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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199160

RESUMO

Acadesine (ACA), a pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), showed a promising beneficial effect in a mouse model of colitis, indicating this drug as an alternative tool to manage IBDs. However, ACA displays some pharmacodynamic limitations precluding its therapeutical applications. Our study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro and in vivo effects of FA-5 (a novel direct AMPK activator synthesized in our laboratories) in an experimental model of colitis in rats. A set of experiments evaluated the ability of FA5 to activate AMPK and to compare the efficacy of FA5 with ACA in an experimental model of colitis. The effects of FA-5, ACA, or dexamethasone were tested in rats with 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis to assess systemic and tissue inflammatory parameters. In in vitro experiments, FA5 induced phosphorylation, and thus the activation, of AMPK, contextually to the activation of SIRT-1. In vivo, FA5 counteracted the increase in spleen weight, improved the colon length, ameliorated macroscopic damage score, and reduced TNF and MDA tissue levels in DNBS-treated rats. Of note, FA-5 displayed an increased anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared with ACA. The novel AMPK activator FA-5 displays an improved anti-inflammatory efficacy representing a promising pharmacological tool against bowel inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Dinitrofluorbenzeno/análogos & derivados , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Ontologia Genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Science ; 373(6550): 30-31, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210869
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for botanicals to be used as an alternative and complementary medicine in the management of male infertility. Male infertility has been a major health/social challenge to people all over the world. This study, therefore, investigated the ameliorative potential of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Parquetina nigrescens (HELEPN) against d-galactose-induced testicular injury. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into six groups (n = 5). Group I (Normal control), Group II (300 mg/kg b.w. d-galactose), Group III and IV (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. HELEPN, respectively), Group V and VI (both received 300 mg/kg b.w. of d-galactose with 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of HELEPN, respectively). d-galactose administration started two weeks prior to HELEPN treatment which lasted for six weeks. All assays were carried out using established protocols. RESULTS: Administration of HELEPN at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg concomitantly with d-galactose improved paired and relative testicular weights, levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) and testosterone, and poor sperm quality. HELEPN treatment reduced the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, 8-OHDG, and AGEs) and inflammatory response (TNF-alpha and NO) to normal, as well as restoring the reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase). In addition, HELEPN treatment mitigated testicular DNA fragmentation and down-regulated caspase 3-activities. HELEPN at 500 mg/kg was observed to have the greatest ameliorative effect. CONCLUSION: HELEPN protects against d-galactose-induced testicular injury through antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Testículo/lesões , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/química , Gonadotropinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Análise do Sêmen , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198682

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is indispensable in clinical medicine for the morphological and tomographic evaluation of many parenchymal organs. With varied imaging methods, diverse biological information, such as the perfusion volume and measurements of metabolic products, can be obtained. In addition to conventional MRI for morphological assessment, diffusion-weighted MRI/diffusion tensor imaging is used to evaluate white matter structures in the brain; arterial spin labeling is used for cerebral blood flow evaluation; magnetic resonance elastography for fatty liver and cirrhosis evaluation; magnetic resonance spectroscopy for evaluation of metabolites in specific regions of the brain; and blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging for neurological exploration of eating behavior, obesity, and food perception. This range of applications will continue to expand in the future. Nutritional science is a multidisciplinary and all-inclusive field of research; therefore, there are many different applications of MRI. We present a literature review of MRI techniques that can be used to evaluate the nutritional status, particularly in patients on dialysis. We used MEDLINE as the information source, conducted a keyword search in PubMed, and found that, as a nutritional evaluation method, MRI has been used frequently to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate muscle mass for the determination of body composition.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estado Nutricional , Diálise Renal , Composição Corporal , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1874-1887, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate sex differences in valve morphology, disease phenotype, progression, and outcomes among children and young adults with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study examining all children and young adults (aged ≤22 years) with isolated BAV diagnosed, by excluding patients with concomitant congenital heart defects or genetic syndromes, from January 1, 1990, through December 1, 2016, at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. RESULTS: Of 1010 patients with BAV, 558 had isolated BAV. Distributions of morphology were right-left in 65.8% (n=367), right-noncoronary in 34% (n=190), and left-noncoronary cusp fusion in 0.2% (n=1) of patients; with no sex differences. Male to female ratio was 3:1. At the first echocardiographic evaluation in the study, there were no sex differences in terms of frequency of aortic valve stenosis or regurgitation. However, males had significantly higher grades of aortic valve regurgitation at 17 years of age onward (P<.0001). Males had significantly larger mid-ascending aorta (P=.01) and sinus of Valsalva dimensions (z score; P=.0001) as compared with females, with a novel finding of peak aortic dimensions around 8 years of age. Males also had more than 2-fold higher risk for sinus of Valsalva dilation (z score >2) as compared with females (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.2; P=.01). There were no significant sex differences in the primary cardiac outcomes of interventions on aortic valve and/or aorta, aortic dissection, or death. CONCLUSION: In children and young adults with BAV, males have a higher grade of aortic regurgitation in late adolescence, significantly larger aortic dimensions, different patterns of aortic growth, and more frequent sinus of Valsalva dilation as compared with females. Overall, the rate of primary cardiac events is lower in young patients, with no significant sex differences.


Assuntos
Aorta , Valva Aórtica , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Seio Aórtico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aorta/patologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/fisiopatologia , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Seio Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Aórtico/patologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200533

RESUMO

Aging and osteoarthritis are associated with high risk of muscle mass loss, which leads to physical disability; this loss can be effectively alleviated by diet (DI) and exercise (ET) interventions. This study investigated the relative effects of different types of diet, exercise, and combined treatment (DI+ET) on muscle mass and functional outcomes in individuals with obesity and lower-limb osteoarthritis. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the efficacy of DI, ET, and DI+ET in patients with obesity and lower-extremity osteoarthritis. The included RCTs were analyzed through network meta-analysis and risk-of-bias assessment. We finally included 34 RCTs with a median (range/total) Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6.5 (4-8/10). DI plus resistance ET, resistance ET alone, and aerobic ET alone were ranked as the most effective treatments for increasing muscle mass (standard mean difference (SMD) = 1.40), muscle strength (SMD = 1.93), and walking speed (SMD = 0.46). Our findings suggest that DI+ET is beneficial overall for muscle mass in overweight or obese adults with lower-limb osteoarthritis, especially those who are undergoing weight management.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sarcopenia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Viés de Publicação , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada/fisiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200615

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently estimated as the most prevalent chronic liver disease in all age groups. An increasing body of evidence obtained in experimental and clinical data indicates that oxidative stress is the most important pathogenic factor in the development of NAFLD. The study aimed to investigate the impact of α-lipoic acid (LA), widely used as an antioxidant, on the effects of a hypercaloric choline-deficient diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control diet (C); hypercaloric choline-deficient diet (HCCD), and hypercaloric choline-deficient diet with α-lipoic acid (HCCD+LA). Supplementation of HCCD with LA for eight weeks led to a decrease in visceral adipose tissue/body weight ratio, the activity of liver glutathione peroxidase and paraoxonase-1, plasma, and liver total antioxidant activity, as well as an increase in liver/body weight ratio, liver total lipid and triglyceride content, and liver transaminase activities compared to the HCCD group without LA. In conclusion, our study shows that α-lipoic acid detains obesity development but exacerbates the severity of diet-induced oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver of male Wistar rats fed a hypercaloric choline-deficient diet.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácido Tióctico/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201185

RESUMO

High-protein diets (HPDs) are widely accepted as a way to stimulate muscle protein synthesis when combined with resistance training (RT). However, the effects of HPDs on adipose tissue plasticity and local inflammation are yet to be determined. This study investigated the impact of HPDs on glucose control, adipocyte size, and epididymal adipose inflammatory biomarkers in resistance-trained rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: normal-protein (NPD; 17% protein total dietary intake) and HPD (26.1% protein) without RT and NPD and HPD with RT. Trained groups received RT for 12 weeks with weights secured to their tails. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, adipocyte size, and an array of cytokines were determined. While HPD without RT induced glucose intolerance, enlarged adipocytes, and increased TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL1-ß levels in epididymal adipose tissue (p < 0.05), RT diminished these deleterious effects, with the HPD + RT group displaying improved blood glucose control without inflammatory cytokine increases in epididymal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). Furthermore, RT increased glutathione expression independent of diet (p < 0.05). RT may offer protection against adipocyte hypertrophy, pro-inflammatory states, and glucose intolerance during HPDs. The results highlight the potential protective effects of RT to mitigate the maladaptive effects of HPDs.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Inflamação/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Treinamento de Força , Adipócitos/patologia , Animais , Tamanho Celular , Dieta , Epididimo/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos Wistar , Ganho de Peso
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206557

RESUMO

Different types of scaffolds are used to reconstruct muscle volume loss injuries. In this experimental study, we correlated ultrasound observations with histological findings in a muscle volume loss injury reconstructed with autologous adipose tissue. The outcome is compared with decellularized and porous matrix implants. Autologous adipose tissue, decellularized matrix, and a porous collagen matrix were implanted in volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries generated on the anterior tibial muscles of Wistar rats. Sixty days after implantation, ultrasound findings were compared with histological and histomorphometric analysis. The muscles with an autologous adipose tissue implant exhibited an ultrasound pattern that was quite similar to that of the regenerative control muscles. From a histological point of view, the defects had been occupied by newly formed muscle tissue with certain structural abnormalities that would explain the differences between the ultrasound patterns of the normal control muscles and the regenerated ones. While the decellularized muscle matrix implant resulted in fibrosis and an inflammatory response, the porous collagen matrix implant was replaced by regenerative muscle fibers with neurogenic atrophy and fibrosis. In both cases, the ultrasound images reflected echogenic, echotextural, and vascular changes compatible with the histological findings of failed muscle regeneration. The ultrasound analysis confirmed the histological findings observed in the VML injuries reconstructed by autologous adipose tissue implantation. Ultrasound can be a useful tool for evaluating the structure of muscles reconstructed through tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/cirurgia , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Musculares/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Animais , Biópsia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Regeneração , Engenharia Tecidual , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
10.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(7): 412-415, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by different phenotypes in terms of joint involvement. The so-called oligoarticular pattern involves fewer than five active joints at a different time points. The evaluation of disease activity in this subset of patients is an unmet need due to the lack of specific indices able to capture modifications over time. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of musculoskeletal ultrasound to monitor the response to apremilast treatment in oligoarticular PsA patients. METHODS: We evaluated 24 oligoarticular patients (19 women, 5 men; median age 56 years, interquartile range (IQR) 19; median disease duration 5 years, IQR 5.75). All patients were assessed at baseline (T0), and after 6 (T1), 12 (T2), and 24 (T3) weeks. Clinical assessment included evaluation of 66 swollen joints and patient global health assessment. All the patients underwent ultrasound assessment of the clinically involved joints. Synovial effusion/hypertrophy and power Doppler were scored with a semi-quantitative scale (0-3). The total inflammatory score was the sum of the scores. RESULTS: We found a reduction in the ultrasound inflammatory score at all time points, with a significant improvement at 6 and 12 weeks of treatment compared with baseline: T0 median 8.5 (IQR 5.0); T1 3.5 (3.0); T2 2.0 (3.5); P = 0.01. We observed a significant reduction of patient global health assessment after 24 weeks (T0 median 50 (32.5); T3 40 (57.5); P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal ultrasound could be useful in the assessment of treatment response in PsA patients with oligoarticular subset.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Membrana Sinovial , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Artrite Psoriásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Psoriásica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidade do Paciente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Líquido Sinovial/diagnóstico por imagem , Membrana Sinovial/diagnóstico por imagem , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Talidomida/administração & dosagem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26355, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128888

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Several macular pathologies are associated with choroidal vascular supply and thus require choroidal thickness evaluation. However, there is no standard subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) measurement method. This study investigated a new method of SFCT measurement, using optical coherence tomography.This is a single-center observational study. Eighty-two senior medical students participated as observers and independently measured the SFCT on 5 standard optical coherence tomography images of healthy adults in a tertiary care setting. They used 3 different methods: the observer's own method, the conventional method, perpendicular to the retinal pigment epithelium, and the new method, along a virtual line connecting the umbo with the most elevated point of the ellipsoid. Additionally, the SFCT angle-the angle between the measurement line and the vertical line of the image-was measured and compared between methods. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to determine interpersonal variability.The intraclass correlation coefficients for SFCT, measured using methods 1, 2, and 3, were 0.853, 0.880, and 0.896, respectively (P < .001 for all). Method 3 was the highest. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the SFCT angles were 0.647, 0.842, and 0.307, respectively (P < .001 for all).The new method showed the lowest interpersonal variability and could therefore be a reliable standard for SFCT measurement, even in foveae with a steep slope on optical coherence tomography.Trial registration: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fóvea Central , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Tamanho do Órgão
12.
Zootaxa ; 4985(3): 371380, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186803

RESUMO

Andeogryllus n. gen. including two new species from the inter-Andean slopes and valleys of the Magdalena and Cauca rivers of Colombia are described. This new genus is similar to Zebragryllus in their habitus, differed by not have white stripes on the body or antennae and by a modified pseudoepiphallic sclerite. The genus Atsigryllus (Atsigryllae group) is located in the subtribe Anurogryllina, highlighting the secondary reduction of the median lobe. An updated key is provided for the genera of the subtribe Anurogryllina and the species of the new genus.


Assuntos
Gryllidae/classificação , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Colômbia , Gryllidae/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Rios
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26441, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190168

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study retrospectively studied transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with partial splenic embolization (PSE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with severe hypersplenism.Seventy patients with HCC in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B or C with hypersplenism were divided into non-partial splenic embolization group (N-PSE, n = 51) and partial splenic embolization group (PSE, n = 19). The N-PSE group was further divided into N-PSE with mild to moderate hypersplenism (N-PSE-M, 47 cases) and N-PSE with severe hypersplenism (N-PSE-S, 4 cases).In the PSE group, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets were significantly increased (P < .05) and were significantly different from that in the N-PSE group (P < .05). In the N-PSE group, except for a slight increase in neutrophils, other blood cells were decreased, including lymphocytes that were significantly decreased (P < .05). There was no significant difference in the changes of liver function between the 2 groups before and after surgery (P > .05). The analysis showed a significant increase in ascites after 6 months of TACE in the N-PSE group (P < .05). According to the follow-up results, the median overall survival (OS) in the PSE group was 24.47 ±â€Š3.68 (months) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 12.63 ±â€Š4.98 (months). Regardless of OS or PFS, the PSE group was superior to the N-PSE group and its subgroups, with a statistically significant difference in PFS between the N-PSE group and PSE group (P < .05). Moreover, the time of extrahepatic progression was significantly earlier in the N-PSE group than in the PSE group (P < .05). N-PSE-S group had the worst prognosis, and PFS and OS were worse than the other 2 groups, suggesting that PSE in severe hypersplenism may improve PFS and OS.In patients with HCC and severe hypersplenism, TACE should be actively combined with PSE treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hiperesplenismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Baço/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperesplenismo/sangue , Hiperesplenismo/complicações , Hiperesplenismo/diagnóstico , Hiperesplenismo/terapia , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tamanho do Órgão , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26518, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190185

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease has significant gaps in its clinical management practices. To highlight the potential utility of advanced hemodynamic biomarkers in strengthening BAV assessment, we used 4-dimentional flow magnetic resonance imaging to investigate altered hemodynamics in the ascending aorta (AAo).A total of 32 healthy controls and 53 age-matched BAV patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 3T, with cine imaging and 4D-flow. Analysis planes were placed along 3D-segmented aortas at the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), sinuses of Valsalva, mid-ascending aorta (MAA), and proximal to the first aortic branch. Locations were analyzed for aortic diameter (normalized to body surface area), pressure drop (PD), viscous energy loss (EL), and wall shear stress (WSS) sub-vectors (axial wall shear stress, circumferential wall shear stress [WSSC], magnitude wall shear stress). Student's t tests, or non-parametric equivalents, compared parameters between cohorts. Univariable and multivariable analyses explored the associations of AAo diameter with hemodynamics within the BAV cohort.Compared to control cohort, BAV patients showed significantly greater PD (MAA: 9.5 ±â€Š8.0 vs 2.8 ±â€Š2.4 mm Hg; P < .01), EL (from LVOT-AA1: 7.39 ±â€Š4.57 mW vs 2.90 ±â€Š1.07 mW; P < .01), and WSSC (MAA: 0.3 ±â€Š0.1 vs 0.2 ±â€Š0.06 Pa; P ≤ .01) throughout the AAo. Correlational analyses revealed an inverse association between AAo diameter and both magnitude wall shear stress and axial wall shear stress.BAV patients exhibited increased PD, EL, and WSSC in the AAo, and an inverse association between AAo diameter and WSS sub-vectors. This demonstrated the impact of PD, EL, and WSS in BAV disease and the importance of altered hemodynamics in aortic remodelling.


Assuntos
Aorta , Valva Aórtica , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide , Remodelação Vascular , Adulto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Pressão Arterial , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26543, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190192

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To assess the maximal lymph nodal diameter on the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).This study extracted NPC patients between 2004 and 2016 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Included patients were divided into 3 groups: ≤3 cm, >3-6 cm, and >6 cm based on the maximal lymph nodal diameter. Cumulative survival curves of 5-year overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method between the 3 groups.The 5-year OS (64.0% vs 59.3%, P = .240) and CSS (71.8% vs 67.0%, P = .242) of ≤3 cm and >3-6 cm groups were not different. In contrast, the 5-year OS and CSS were different between >6 cm and ≤3 cm groups, and between >6 cm and >3-6 cm groups. The stratified hazard ratio of OS and CSS was 1.75 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.45; P = .001) and 1.77 (95% confidence interval: 1.20-2.60; P = .004) for the >6 cm group in the multivariate regression analysis.It is reasonable that the maximal lymph nodal diameter with >6 cm is classified as stage N3 of the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for NPC.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Tamanho do Órgão , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112435, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171690

RESUMO

The present work was designed to assess the potential ameliorative effect of thymol on the testicular toxicity caused by imidacloprid (IMI) in adult male rats. Forty adult male rats were allocated into four groups; control group was given corn oil, thymol-treated group (30 mg/kg b.wt), IMI-treated group (22.5 mg/kg b.wt), and IMI + thymol-treated group. All administrations were done by gavage every day for duration of 56 days. As a result, the IMI exposure caused a significant decline in the body weight change, reproductive organ weights, sperm functional parameters, and serum level of testosterone, widespread histological alterations, and apoptosis in the testis. Additionally, the IMI-treated rats exhibited a remarkable increment in the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Also, IMI induced testicular oxidative stress, as indicated by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a marked decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. Moreover, IMI treatment significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of steroidogenic genes and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoexpression in the testicular tissue. However, thymol co-administration significantly mitigated the IMI-induced toxic effects. Our findings suggested that IMI acts as a male reproductive toxicant in rats and thymol could be a potential therapeutic option for IMI reprotoxic impacts.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3420, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103535

RESUMO

Theory shows how sexual selection can exaggerate male traits beyond naturally selected optima and also how natural selection can ultimately halt trait elaboration. Empirical evidence supports this theory, but to our knowledge, there have been no experimental evolution studies directly testing this logic, and little examination of possible associated effects on female fitness. Here we use experimental evolution of replicate populations of broad-horned flour beetles to test for effects of sex-specific predation on an exaggerated sexually selected male trait (the mandibles), while also testing for effects on female lifetime reproductive success. We find that populations subjected to male-specific predation evolve smaller sexually selected mandibles and this indirectly increases female fitness, seemingly through intersexual genetic correlations we document. Predation solely on females has no effects. Our findings support fundamental theory, but also reveal unforseen outcomes-the indirect effect on females-when natural selection targets sex-limited sexually selected characters.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Aptidão Genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Cruzamento , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Comportamento Predatório
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1952): 20210813, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102890

RESUMO

Cattle are one of the most intensively bred domestic animals, providing humans with a multitude of products and uses. Using data from the fossil record, we test if their domestication, as for other taxa, has resulted in a reduction of their brain size. We not only conclude that Bos taurus (domestic cattle) have smaller brains than their wild ancestor, Bos primigenius (aurochs), but that brain size varies significantly by breed, with some having much smaller brains than others. Differences in husbandry practices between several breed categories align with a range of human engagement, which also aligns with the degree of selection for docility. Sampling 317 domestics from 71 breeds, we investigate if differences in brain size correlate with the intensity of human contact. A clear pattern emerges whereby a brain reduction gradient parallels a gradient in behavioural selection. Bullfighting cattle, which are bred for fighting and aggressive temperament, have much larger brains than dairy breeds, which are intensively selected for docility. Our results add to a fundamental aspect of animal domestication theory: the interplay between basic features of the domestic environment-selection for docility, absence of predators and human provision of resources-seems to explain differences in brain size.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Cruzamento , Animais , Bovinos , Fósseis , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
19.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 276, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organ size is influenced by a number of factors. Age, height, weight, and ethnicity are known influencing factors. Pediatric populations have changed over time, puberty beginning earlier resulting in a changing growth pattern of their organs. Hence, contemporary charts using local data are considered the most appropriate for a given population. Sonographic charts for liver size for a predominantly Caucasian population are limited, which has implications for clinical practice. The aim of this study was to define a contemporary normative range of liver and spleen sizes for a healthy, predominantly Caucasian population and for all pediatric age groups (0-18 years) and to investigate whether there is a size difference between genders and ethnicities. METHODS: Retrospective study including children with normal sonographic findings and no evidence of liver or splenic disease clinically. Craniocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions are measured for the right and left lobe of the liver, and craniocaudal dimension for the spleen. Relationship of the liver and spleen dimensions with age, body length, body surface area, weight, and gender were investigated. Charts of normal values were established. Values were compared to studies involving other ethnicities and to one study carried out in 1983 involving the same ethnicity. RESULTS: Seven hundred thirty-six children (371 boys, 365 girls) aged 1 day - 18.4 years were included. From the second year of life, the craniocaudal dimension of the right lobe of the liver is 1-2 cm larger in the Central European population compared with non-Caucasian populations at a given age. Liver size of Central European children in 2020 is greater compared to a similar population almost 40 years ago. The craniocaudal dimension of the spleen of Central European, US-American and Turkish children is similar. The difference between genders is statistically significant for both the liver and the spleen, being larger in boys. CONCLUSION: Contemporary and ethnically appropriate reference charts for liver and spleen measurements should be used, especially for liver size. The effect of ethnicity is reduced if patient height rather than age is referenced.


Assuntos
Fígado , Baço , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
20.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): 504-507, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tracheomalacia after thyroidectomy is not well understood. Reports on tracheomalacia are conflicting, with some suggesting a high rate and other large cohorts in which no tracheomalacia is reported. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence and factors associated with tracheomalacia after thyroidectomy in patients with retrosternal goitres requiring sternotomy at a high-volume tertiary care referral centre. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2019. All adult patients who underwent thyroidectomy with sternotomy were included. Tracheomalacia was considered when tracheal rings were soft compared with other parts (proximal or distal) of the trachea and required either tracheostomy or resection with anastomosis. The decision to perform a tracheostomy or to administer continuous or bilevel positive airway pressure postoperatively was made depending on the degree of tracheomalacia. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with tracheomalacia. RESULTS: We evaluated 40 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with sternotomy. The mean age of our cohort was 48.7 ± 11.3 years and the population was predominantly female (67.5%). One patient required tracheal resection with anastomosis, and two patients required tracheostomy. Multivariable logistic regression analysis did not reveal any patient- or thyroid-related factor significantly associated with the development of tracheomalacia in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of tracheomalacia after thyroidectomy with sternotomy appears to be very low. However, the occurrence of tracheomalacia after thyroidectomy in cases of large goitre is possible and hence worrisome.


Assuntos
Bócio/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueomalácia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Bócio/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esternotomia/métodos , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Traqueia/patologia , Traqueia/cirurgia , Traqueomalácia/diagnóstico , Traqueomalácia/etiologia , Traqueomalácia/terapia , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos
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