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1.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 316-325, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800170

RESUMO

Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are predicted to cause reductions in body size, a key determinant of animal physiology and ecology. Using a four-decade specimen series of 70 716 individuals of 52 North American migratory bird species, we demonstrate that increasing annual summer temperature over the 40-year period predicts consistent reductions in body size across these diverse taxa. Concurrently, wing length - an index of body shape that impacts numerous aspects of avian ecology and behaviour - has consistently increased across species. Our findings suggest that warming-induced body size reduction is a general response to climate change, and reveal a similarly consistent and unexpected shift in body shape. We hypothesise that increasing wing length represents a compensatory adaptation to maintain migration as reductions in body size have increased the metabolic cost of flight. An improved understanding of warming-induced morphological changes is important for predicting biotic responses to global change.


Assuntos
Aves , Aquecimento Global , Migração Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 61-65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the relatively high risk of contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in patients with ACL reconstruction (ACLR), there is a need to understand intrinsic risk factors that may contribute to contralateral injury. HYPOTHESIS: The ACLR group would have smaller ACL volume and a narrower femoral notch width than healthy individuals after accounting for relevant anthropometrics. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging data of the left knee were obtained from uninjured (N = 11) and unilateral ACL-reconstructed (N = 10) active, female, collegiate-level recreational athletes. ACL volume was obtained from T2-weighted images. Femoral notch width and notch width index were measured from T1-weighted images. Independent-samples t tests examined differences in all measures between healthy and ACLR participants. RESULTS: The ACLR group had a smaller notch width index (0.22 ± 0.02 vs 0.25 ± 0.01; P = 0.004; effect size, 1.41) and ACL volume (25.6 ± 4.0 vs 32.6 ± 8.2 mm3/(kg·m)-1; P = 0.025; effect size, 1.08) after normalizing by body size. CONCLUSION: Only after normalizing for relevant anthropometrics, the contralateral ACLR limb had smaller ACL size and narrower relative femoral notch size than healthy individuals. These findings suggest that risk factor studies of ACL size and femoral notch size should account for relevant body size when determining their association with contralateral ACL injury. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The present study shows that the method of the identified intrinsic risk factors for contralateral ACL injury could be used in future clinical screening settings.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/patologia , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Tamanho Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Projetos Piloto , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 55-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149780

RESUMO

Patterns of body size variation along geographical gradients have long been searched for and generalized into eco-geographical rules. However, no rodent species has yet been analyzed in relation to the 3 dimensions of latitude, longitude and altitude. We analyzed geographical clines and dimorphism of body and skull size in the herb field mouse (Apodemus uralensis) across the species range, based on field data and on data from the literature. Sexual dimorphism in adult A. uralensis was not expressed at a large scale, while local patterns were inconsistent. Age-dependent size changes were most expressed in adult individuals: most characters of adults exceeded in size those of subadults, while subadult-juvenile size differences were only significant in body weight and length, zygomatic skull width, length of cranial diastema and breadth of braincase. Despite central morphological niches along the clines being separated, A. uralensis populations showed a high degree of size overlap in morphological space. We found the species to be characterized by high size variability, with the largest individuals inhabiting the eastern and southern edges of the distribution range. Tail, hind foot and ear lengths were largest in the southern part of the range, in agreement with Allen's rule. The main measurements that we analyzed, namely body mass, zygomatic skull width and condylobasal skull length, show the presence of 3 clines in the size of adult A. uralensis: (i) a decreasing south-north cline, opposing Bergmann's rule; (ii) an increasing west-east cline, in accordance with Murphy's rule; and (iii) an increasing altitudinal cline.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Murinae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Masculino , Murinae/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(10): 838-848, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677136

RESUMO

Many aquatic organisms detect and avoid damage-released cues from conspecifics, but the chemical basis of such responses, and the effects of prolonged exposure to such cues, remain poorly understood. Injured tadpoles of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) produce chemical cues that induce avoidance by conspecific tadpoles; and chronic exposure to those cues decreases rates of tadpole survival and growth, and reduces body size at metamorphosis. Such effects suggest that we might be able to use the cane toads' alarm cue for biocontrol of invasive populations in Australia. In the present study, we examined behavioral and ecological effects of compounds that are present in cane toad tadpoles and thus, might trigger avoidance of crushed conspecifics. Four chemicals (L-Arg, L-Leu-L-Leu-OH, L-Leu-L-Ile-OH and suberic acid) induced behavioral avoidance in toad tadpoles at some (but not all) dosage levels, so we then exposed toad larvae to these chemicals over the entire period of larval development. Larval survival and size at metamorphosis were decreased by chronic exposure to crushed conspecifics (consistent with earlier studies), but not by exposure to any of the four chemicals. Indeed, L-Arg increased body size at metamorphosis. We conclude that the behavioral response to crushed conspecifics by cane toad tadpoles can be elicited by a variety of chemical cues, but that consistent exposure to these individual chemical cues does not affect tadpole viability or developmental trajectory. The optimal behavioral tactic of a tadpole may be to flee if it encounters even a single chemical cue likely to have come from an injured conspecific (indicative of predation risk), whereas the continuing presence of that single chemical (but no others) provides a less reliable signal of predation risk. Our data are consistent with results from studies on fish, that suggest a role for multiple chemicals in initiating alarm responses to damage-released cues.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Bufo marinus/fisiologia , Caprilatos/farmacologia , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bufo marinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Metamorfose Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/química
7.
J Helminthol ; 94: e97, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679527

RESUMO

Several factors influence the dynamics and structure of parasite communities. Our goal was to investigate how the community composition, prevalence and abundance of parasites change across seven populations of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia in Northeast Brazil, and to describe ontogenetic and sex variations. We found differences in the composition of component communities and patterns of infection according to the host body size across the lizard populations. We did not find any variation between the sexes regarding epidemiological patterns, which can probably be explained by the similar diet and habitat use of male and female H. mabouia. An unusually high abundance and prevalence of trematodes infecting this host lizard was apparent when we compared other native lizard hosts, and we suggest that local environmental conditions might be advantageous to the development and life cycle of these parasites due to the abundance of all the intermediate and definitive hosts.


Assuntos
Lagartos/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
8.
Oecologia ; 191(4): 829-842, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705273

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the most influential drivers of physiological performance and behaviour in ectotherms, determining how these animals relate to their ecosystems and their ability to succeed in particular habitats. Here, we analysed the largest set of acceleration data compiled to date for elasmobranchs to examine the relationship between volitional activity and temperature in 252 individuals from 8 species. We calculated activation energies for the thermal performance response in each species and estimated optimum temperatures using an Arrhenius breakpoint analysis, subsequently fitting thermal performance curves to the activity data. Juveniles living in confined nursery habitats not only spent substantially more time above their optimum temperature and at the upper limits of their performance breadths compared to larger, less site-restricted animals, but also showed lower activation energies and broader performance curves. Species or life stages occupying confined habitats featured more generalist behavioural responses to temperature change, whereas wider ranging elasmobranchs were characterised by more specialist behavioural responses. The relationships between the estimated performance regimes and environmental temperature limits suggest that animals in confined habitats, including many juvenile elasmobranchs within nursery habitats, are likely to experience a reduction of performance under a warming climate, although their flatter thermal response will likely dampen this impact. The effect of warming on less site-restricted species is difficult to forecast since three of four species studied here did not reach their optimum temperature in the wild, although their specialist performance characteristics may indicate a more rapid decline should optimum temperatures be exceeded.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Elasmobrânquios , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 208, 2019 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two previous studies on interspecific body size variation of anurans found that the key drivers of variation are the species' lifestyles and the environments that they live in. To examine whether those findings apply at the intraspecific level, we conducted a study of the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), a terrestrial anuran distributed in tropical regions. The body size of toads from 15 locations, covering the majority of their geographic range, and local environmental data were summarized from published literature. We used a model selection process based on an information-theoretic approach to examine the relationship between toad body size and those environmental parameters. RESULTS: We found a positive correlation between the body size of the Asian common toad and the water deficit gradient, but no linkage between body size and temperature-related parameters. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the seasonality of precipitation and body size of females from different sampled populations. CONCLUSIONS: As a terrestrial anuran, the Asian common toad should experience greater pressure from environmental fluctuations than aquatic species. It is mainly distributed in tropical regions where temperatures are generally warm and stable, but water availability fluctuates. Therefore, while thermal gradients are not strong enough to generate selection pressure on body size, the moisture gradient is strong enough to select for larger size in both males and females in dryer regions. Larger body size supports more efficient water conservation, a pattern in accordance with the prediction that lifestyles of different species and their local habitats determine the relationship between body size and environment. In addition, larger females occur in regions with greater seasonality in precipitation, which may happen because larger females can afford greater reproductive output in a limited reproductive season.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Bufonidae/fisiologia , Animais , Ásia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.4, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717066

RESUMO

Among the currently recognized 71 extant genera of Glandulariini, Afroeudesis Franz shows an unusual distribution, with strikingly similar species known from South America, west and east Africa, and the sub-Himalayan region of Asia. Morphological studies revealed that several species placed in other genera share with Afroeudesis several unique characters, among others a symmetrical pattern of numerous setae on the frons and vertex, not known in any other Glandulariini. This 'Afroeudesis group' is here recognized to be composed of the Neotropical genera Meridaphes Jaloszynski, Stenichnoconnus Franz and Pseudoraphes Franz, the broadly distributed Afroeudesis, and the Neotropical Bicarinulodes gen. n. The last is proposed for a species previously misplaced in Microscydmus Saulcy Croissandeau, resulting in Bicarinulodes meridensis (Franz) comb. n. Bicarinulodes is most similar to Afroeudesis, but (among other differences) it lacks the apomorphy that is unique for the latter genus, the raised subtriangular 'platform' on the frons and vertex. Stenichnoconnus minor (Franz), comb. n is proposed for Euconnus minor (Franz), originally published as Venezolanoconnus minor Franz. Stenichnoconnus and Pseudoraphes are redefined and redescribed.


Assuntos
Besouros , África Oriental , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ásia , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão , América do Sul
11.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.11, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717073

RESUMO

The Latithorax Species Group of Velarifictorus contains a number of species that are small and possess a stick-shaped ectoparamere of the epiphallus. Here, three new taxa of this group from China are described and illustrated. These are: Velarifictorus agitatus shaanxiensis sp. and subsp. nov., V. a. yunnanensis subsp. nov., V. stultus sp. nov.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Tamanho do Órgão
12.
Zootaxa ; 4612(1): zootaxa.4612.1.7, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717082

RESUMO

Three species of Velarifictorus bear similarities to those of the Landrevinae. They are V. elephas Gorochov, 1992, V. bubalus Gorochov, 1992 and V. gradifrons Ingrisch, 1998. They are stout, reddish or chocolate brown colored. Here, another similar new species is described from China.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Tamanho do Órgão
13.
Zootaxa ; 4611(1): zootaxa.4611.1.1, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717089

RESUMO

Samples of Pectinariidae in the Australian Museum and Museums of Victoria, Australia were examined. Thirteen species were identified, including three additional records of previously recorded species of Amphictene and two new species, A. cercusa n. sp. and A. undulata n. sp., two species of the genus Lagis which has not previously been recorded from Australia, including a new species, L. portus n. sp., and five additional records of previously recorded species of Pectinaria and one new species, P. ningalooensis n. sp. The study revealed additional characters which are useful to identify species of pectinariids, a pair of ear-shaped lobes which are adjacent to both sides of dorsal base of cephalic veil in species of Pectinaria and Amphictene, but in Lagis they are present between the buccal cavity and lateral margin of segment 1; and a pair of ventral lappets which have not previously been described on the lateral margin of segment I in all species of pectinariids from Australia. For species where numerous individuals were available for study, we investigated how some characters, change with increasing body size. A key to all recorded species from Australia is given, but does not imply any phylogenetic relationships.


Assuntos
Poliquetos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Vitória
14.
Zootaxa ; 4609(2): zootaxa.4609.2.3, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717106

RESUMO

Amolops shuichengicus sp. nov., a new species of the A. mantzorum group is described from Guizhou, southwest China, on the basis of significant molecular divergences in 16S + CO1 genes and the combination of morphological characteristics: small body size, SVL 34.6-39.6 mm in adult males and 48.5-55.5 mm in adult females; dorsal skin relatively smooth; presence of vomerine teeth; presence of cream maxillary gland from lower edge of eye to the anterior of supratympanic fold; presence of supratympanic folds and glandular dorsolateral folds; tympanum indistinct; absence of a circummarginal groove on the disk of the first finger; presence of supernumerary tubercles below the base of fingers III and IV; absence of outer metatarsal tubercle and tarsal glands; males without vocal sacs. In addition, evidenced by the phylogenetic analyses in this study and literature data, we suggest that A. liangshanensis should be synonymized with A. loloensis and the records of A. marmoratus in Yunnan, China should be referred to A. afghanus. Following our proposal, the genus Amolops contains 57 species, with 32 recorded from China.


Assuntos
Anuros , Ranidae , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.3, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717119

RESUMO

We present a preliminary ND2 phylogeny of South Asian Cnemaspis, recovering a number of deeply divergent clades within Indian Cnemaspis, endemic to the southern and northern Western Ghats besides the Mysore Plateau and hills of Tamil Nadu. There are a number of unnamed lineages that are >5% divergent on ND2 across the phylogeny, including three from the gracilis clade on an elevation gradient (800-1400 m asl.) around Yercaud in the Shevaroy massif, Salem district, Tamil Nadu. We describe two of these as new species- Cnemaspis shevaroyensis sp. nov. and Cnemaspis thackerayi sp. nov. are both allied to Cnemaspis gracilis and can be diagnosed from all other Indian Cnemaspis by the absence of spine-like scales on flank, heterogeneous dorsal pholidosis, presence of femoral and precloacal pores, tail with enlarged, strongly keeled, conical tubercles forming whorls, a median row of enlarged and smooth sub-caudals. They differ from C. gracilis and each other in body size, the number of tubercles around midbody, the number of tubercles in paravertebral rows, the number of femoral and precloacal pores, the number of poreless scales in-between precloacal pores and between femoral and precloacal pores, and subtle colour pattern differences; besides uncorrected mitochondrial sequence divergence (7.9-16.6 %). We also provide a description of Cnemaspis yercaudensis from its type locality and an additional locality. The discovery of two endemic species and a third unnamed divergent lineage from an isolated massif in peninsular India outside the Western Ghats indicate that many other such understudied hill ranges may harbour high endemic biodiversity.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Índia , Filogenia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4608(2): zootaxa.4608.2.8, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717151

RESUMO

Compsiluroides communis Mesnil, C. flavipalpis Mesnil and C. meifengensis sp. nov. are redescribed and described with illustrations. Compsiluroides proboscis Chao Sun is treated as a junior synonym of C. communis. Variations of structures of the male postabdomen of C. communis are illustrated. The genus is newly recorded from Nepal and Taiwan. A key to the three known species of Compsiluroides is provided and their diagnostic characters are illustrated.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Masculino , Nepal , Tamanho do Órgão , Taiwan
17.
Zootaxa ; 4608(1): zootaxa.4608.1.6, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717163

RESUMO

Six new species of the genus Stomatosema are described and illustrated: Stomatosema paratudo sp. nov., S. sisbiota sp. nov., S. terena sp. nov., S. pantaneirum sp. nov., S. terere sp. nov. and S. camilae sp. nov. These are the first records of Stomatosema for South America. The genus Didactylomyia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Tamanho do Órgão
18.
Zootaxa ; 4608(1): zootaxa.4608.1.9, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717166

RESUMO

We describe a new species of rock gecko of the genus Cnemaspis from Java, Indonesia, representing the first record of the genus for this Island. The new species was collected from the southern slopes of Gunung Muria, a dormant volcano in Central Java. The new species is easily distinguished from all congeners by having a maximum SVL of 58.1 mm in males and 56.9 mm in females; a pair of sharp conical tubercle clusters on the occiput; a warty bridge on the nuchal loop, extending from the upper tympanum and curving to the nape; dorsal tubercles not linearly arranged; 18-20 paravertebral tubercles; postmentals separated by one scale; gular, pectoral and abdominal scales, ventral scales of fore- and hindlimbs, and subcaudal scales keeled; no tubercles on lower flank; precloacal and femoral pores absent; enlarged submetacarpal scales present on the first digit of the manus; 38-40 ventral scales; 31-35 lamellae under fourth toe; two postcloacal tubercles on each side; enlarged median subcaudal scales row present; caudal tubercles encircling tail; and a sexually dimorphic ventral color pattern, with males having a yellow belly and females white and the ventral surface of the tail in males yellow proximally changing to white at mid-length, whereas in females, alternating black and white rings completely encircle the tail, which is black distally.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Indonésia , Ilhas , Masculino
19.
Zootaxa ; 4605(1): zootaxa.4605.1.1, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717174

RESUMO

In this contribution to the study of gryllacridines or raspy crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllacrididae), a new proposal for classification of this family is provided, dividing it into two subfamilies and ten tribes that includes most of the 114 known genera to date (including the new genera described here). It describes and redefines two subfamilies: Hyperbaeninae n. subf. and Gryllacridinae n. sensu, ten tribes: Phryganogryllacridini n. trib., Capnogryllacridini n. trib., Asarcogryllacridini n. trib., Hyperbaenini n. trib., Paragryllacridini n. trib., Ametrini n. trib., Ametroidini n. trib., Gryllacridini n. sensu., Eremini n. trib. and Progryllacridini n. trib.; ten genera: Claudiagryllacris n. gen., Griffinigryllacris n. gen., Gorochovgryllacris n. gen., Ingrishgryllacris n. gen., Rentzgryllacris n. gen., Willemsegryllacris n. gen., Karnygryllacris n. gen., Brunnergryllacris n. gen., Bianigryllacris n. gen. and Hugelgryllacris n. gen.; seven genera groups: Gryllacrae n. group. (placed under Gryllacridini n. trib. comprising ten genera: Caustogryllacris, Eugryllacris, Gryllacris, Lyperogryllacris, Nesogryllacris, Ocellarnaca, Phlebogryllacris, Prosopogryllacris, Willemsegryllacris n. gen. and Xanthogryllacris), Metriogryllacrae n. group. (under Gryllacridini grouped Metriogryllacris, Homogryllacris, Pseudasarca n. stat. and Furcilarnaca), Anancistrogerae (Anancistrogera, Ancistrogera, Angustogryllacris, Aphanogryllacris, Celebogryllacris), Triaenogryllacrae n. group. (under Gryllacridinae only comprising Triaenogryllacris) the next groups under Ametrini n. trib.: Ametrae n. group. (comprising two genera: Ametrus and Pareremus), Apotrechae n. group. (including three genera: Apotrechus, Apterolarnaca and Bianigryllacris n. gen.) and Apteronomae n. group. (comprising two genera: Ametrosomus and Apteronomus). The status of Dictogryllacris reinst. stat., was restored, previously transferred by Gorochov 2003 as subgenus of Capnogryllacris and to Pseudasarca n. stat. as full genus status is proposed. One genera, one subgenus and one fossil species are synonymized: Xiphogryllacris n. syn. (under Hyalogryllacris) and †Gryllacris brevippennis n. syn. (under †Macrelcana ungeri). The subgenus Glolarnaca n. stat. (included under Zalarnaca), is considered as full genus in Gryllacridinae (Gryllacridini). 57 new combinations are proposed, with particular emphasis on Niphetogryllacris, placing 36 of the 43 existing species of the genus: Pissodogryllacris tesellata n. comb., Willemsegryllacris barnesi n. comb. (previously placed under Gryllacris), Afrogryllacris nigripceps n. comb. (previously placed under in Barombogryllacris), Anancistrogera nigroscutata n. comb., A. cornualis n. comb. and A. genualis n. comb. (included by Karny in Caustogryllacris and by Gorochov in the subgenus Pseudolarnaca, here transfered to Anancistrogera), Hugelgryllacris tchancha n. comb. (before in Psilogryllacris), Diaphanogryllacris annandalei n. comb., D. barkudensis n. comb., D. dravida n. comb., D. gravelyi n. comb., Claudiagryllacris finoti n. comb. C. stigmata n. comb., C. lemur n. comb., C. fryeri n. comb., Stictogrtllacris pungens n. comb., S. madagassa n. comb., S. genufuscata n. comb., S. vosseleri n. comb., S. difficilis n. comb., S. paulani n. comb., Stictogryllacris signoreti n. comb., S. indecisa n. comb., S. conspersa n. comb., S. pittarellii n. comb., S. ametroides n. comb., S. jacobi n. comb., S. kilimandjarica n. comb., S. meruensis n. comb.; S. neglecta n. comb.; S. submutica n. comb., Griffinigryllacris reunionis n. comb., G. adelungi n. comb., G. mauritiana n. comb., Karnygryllacris occipitalis n. comb., K. atriceps n. comb., K. brevipennis n. comb., K. humilis n. comb., K. scurra n. comb., K. triocellata n. comb., K. pittarellii n. comb., K. grylloides n. comb., Brunnergryllacris testaceus n. comb. and B. eximia n. comb (previously placed under Niphetogryllacris), Rentzgryllacris sechellensis n. comb. (before in Prosopogryllacris and the three subspecies are treated as full species), Gorochovgryllacris navicula n. comb. (transferred from Brachybaenus), Bianigryllacris trilobus n. comb., B. bilobus n. comb., B. digitatus n. comb., B. fallax n. comb., B. nigrigeniculatus n. comb., B. parvospinus n. comb., B. quadratus n. comb. and B. transversus n. comb. (previously placed under Apotrechus), Hyalogryllacris orthoxipha n. comb. (previously placed under Xiphogryllacris), Afroneanias glauningi n. comb., A. sphinix n. comb. and Ingrishgryllacris brevifalcatus n. comb. (previously placed under Ametroides and Glomeremus respectively). A key to the identification of the subfamilies and tribes is provided, plus historical background of the major taxonomic works on the group and the few contributions on ecology, morphology, and behavior is also done. It also discusses the status of fossil taxa thought to belong to the family. A preliminary analysis of the zoogeography of the family from the parameters of richness, diversity and distribution patterns of different groups studied, and also, some final comments on what has been achieved in this contribution are give, what is missing to the study of gryllacridines to the future and some problems that still affect the taxonomy to genera and species level. Finally, a check list in which all family taxa are included with the new classification is provided, with some comments on their distribution and taxonomic status if necessary.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão
20.
Zootaxa ; 4604(3): zootaxa.4604.3.4, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717178

RESUMO

A new genus of the family Callianassidae, Laticallichirus, is established for "Neocallichirus" grandis Karasawa Goda, 1996, a ghost shrimp species heretofore represented only by fossil materials from the middle to upper Pleistocene of Japan. The newly collected specimens came from two Japanese localities: Numazu, Shizuoka Prefecture (Suruga Bay) and Tosa, Kochi Prefecture (Tosa Bay), included within the known geographical range derived from fossil records. The species identification was based on the close agreement in the cheliped morphology and the known fossil distributions. The new genus is assigned to the subfamily Callichirinae Manning Felder, 1991, and compared with seven genera, Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011, Callichirus Stimpson, 1866, Callichiropsis Sakai, 2010, Grynaminna Poore, 2000, Michaelcallianassa Sakai, 2002, Lepidophthalmus Holmes, 1904 and Podocallichirus Sakai, 1999, all characterized by the antennular peduncle being longer and stouter than the antennal peduncle. The new genus is characteristic in combination of the following characters: rostrum spiniform; maxilliped 3 devoid of exopod; ischium-merus of maxilliped 3 broadly operculiform; maxilliped 3 ischium devoid of crista dentata; major cheliped devoid of meral hook or associated lobe-like structure; tergites of the pleomeres 3-5 without conspicuous ornamentation; male pleopod 2 biramous, its endopod devoid of appendices interna and masculina; uropodal endopod suboval in shape; telson distinctly wider than long, with shallowly concave posterior margin. The genetic analysis using the mitochondrial 16S rRNA places the new genus as sister to Callichirus Stimpson, 1866, although bootstrap support for major branches is generally low. The newly collected specimens were found in burrows in soft sediments of shallow subtidal zone being accessible at low tide.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Japão , Quênia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , RNA Ribossômico 16S
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