species, C. deformata (Horn), not all taxonomically important structures have been illustrated, and consequently morphological affinities with other Scydmaenini genera remain unclear. Ceramphis deformata is redescribed with exoskeletal features documented by scanning electron microscopy. Similarities and differences in relation to all remaining Scydmaenini (preliminarily subdivided into three groups of genera) are discussed. Differences between Ceramphis and Scydmaenus seem rather minor and Ceramphis, apart from its unusual body shape, closely resembles a group of several subgenera of Scydmaenus characterized by the metanepisterna fused with the metaventrite. However, unclear taxonomy of Scydmaenus with its 30 ill-defined subgenera makes it impossible to decide whether Ceramphis should be maintained as a genus or reduced to a subgenus of Scydmaenus. For this reason, status of Ceramphis remains unchanged, until a comprehensive revision and phylogenetic analysis of the Adrastia-Ceramphis-Scydmaenus group of genera has been carried out.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 5004(4): 538-550, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811290

RESUMO

Eudexia Brauer Bergenstamm, 1889, a Dexiini genus restricted to the Neotropical Region, is revised with proposal of the following new synonymies: Chaetocalirrhoe Townsend, 1935 = Eudexia, syn. nov. and Cordillerodexia Townsend, 1927 = Eudexia, syn. nov. As a result, the following new combinations are proposed: Eudexia brevicornis (Macquart, 1851), comb. nov., Eudexia colombiana (Townsend, 1929), comb. nov., Eudexia grandis (Townsend, 1935), comb. nov., and Eudexia orientalis (Townsend, 1927), comb. nov. Redescriptions, photographs and a lectotype designation are provided for the type species Eudexia formidabilis (Bigot, 1889). Diagnoses and photographs are provided for Eudexia colombiana, E. grandis, and E. orientalis, and a diagnosis is provided for E. brevicornis. A new species from Brazil, Eudexia lopesi sp. nov., is described. Finally, an updated diagnosis for the genus Eudexia and a key to the seven known species are given.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Tamanho do Órgão
18.
Zootaxa ; 5004(2): 343-369, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811304

RESUMO

Three new aetideid species, Bradyidius abyssalis sp. nov., Bradyidius parabyssalis sp. nov., and B. kurilokamchaticus sp. nov. are described from female specimens collected near the seafloor in the abyss of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Specimens of Bradyidius parabyssalis sp. nov. were obtained in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Argentine Basin, area of the Meteor Seamount and the Kurile-Kamchatka Trench). Bradyidius abyssalis sp. nov. was found only in the Atlantic Ocean, (Brazil and Guinea Basins and area of the Meteor Seamount) and Bradyidius kurilokamchaticus sp. nov. was recorded from the Kurile-Kamchatka Trench of the Pacific Ocean. Three new herein described Bradyidius species constitute the first documented records of the genus from the abyss of the World Ocean. In addition, three Bradyidius species from the Weddell Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and the Kurile-Kamchatka Trench, are briefly described without biological names due to their bad condition. Bradyidius parabyssalis sp. nov. and B. abyssalis sp. nov. are distinguished from all known congeners by the presence of 3 setae at the basis of the mandible and morphological details of the prosome posterior corners and P1. They show close resemblance to each other but differ in body size, rostrum structure, P4 coxa armament and length of the setae of the antennule ancestral segment I and the mandible basis. Bradyidius kurilokamchaticus sp. nov. shares with B. curtus Markhaseva, 1993, B. pacificus (Brodsky, 1950) and B. arnoldi Fleminger, 1957 a rostrum with non-divergent or parallel points, but differs from these species in the size, the well developed lateral spine on exopod segment 1, in the number of setae at the antenna exopod segment 1 and some morphological details of the prosome posterior corners. Characters that define the genus Bradyidius Giesbrecht, 1897 from Aetideopsis Sars, 1903, i.e. the shape of lateral spines of P1exopod segments 1 and 2; the endopod of P2 segmentation and the setation of the antennule ancestral segments XII, XV and XVII are discussed.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Oceano Pacífico
19.
Zootaxa ; 5016(3): 301-332, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810445

RESUMO

The Hoang Lien Range in northwest Vietnam is known to harbour five species of Leptobrachella, a specious genus of terrestrial frogs. We collected specimens of Leptobrachella from Mount Pu Ta Leng on the second highest peak in the Hoang Lien Range and use morphological and molecular data to show that this population represents a previously undescribed species which we name Leptobrachella graminicola sp. nov. after the abundance of calling males on sedge-like plants. This new species is closely related to L. bourreti but the new species is distinguished from L. bourreti and other congeneric species by a combination of the following characters: (1) a body size range of 23.124.6 mm in six adult males and 28.632.9 mm in five adult females; (2) skin on dorsum smooth, with many tubercles and lacking dermal ridges; (3) toes with rudimentary webbing and broad lateral fringes; (4) belly white with brown spots; (5) throat dark brown with light grey-brown flecks and spots; (6) a row of large white spots on the outer edge of the tarsus extending from the heel to the inner metatarsal tubercle, sometimes forming a long white stripe; and (7) a bicoloured iris. The new, high-elevation species is likely to be range-restricted and threatened by habitat loss and the activities of tourists.


Assuntos
Anuros , Ecossistema , Animais , Anuros/genética , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Vietnã
20.
Zootaxa ; 5011(1): 1-70, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810470

RESUMO

The article reviewed species of genera of Pteronemobius Jacobson, 1904, Speonemobius Chopard, 1924, Parapteronemobius Furukawa, 1970, Dianemobius Vickery, 1973, Polionemobius Gorochov, 1983, Giganemobius Shen He, 2020, Qionemobius Shen He, 2020 and proposed four new genera, Claranemobius He Ma, gen. n., Erexitonemobius He Ma, gen. n., Fibunemobius He Ma, gen. n. and Impetunemobius He Ma, gen. n., and nine new species, Claranemobius yaoquensis He Ma, sp. n., Erexitonemobius bellus He Ma, sp. n., Fibunemobius tamquam He Ma, sp. n., Homonemobius amare He Ma, sp. n., Impetunemobius brunneis He Ma, sp. n., Polionemobius Chayuensis He Ma, sp. n., Pteronemobius (Pteronemobius) litore He Ma, sp. n., Pteronemobius (Pteronemobius) choui He Ma, sp. n. and Speonemobius minor He Ma, sp. n..


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Tamanho do Órgão
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