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1.
Water Res ; 188: 116501, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091804

RESUMO

Natural swimming ponds (NSPs) are artificially created bodies of water intended for human recreation, characterised by the substitution of chemical disinfection with natural biological processes for water purification. NSPs are growing in popularity, however little is known regarding the public health risks. A screening level risk assessment was undertaken as an initial step in assessing the first Canadian public NSP located in Edmonton, Alberta. Risk of enteric pathogens originating from pool bathers was assessed under normal conditions and following accidental faecal release events. The performance of the natural treatment train for health protection was quantified with and without the addition of UV disinfection of naturally-treated water, and compared to the US EPA benchmark to provide a reference point to consider acceptability. Estimated levels of pathogen contamination of the pond were dependant upon the discrete number of shedders present, which in turn depended upon the prevalence of infection in the population. Overall performance of the natural disinfection system was dependant upon the filtration rate of the natural treatment system or turnover time. Addition of UV disinfection reduced the uncertainty around the removal efficacy, and mitigated the impact of larger shedding events, however the impact of UV disinfection on the natural treatment biome is unknown. Further information is needed on the performance of natural barriers for pathogen removal, and therefore challenge studies are recommended. Given the identified risks, the pool is posted that there is risk from accidental faecal releases, as in any natural water body with swimmers. Screening level risk assessment was a valuable first step in understanding the processes driving the system and in identifying important data gaps.


Assuntos
Tanques , Piscinas , Alberta , Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Medição de Risco , Natação , Microbiologia da Água
2.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 23(1): 64-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662344

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing CO2 concentration on the growth and the capability of Tetraselmis chui. in removal of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from shrimp pond wastewater (SPWW). The factorial experimental design was used with the treatment of SPWW percentage in culture medium, namely: 100% SPWW, 75% SPWW + 25% Sea Water (SW) and 75% SW + 25% SPWW coupled with three CO2 concentration treatments: 390 ppm, 550 ppm and 1000 ppm using CO2 system. Growth of T. chui. for lengh of cultivation period tended to be higher at treatments of 390 ppm CO2 and 100% SPWW, however there was a declining growth over period of cultivation for both treatments. The growth rate of T. chui was higher for all percentage of SPWW treatments in culture medium at 390 ppm CO2 concentration compared to other percentage of SPWW treatments and CO2 concentration treatments. There was a decreasing of growth rate with increasing CO2 concentration at 100% SPWW and 75% SPWW + 25% SW in culture medium. Nitrogen removal efficiency and removal rate by T. chui. were strongly affected by CO2 concentration. However, there was no significant effect of increasing CO2 concentration to removal efficiency and rate of PO4 by T. chui.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Tanques , Águas Residuárias
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 758: 143629, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243515

RESUMO

Pond-ditch circulation systems (PDCSs) were proved to be an appropriate operation selection in rural wastewater remediation. However, the biological dephosphorization process has not been investigated and quantified in PDCSs. In this study, PDCSs exhibited higher total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies (77.8%-97.4%). The activities of polyphosphate kinase (PPK) and exopolyphosphatase (PPX) tightly associated with phosphorus biological removal ranged from 0.356 to 11.844 µmol hydroxamic acid min-1 mg-1 protein, and 0.008 to 0.446 µmol p-nitrophenol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. Both PPK and PPX in PDCSs increased with time, peaked at day 30, and then declined, and were negatively correlated with sediment total phosphorus (STP), sediment inorganic phosphorus (SIP), P bound to Al/Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxides (NaOH-P), P associated with Ca (HCl-P), and organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05). Results of high-throughput sequencing suggested that Bacillus (0.46%-19.77%) and Clostridium (0.40%-21.0%) genus might be the predominant groups in phosphorus aerobic biological absorption; while Geobacter (0.15%-4.74%) and Arthrobacter (0.03%-4.01%) genus dominated in anaerobic biological process. The RDA results showed that compared to the ditch, temperature (W-temp), TP, dissolved oxygen (DO), NaOH-P, and OM had stronger effects on microbial community structures in two ponds at day 30 than those at days 14 and 60. Path analysis further indicated that STP could impact PPK and PPX activities in PDCSs both directly and indirectly via altering the relative abundances of bacteria taxa. We found that the indirect effects of W-temp, DO, and OM on PPK and PPX activities mediated through modulating the relative abundances of bacteria taxa and STP. Our findings provide evidences that biological dephosphorization process in PDCSs are jointly modulated by environmental factors and microbial communities. The less-studied W-temp, DO, STP, and OM modulating the relative abundances of bacteria taxa was an existing but previously underestimated indirect pathway influencing on biological dephosphorization process in PDCSs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Fósforo , Tanques , Águas Residuárias
4.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111810, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341726

RESUMO

Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) is a polluting residue from the olive oil industry. It is usually stored in open-air unprotected evaporation ponds where their sediments accumulate. This study compares the characteristics of OMW sludges stored for long-time in evaporation ponds and assesses their impact on the underlying soil layer. Physicochemical parameters, toxicity bioassays, and full characterization of the microbial community were analyzed. The extension of the polluting effects was assessed by analysis of toxicity, microbial biomass carbon, and respiration. Geostatistics was used to predict their spatial distribution. Organic matter and polyphenol content besides toxicity levels determine variations between OMW sludges and have a high impact on the microbiota they contain. The microbial community was abundant, diverse, and functionally active. However, the biodegradability of the sludges was hindered by the toxicity levels. Toxicity and biomass carbon were higher on the surface of the ponds than in the soil layer revealing a reduced leach flow and depletion of contaminants. The natural microbiota might be biostimulated by means of applying sustainable and feasible biological treatments in order to favor the OMW sludges bioremediation. These results open up the possibility of solving the environmental concern caused by its storage in similar scenarios, which are common in olive oil-producing countries.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Olea , Biodegradação Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Azeite de Oliva , Tanques , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
5.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111698, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349511

RESUMO

Ponds may hold significant stocks of organic carbon in their sediments and pond creation may offer a practical application for land managers to increase carbon storage. However, ponds are overlooked in global carbon budgets. Their potential significance is suggested by the abundance of ponds throughout terrestrial biomes and their high carbon burial rates, but we lack measures of sediment carbon stocks from typical ponds. We sampled sediment from lowland temperate ponds in north east England comparing carbon stocks from ponds categorised by surrounding land use, or dominant vegetation, or drying regime, along with measures of variation within ponds. Sediment carbon varied considerably between ponds. This variation was more important than any systematic variation between pond types grouped by land use, vegetation or drying, or any variation within an individual pond. Our estimates of pond sediment organic carbon give measures that are higher than from soils in widespread habitats such as temperate grassland and woodland, suggesting that ponds are significant for carbon budgets in their own right. Ponds are relatively easy to create, are ubiquitous throughout temperate biomes and can be fitted in amongst other land uses; our results show that pond creation would be a useful and practical application to boost carbon sequestration in temperate landscapes.


Assuntos
Carbono , Tanques , Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Inglaterra , Sedimentos Geológicos
6.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116115, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279269

RESUMO

Alberta's oil sands tailings ponds are suspected to be a source of fugitive emissions of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to the atmosphere. Here we report, for the first time, fluxes of 6 parent and 21 alkylated PACs based on the measured co-located air and water concentrations using a two-film fugacity-based model (FUG), an inverse dispersion model (DISP) and a simple box model (BOX). Air samples were collected at the Suncor Tailings Pond 2/3 using a high volume air sampler from the "pond" and towards the pond ("non-pond") directions separately. Mean ∑27PACs in air from the "pond" direction was greater than the "non-pond" direction by a factor of 17. Water-air fugacity ratio of 20 PACs quantifiable in water indicated net volatilization from water. Dispersion and box model results also indicated upward fluxes of 22 PACs. Correlation between the estimated flux results of BOX and DISP model was statistically significant (r = 0.99 and p < 0.05), and correlation between FUG and DISP results ranged from 0.54 to 0.85. In this first-ever assessment of PAC fluxes from tailings pond, the three models confirmed volatilization fluxes of PACs indicating Suncor Tailings Pond 2/3 is a source of PAC emissions to the atmosphere. This study addressed a key data gap identified in the Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Emissions Inventory Compilation Report (Government of Alberta and Canada, 2016) which is the lack of consistent real-world tailings pond fugitive emission monitoring of organic chemicals. Our findings highlight the need for measurements from other tailings ponds to determine their overall contribution in releasing PACs to the atmosphere. This paper presents a practical method for estimating PAC emissions from other tailings ponds, which can provide a better understanding of these fugitive emissions, and thereby help to improve the overall characterization of emissions in the oil sands region.


Assuntos
Compostos Policíclicos , Tanques , Alberta , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Compostos Orgânicos
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 322: 124525, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333395

RESUMO

This study aimed to produce fungal biomass from agro-industrial by-products for later use as a bioflocculant in the Spirulina harvesting. The production of fungal biomass from Aspergillus niger was carried out in submerged fermentation, using media composed of wheat bran and/or potato peel. Fungal biomass was used as a bioflocculant in Spirulina cultures carried out in closed 5 L reactors and 180 L open raceway pond operated in batch and semi-continuous processes, respectively. Fungal biomass was able to harvest Spirulina platensis cultures with efficiencies between 90% and 100% after 2 h of sedimentation in some experimental conditions. Efficiencies higher than 80% were achieved in most tests without pH adjustment during bioflocculations, which shows that the developed method is a promising alternative to traditional Spirulina harvesting techniques. Above all, the development of an eco-friendly fungal-assisted bioflocculation process increases the sustainability of Spirulina biomass for different applications, especially biofuels.


Assuntos
Spirulina , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Tanques
8.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129058, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250230

RESUMO

This study analyzes the 137Cs behavior in the ponds of Okuma Town from 2015 to 2019 in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) exclusion zone. A decline in both particulate and dissolved 137Cs activity concentrations was revealed. The decline rate constants for the particulate 137Cs activity concentration were found to be higher than for the dissolved 137Cs activity concentration. In terms of seasonality the dissolved 137Cs concentrations were higher from June to October, depending on the specific pond and year, most likely due to temperature dependence of 137Cs desorption from frayed edge sites of micaceous clay minerals. The apparent Kd(137Cs) in the studied ponds, in absolute value, appeared to be much higher than that for closed and semi-closed lakes of the Chernobyl contaminated area; however, these were comparable to the values characteristic of the rivers and reservoirs of the FDNPP contaminated area. The apparent Kd(137Cs) in the suspended sediment-water system was observed to decrease over time. It was hypothesized that this trend was associated with the decomposition of glassy hot particles. Relying on the theory of selective sorption and fixation, the exchangeable radiocesium interception potential, RIPex(K) was estimated using data on 137Cs speciation in the surface bottom-sediment layer and its distribution in the sediment-water system. For the studied ponds, RIPex(K) was on the average 2050 mEq/kg, which is within the range of values measured in laboratory studies reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Japão , Centrais Nucleares , Tanques , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 144083, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280879

RESUMO

Coastal aquaculture expansion resulted in mangrove area loss and ecosystem degradation in the past decades, mainly in tropical Asia. Despite increasing environmental concerns regarding nutrient and organic matter-rich effluents, little is known on the effects on adjacent estuarine and coastal food webs. To assess the impact and fate of anthropogenic nitrogen released from aquaculture facilities, we studied water quality and nitrogen (N) flow across an estuarine food web in an estuary in Hainan, China, using nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N). We found higher δ15N values of ammonium, nitrate and suspended matter in the pond-covered inner estuary than further upstream, suggesting a strong influence of untreated pond effluents, which had a high δ15N (ammonium: ~16‰, nitrate: ~7‰, suspended matter: ~8‰). Fish and benthic invertebrates of the inner estuary had a higher δ15N than consumers further upstream and in similar aquaculture-free estuaries elsewhere, most likely due to direct or indirect uptake of 15N-enriched aquaculture effluents by phytoplankton and benthic algae. A major part of the artisanal catches from the estuary consists of small-size fish which is used as feed in the local aquaculture. Thus, estuarine fish incorporating aquaculture-effluent based food web signals are harvested and recycled as feed in aquaculture facilities, whose effluents sustain this local food web. The δ15N being at the high end of the global range on all trophic levels indicates an anthropogenic nitrogen loop in which some portion of the reactive nitrogen initially introduced into aquaculture ponds is continuously recycled and affects the estuarine food web. This recycling also indicates a shortcut in the otherwise inefficient nitrogen sink function of estuaries. Therefore, in areas with large-scale coastal aquaculture like in China and SE Asia the effect of reactive nitrogen from aquaculture sources on the performance of coastal ecosystems may be larger than previously thought.


Assuntos
Estuários , Nitrogênio , Animais , Aquicultura , Ásia , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Tanques
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 144309, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348164

RESUMO

Human enteric pathogens are a major global concern, as they are responsible for thousands of preventable deaths every year. New pathogens in wastewater are constantly emerging. For example, SARS-CoV-2 has been recently detected in domestic sewage and primary sludge. Knowledge about the reduction of viruses in wastewater treatment and their partitioning between the treated liquid effluent versus the sludge or biosolids is still very scarce, especially in countries with emerging economies and tropical climates. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors are among the top three most commonly used technologies for the treatment of sewage in Latin America and the Caribbean, and their use has become increasingly common in many other low- and middle-income countries. High-rate algal ponds (HRAP) are regarded as a sustainable technology for the post-treatment of UASB effluent. This study evaluated the overall reduction and the liquid-solid partitioning of somatic coliphages, F-specific coliphages, and E. coli in a pilot-scale system comprised of a UASB reactor followed by HRAPs treating real wastewater. Average log removal for somatic and F-specific coliphages were 0.40 and 0.56 for the UASB reactor, and 1.15 and 1.70 for HRAPs, respectively. The overall removal of both phages in the system was 2.06-log. Removal of E. coli was consistently higher. The number of viruses leaving the system in the UASB solids and algal biomass was less than 10% of the number leaving in the clarified liquid effluent. The number of E. coli leaving the system in solids residuals was estimated to be approximately one order of magnitude higher than the number of E. coli leaving in the liquid effluent. Results from this study demonstrate the suitability of UASB-HRAP systems to reduce viral and bacterial indicators from domestic sewage and the importance of adequately treating sludge for pathogen reduction before they are used as biosolids.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Região do Caribe , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Tanques , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111253, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911183

RESUMO

Phytoremediation of polyester resin wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane and heavy metals using Lemna gibba (L.gibba) was enhanced by incorporation of perforated polyethylene carrier materials (PCM) onto the duckweed pond (DWP) system. The DWP module was operated at a hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 2, 4 and 6 days and as well as 1,4-dioxane loading rate of 16, 25 and 48 g/m3.d. The maximum removal efficiency of 54 ± 2.5% was achieved for 1,4-dioxane at an HRT of 6 days and loading rate of 16 g1,4-dioxane/m3.d. Similarly, the DWP system provided removal efficiencies of 28.3 ± 2.1, 93.2 ± 7.6, 95.7 ± 8.9 and 93.6 ± 4.9% for Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ at influent concentration of 0.037 ± 0.01, 1.2 ± 0.9, 27.2 ± 4.7 and 4.6 ± 1.2 mg/L respectively. The structural analysis by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) clearly displayed a reduction of 1,4- dioxane in the treated effluent. A strong peak was detected for L. gibba plants at frequency of 3417.71 cm-1 due to N-H stretching, which confirm the proposed mechanism of partially conversion of 1,4-dioxane into amino acids. Glycine, serine, aspartic, threonine and alanine content were increased in L. gibba by values of 35 ± 2.2, 40 ± 3.2, 48 ± 3.7, 31 ± 2.8, and 56 ± 4.1%, respectively. The contribution of DWP unit as a greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were relatively low (1.65 gCO2/Kg BODremoved.d., and 18.3 gCO2/Kg biomass.d) due to photosynthesis process, low excess sludge production and consumption of CO2 for nitrification process (1.4 gCO2/kgN removed.d). Based on these results, it is recommended to apply such a technology for treatment of polyester resin wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane and heavy metals at a HRT not exceeding 6 days.


Assuntos
Dioxanos/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Araceae , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Nitrificação , Poliésteres , Tanques/análise , Esgotos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141882, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889286

RESUMO

Antibiotic residues in mariculture environments have been detected globally, while little information is available about their dynamic levels, source, behavior, and fate during the whole culture process. In this study, the dynamic occurrence, bioaccumulation, source, fate, and human dietary risk of 19 antibiotics were investigated in different breeding stages of mariculture ponds near the Maowei Sea, South China. Fourteen antibiotics, including three sulfonamides (SAs), five fluoroquinolones (FQs), three macrolides (MLs), and two chloramphenicols (CAPs), were detected in the mariculture ponds, with FQs being the most abundant antibiotics. Significant variations of antibiotic concentration occurred during the whole culture process. Severe weather, especially typhoons and rainstorms, resulted in the average highest levels of ∑19antibiotics (mean: 567 ng L-1) in mariculture ponds. The source apportionment estimated for the mariculture ponds showed that direct application was the primary source of antibiotics (91.2%). The antibiotics in mariculture ponds were mainly discharged through aquaculture wastewater (65.8%) and settling particles (33.8%). The estimated annual input of antibiotics into the Maowei Sea was 2.24 times higher through the two main rivers (48.0 kg a-1) than through the mariculture wastewater (24.1 kg a-1). The apparent bioaccumulation factors (ABAFs) confirmed that young and adult tilapia accumulated more sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and norfloxacin (NOX), respectively. The result from the estimated daily intakes suggested that the antibiotics in the seafood could not pose a risk to human health by dietary exposure assessment. CAPSULE: Big variation of antibiotic concentration occurred during the whole culture process in the mariculture farms, and the storm increased antibiotic application.


Assuntos
Tanques , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141987, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911169

RESUMO

Artificial ponds are increasingly created for the services they provide to humans. While they have the potential to offer habitats for freshwater biodiversity, their contribution to regional diversity has hardly been quantified. In this study, we assess the relative contribution of five types of artificial ponds to regional biodiversity of five different regions, studying amphibians, water beetles and freshwater snails. This biodiversity is also compared with that observed in natural ponds from three of the investigated regions. Our results indicate that artificial ponds host, on average, about 50% of the regional pool of lentic species. When compared to natural ponds, the artificial ponds always supported a substantially lower alpha richness (54% of the natural pond richness). The invertebrate communities presented high values of beta diversity and were represented by a restricted set of widely distributed species, and by numerous rare species. There were discrepancies among the taxonomic groups: overall, amphibians benefited most from the presence of artificial ponds, since 65% of the regional lentic species pools for this group was found in artificial ponds, whereas 43% and 42% was observed in the case of beetles and snails, respectively. However, each invertebrate group was promptly the most benefited animal group in a single pond type. Therefore, artificial pond types were complementary among them in terms of contribution to regional diversity of the three animal groups. Based on these results, we forecast that future human-dominated landscapes in which most ponds are artificial will be particularly impoverished in terms of freshwater biodiversity, underlining the need to conserve existing natural ponds and to create new "near-natural" ponds. However, if properly designed and managed, artificial ponds could make a substantial contribution to support freshwater biodiversity at a regional scale. Furthermore, the number and diversity of artificial ponds must be high in each considered landscape.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Tanques , Anfíbios , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Invertebrados
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 141861, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920382

RESUMO

It is hypothesized that biodiversity is maintained by interactions at local and regional spatial scales. Many sustainability plans and management practices reflect the need to conserve biodiversity, yet once these plans are implemented, the ecological consequences are not well understood. By learning how management practices affect local environmental factors and dispersal in a region, ecologists and natural resource managers can better understand the implications of management choices. We investigated the interaction of local and regional scale processes in the built environment, where human-impacts are known to influence both. Our goal was to determine how the interaction between spatial variation in habitat heterogeneity in algal management of urban ponds and dispersal shape biodiversity at local and regional spatial scales. A twelve-week mesocosm study was conducted where pond management and dispersal were manipulated to determine how spatial variation in habitat and dispersal from various source pools influence zooplankton metacommunities in urban stormwater ponds. We hypothesized that dispersal from managed or unmanaged source pools will lead to community divergence and local management practices will act as an environmental filter, both reducing beta diversity between managed ponds and driving compositional divergence. Our results suggest that zooplankton dispersal from managed or unmanaged source pools was important to explaining divergence in community composition. Furthermore, local management of algae marginally reduced compositional turnover of zooplankton among ponds but did not lead to significant divergence in community composition. Management practices may act as strong environmental filters by reducing beta diversity between ponds. As hypothesized, source pool constraints led to compositional divergence and local management practices resulted in reduced compositional turnover between ponds. The results of this study suggest that sustainability and management plans may have complex effects on biodiversity both within and across spatial scales.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Zooplâncton , Animais , Ecossistema , Tanques
15.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111450, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031997

RESUMO

Ponds are a typical feature of many villages in the subtropics, and have been widely used as important sources of water for agriculture, aquaculture and groundwater recharge, as well as enhancing village resilience to floods and drought. Currently many village ponds are in a very poor state and in dire need of rejuvenation. This paper assesses the current water quality status and ecological health of twelve sub-tropical village ponds, situated in western Uttar Pradesh, India. This assessment is used to evaluate their wastewater treatment needs in relation to potential village uses of the water. Physico-chemical (Secchi depth, Total phosphorus and Total nitrogen) and biological (Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a) indicators highlight hypertrophic conditions in all the ponds. The study indicates that the status of village ponds requires significant investments in wastewater treatment to restore their use for many purposes, including aquaculture, although some may still be acceptable for irrigation purposes, as long as pathogenic bacteria are not abundant. We propose increased implementation of decentralised systems for wastewater treatment, such as septic tanks and constructed wetlands, to reduce the organic and nutrient loads entering village ponds and allow their use for a wider range of purposes.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Qualidade da Água , Índia , Tanques , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128408, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182150

RESUMO

The safety of creating fish farms in agricultural settings was evaluated by growing Piaractus mesopotamicus in a pond, while crops where cultivated in a nearby field under a pesticide application regime typical of the Pampa region. Atrazine, glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were detected in the water of the pond at concentrations ranging between 92 and 118 µg/L for atrazine, 12 and 221 µg/L for glyphosate and 21 and 117 µg/L for AMPA. Atrazine and malathion were detected in fish muscles at concentrations ranging between 70 and 105 µg/kg for atrazine and 8.6 and 23.7 µg/kg for malathion. Compared to fish raised in a pisciculture, fish from the agricultural pond presented reduced values of pack cell volume, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, together with significantly greater cholinesterase activity in both plasma and liver and reduced glutathione-S-transferase activity in the liver. A comet assay also demonstrated that P. mesopotamicus from the agricultural pond presented a significantly greater level of DNA damage in both erythrocytes and gill cells. Overall, the present study demonstrates that pisciculture ponds established in an agricultural setting may receive pesticides applied to nearby cultures and that these pesticides may be taken up by the fish and affect their physiology and health. The accumulation of pesticides residues in fish flesh may also present a risk to human consumers and should be closely controlled.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Agricultura , Animais , Atrazina , Colinesterases , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Peixes , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Tanques/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115593, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254619

RESUMO

With increasing demand for aquaculture products, water reuse is likely to increase for aquaculture operations around the world. Herein, wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) represents low cost and sustainable treatment technologies to reduce nutrients and various contaminants of emerging concern from effluent. In the present study, we examined bioaccumulation of selected pharmaceuticals from several therapeutic classes by two important fish species in aquaculture with different feeding preferences (Cyprinus carpio and Sander lucioperca) and their common prey to test whether species specific accumulation occurs. Forty and nineteen from 66 selected pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were positively found in water and sediment samples, respectively from the representative WSP. After a six-month study, which corresponds to aquaculture operations, fourteen pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were detected (at a frequency of higher than 50% of samples) in at least one fish tissue collected from the WSP. We observed striking differences for species and organ specific BAFs among study compounds. Though muscle tissues consistently accumulated lower levels of the target analytes, several substances were elevated in brain, liver and kidney tissues (e.g., sertraline) of both species. Low residual concentrations of these target analytes in aquaculture products (fish fillets) suggest WSPs are promising to support the water-food nexus in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Carpas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Aquicultura , Bioacumulação , Tanques , Águas Residuárias , Água
18.
J Water Health ; 18(6): 867-878, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328359

RESUMO

There are increasing concerns about wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) acting as hotspots for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). However, their role largely depends upon the treatment methods and antibiotics in the wastewater. To better understand these influences, we compared the occurrence and fate of ARG between a pond system in a developing country (Namibia) and an advanced WWTP (activated sludge system) in a developed country (Germany). A targeted metagenomic approach was used to investigate the wide-spectrum profiles of ARGs and their co-occurrence patterns at both locations. In total, 93 ARG subtypes were found in the German influent wastewater, 277 in the Namibian influent wastewater. The abundant ARG types found in Namibia and Germany differed, especially for multidrug resistance genes. The differences in occurrence and reduction can help to understand the performance of simple WWTP such as pond systems common in Namibia, where direct contact with wastewater is a potential risk for contamination.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Alemanha , Namíbia , Tanques
19.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 142: 171-176, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331284

RESUMO

Infection by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a major threat to amphibians and has caused catastrophic global declines of amphibian populations. Some studies have detected a seasonal pattern of infection associated with the local climate, and although most of them have focused on investigating the seasonality of Bd in relation to its impacts on amphibians, fewer have aimed to understand the chytrid persistence in the amphibian assemblage over seasons by investigating reservoir hosts. Since tadpoles are generally tolerant to Bd infection, they often play a relevant role in local disease dynamics. Thus, we hypothesized that tadpoles of Boana faber, a species that can be found in permanent ponds throughout the seasons, would function as Bd reservoirs. We therefore investigated Bd infection prevalence in tadpoles of this species over 2 yr in a nature reserve. As expected, we detected a seasonal variation of Bd infection, with a higher prevalence of Bd during the coldest months (winter) when compared to the warmer months (summer). Interestingly, our seasonal-trend decomposition analysis showed that Bd prevalence is increasing annually in the area, which could represent either a natural fluctuation of this pathogen, or an imminent threat to that anuran assemblage. With this study, we highlight the tadpole of B. faber as a potential reservoir for Bd, and we suggest that monitoring Bd in such hosts could be a powerful tool for identifying priority areas for amphibian conservation.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Anfíbios , Animais , Larva , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Tanques , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1938): 20201665, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171095

RESUMO

A predator's functional response determines predator-prey interactions by describing the relationship between the number of prey available and the number eaten. Its shape and parameters fundamentally govern the dynamic equilibrium of predator-prey interactions and their joint abundances. Yet, estimates of these key parameters generally assume stasis in space and time and ignore the potential for local adaptation to alter feeding responses and the stability of trophic dynamics. Here, we evaluate if functional responses diverge among populations of spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) larvae that face antagonistic selection on feeding strategies based on their own risk of predation. Common garden experiments revealed that spotted salamander from ponds with varying predation risks differed in their functional responses, suggesting an evolutionary response. Applying mechanistic equations, we discovered that the combined changes in attack rates, handling times and shape of the functional response enhanced feeding rate in environments with high densities of gape-limited predators. We suggest how these parameter changes could alter community equilibria and other emergent properties of food webs. Community ecologists might often need to consider how local evolution at fine scales alters key relationships in ways that alter local diversity patterns, food web dynamics, resource gradients and community responses to disturbance.


Assuntos
Urodelos/fisiologia , Ambystoma , Animais , Biota , Cadeia Alimentar , Larva , Tanques , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
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