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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 796, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria infection during pregnancy has negative health consequences for both mothers and offspring. Sub-microscopic malaria infection during pregnancy is common in most African countries. We sought to identify factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria, and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We recruited a cohort of pregnant women during their first trimester and assessed for the occurrence of placental malaria and pregnancy outcomes. The follow-up was done monthly from recruitment until delivery. Histopathology placental malaria positive results were defined as the presence of malaria pigment or parasitized erythrocytes on the slide (histology-positive (HP)), and the sub-microscopic placental infection was defined as positive Plasmodium falciparum DNA by polymerase chain reaction (DNA PCR) amplification in a negative histopathology test. Adverse pregnancy outcomes investigated included low birth weight (birth weight below 2.5 kg), prematurity (live birth below 37 weeks), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (live born with a birth weight below 10th percentile for gestational age and sex). Weighted baseline category logit, log-binomial, and log-Poisson models were used to assess factors associated with placental malaria, and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Among 1115 women who had histopathology and DNA PCR performed, 93 (8%) had HP placental infection, and 136 (12%) had the sub-microscopic placental infection. The risk of sub-microscopic placental malaria was greater in women who did not use mosquito prevention methods such as bed nets, fumigation, or mosquito coils (odds ratio (OR) = 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.92; P = 0.03) and in women who were anemic (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.20-2.11; P = 0.001). Women who were underweight had reduced odds of sub-microscopic placental malaria infection (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17-0.62; P = 0.001). Women who were overweight/obese had 1.48 times higher the odds of HP placental malaria compared to normal weight (OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.11; P = 0.03). HP placental malaria infection was associated with an increased risk of SGA births (RR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.98-1.72, P = 0.07). In contrast, the sub-microscopic infection was associated with a reduced risk of SGA births (RR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88, P = 0.01). Placental malaria was not associated with low birth weight or prematurity. CONCLUSION: Malaria prevention methods and maternal nutrition status during early pregnancy were important predictors of sub-microscopic placental malaria. More research is needed to understand sub-microscopic placental malaria and the possible mechanisms mediating the association between placental malaria and SGA.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV , Malária/epidemiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Anemia/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Malária/complicações , Malária/parasitologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Currículo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Guiana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Quênia/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
3.
J Biol Dyn ; 14(1): 748-766, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990177

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 was first experienced in Wuhan City, China, during December 2019 before it rapidly spread over globally. This paper has proposed a mathematical model for studying its transmission dynamics in the presence of face mask wearing and hospitalization services of human population in Tanzania. Disease-free and endemic equilibria were determined and subsequently their local and global stabilities were carried out. The trace-determinant approach was used in the local stability of disease-free equilibrium point while Lyapunov function technique was used to determine the global stability of both disease-free and endemic equilibrium points. Basic reproduction number, R 0 , was determined in which its numerical results revealed that, in the presence of face masks wearing and medication services or hospitalization as preventive measure for its transmission, R 0 = 0.698 while in their absence R 0 = 3.8 . This supports its analytical solution that the disease-free equilibrium point E 0 is asymptotically stable whenever R 0 < 1 , while endemic equilibrium point E ∗ is globally asymptotically stable for R 0 > 1 . Therefore, this paper proves the necessity of face masks wearing and hospitalization services to COVID-19 patients to contain the disease spread to the population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Número Básico de Reprodução , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003248, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been procured for malaria control. A functional LLIN is one that is present, is in good physical condition, and remains insecticidal, thereby providing protection against vector-borne diseases through preventing bites and killing disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) prequalifies LLINs that remain adequately insecticidal 3 years after deployment. Therefore, institutional buyers often assume that prequalified LLINs are functionally identical with a 3-year lifespan. We measured the lifespans of 3 LLIN products, and calculated their cost per year of functional life, to demonstrate the economic and public health importance of procuring the most cost-effective LLIN product based on its lifespan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomised double-blinded trial of 3 pyrethroid LLIN products (10,571 nets in total) was conducted at 3 follow-up points: 10 months (August-October 2014), 22 months (August-October 2015), and 36 months (October-December 2016) among 3,393 households in Tanzania using WHO-recommended methods. Primary outcome was LLIN functional survival (LLIN present and in serviceable condition). Secondary outcomes were (1) bioefficacy and chemical content (residual insecticidal activity) and (2) protective efficacy for volunteers sleeping under the LLINs (bite reduction and mosquitoes killed). Median LLIN functional survival was significantly different between the 3 net products (p = 0.001): 2.0 years (95% CI 1.7-2.3) for Olyset, 2.5 years (95% CI 2.2-2.8) for PermaNet 2.0 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73 [95% CI 0.64-0.85], p = 0.001), and 2.6 years (95% CI 2.3-2.8) for NetProtect (HR = 0.70 [95% CI 0.62-0.77], p < 0.001). Functional survival was affected by accumulation of holes, leading to users discarding nets. Protective efficacy also significantly differed between products as they aged. Equivalent annual cost varied between US$1.2 (95% CI $1.1-$1.4) and US$1.5 (95% CI $1.3-$1.7), assuming that each net was priced identically at US$3. The 2 longer-lived nets (PermaNet and NetProtect) were 20% cheaper than the shorter-lived product (Olyset). The trial was limited to only the most widely sold LLINs in Tanzania. Functional survival varies by country, so the single country setting is a limitation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LLIN functional survival is less than 3 years and differs substantially between products, and these differences strongly influence LLIN value for money. LLIN tendering processes should consider local expectations of cost per year of functional life and not unit price. As new LLIN products come on the market, especially those with new insecticides, it will be imperative to monitor their comparative durability to ensure that the most cost-effective products are procured for malaria control.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/economia , Inseticidas/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Vetores de Doenças , Características da Família , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/tendências , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003318, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-density (LD) Plasmodium infections are missed by standard malaria rapid diagnostic tests (standard mRDT) when the blood antigen concentration is below the detection threshold. The clinical impact of these LD infections is unknown. This study investigates the clinical presentation and outcome of untreated febrile children with LD infections attending primary care facilities in a moderately endemic area of Tanzania. METHODS/FINDINGS: This cohort study includes 2,801 febrile pediatric outpatients (median age 13.5 months [range 2-59], female:male ratio 0.8:1.0) recruited in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 01 December 2014 and 28 February 2016. Treatment decisions were guided by a clinical decision support algorithm run on a mobile app, which also collected clinical data. Only standard mRDT+ cases received antimalarials. Outcomes (clinical failure, secondary hospitalization, and death) were collected in follow-up visits or interviews on days 3, 7, and 28. After patient recruitment had ended, frozen blood from all 2,801 patients was tested for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) by ultrasensitive-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), standard mRDT, and "ultrasensitive" mRDT. As the latter did not improve sensitivity beyond standard mRDT, it is hereafter excluded. Clinical features and outcomes in LD patients (standard mRDT-/ultrasensitive-qPCR+, not given antimalarials) were compared with those with no detectable (ND) parasitemia (standard mRDT-/ultrasensitive-qPCR-) or high-density (HD) infections (standard mRDT+/ultrasensitive-qPCR+, antimalarial-treated). Pf positivity rate was 7.1% (n = 199/2,801) and 9.8% (n = 274/2,801) by standard mRDT and ultrasensitive qPCR, respectively. Thus, 28.0% (n = 76/274) of ultrasensitive qPCR+ cases were not detected by standard mRDT and labeled "LD". LD patients were, on average, 10.6 months younger than those with HD infections (95% CI 7.0-14.3 months, p < 0.001). Compared with ND, LD patients more frequently had the diagnosis of undifferentiated fever of presumed viral origin (risk ratio [RR] = 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1, p = 0.003) and were more often suffering from severe malnutrition (RR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-7.5, p = 0.03). Despite not receiving antimalarials, outcomes for the LD group did not differ from ND regarding clinical failures (2.6% [n = 2/76] versus 4.0% [n = 101/2,527], RR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.2-3.5, p = 0.7) or secondary hospitalizations (2.6% [n = 2/76] versus 2.8% [n = 72/2,527], RR = 0.7,95% CI 0.2-3.2, p = 0.9), and no deaths were reported in any Pf-positive groups. HD patients experienced more secondary hospitalizations (10.1% [n = 20/198], RR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-1.0, p = 0.005) than LD patients. All the patients in this cohort were febrile children; thus, the association between parasitemia and fever cannot be investigated, nor can the conclusions be extrapolated to neonates and adults. CONCLUSIONS: During a 28-day follow-up period, we did not find evidence of a difference in negative outcomes between febrile children with untreated LD Pf parasitemia and those without Pf parasitemia. These findings suggest LD parasitemia may either be a self-resolving fever or an incidental finding in children with other infections, including those of viral origin. These findings do not support a clinical benefit nor additional risk (e.g. because of missed bacterial infections) to using ultrasensitive malaria diagnostics at a primary care level.


Assuntos
Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Convulsões Febris/etiologia , Convulsões Febris/parasitologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
6.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e699-e710, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community randomised trials have had mixed success in implementing combination prevention strategies that diagnose 90% of people living with HIV, initiate and retain on antiretroviral therapy (ART) 90% of those diagnosed, and achieve viral load suppression in 90% of those on ART (90-90-90). The Bukoba Combination Prevention Evaluation (BCPE) aimed to achieve 90-90-90 in Bukoba Municipal Council, Tanzania, by scaling up new HIV testing, linkage, and retention interventions. METHOD: We did population-based, cross-sectional surveys before and after our community-wide intervention in Bukoba-a mixed urban and rural council of approximately 150 000 residents located on the western shore of Lake Victoria in Tanzania. BCPE interventions were implemented in 11 government-supported health-care facilities throughout Bukoba from Oct 1, 2014, to March 31, 2017, when national ART-eligibility guidelines expanded from CD4 counts of less than 350 cells per µL (Oct 1, 2014-Dec 31, 2015) and 500 or less cells per µL (Jan 1, 2016-Sept 30, 2016) to any CD4 cell count (test and treat, Oct 1, 2016-March 31, 2017). We used pre-intervention (Nov 4, 2013-Jan 25, 2014) and post-intervention (June 21, 2017-Sept 20, 2017) population-based household surveys to assess population prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection and ART coverage, and progress towards 90-90-90, among residents aged 18-49 years. FINDINGS: During the 2·5-year intervention, BCPE did 133 695 HIV tests, diagnosed and linked 3918 people living with HIV to HIV care at 11 Bukoba facilities, and returned to HIV care 604 patients who had stopped care. 4795 and 5067 residents aged 18-49 years participated in pre-intervention and post-intervention surveys. HIV prevalence before and after the intervention was similar: pre-intervention 8·9% (95% CI 7·5-10·4); post-intervention 8·4% (6·9-9·9). Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection decreased from 4·7% to 2·0% (prevalence ratio 0·42, 95% CI 0·31-0·57), and current ART use among all people living with HIV increased from 32·2% to 70·9% (2·20, 1·82-2·66) overall, 23·0% to 62·1% among men (2·70, 1·84-3·96), and 16·7% to 64·4% among people aged 18-29 years (3·87, 2·54-5·89). Of 436 and 435 people living with HIV aged 18-49 years who participated in pre-intervention and post-intervention surveys, previous HIV diagnosis increased from 47·4% (41·3-53·4) to 76·2% (71·8-80·6), ART use among diagnosed people living with HIV increased from 68·0% (60·9-75·2) to 93·1% (90·2-96·0), and viral load suppression of those on ART increased from 88·7% (83·6-93·8) to 91·3% (88·6-94·1). INTERPRETATION: BCPE findings suggest scaling up recommended HIV testing, linkage, and retention interventions can help reduce prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection, increase ART use among all people living with HIV, and make substantial progress towards achieving 90-90-90 in a relatively short period. BCPE facility-based testing and linkage interventions are undergoing national scale up to help achieve 90-90-90 in Tanzania. FUNDING: US Presidents' Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Administração de Caso , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , População Rural , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237590, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925949

RESUMO

Bushmeat harvesting and consumption represents a potential risk for the spillover of endemic zoonotic pathogens, yet remains a common practice in many parts of the world. Given that the harvesting and selling of bushmeat is illegal in Tanzania and other parts of Africa, the supply chain is informal and may include hunters, whole-sellers, retailers, and individual resellers who typically sell bushmeat in small pieces. These pieces are often further processed, obscuring species-identifying morphological characteristics, contributing to incomplete or mistaken knowledge of species of origin and potentially confounding assessments of pathogen spillover risk and bushmeat offtake. The current investigation sought to identify the species of origin and assess the concordance between seller-reported and laboratory-confirmed species of origin of bushmeat harvested from in and around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. After obtaining necessary permits, the species of origin of a total of 151 bushmeat samples purchased from known intermediaries from 2016 to 2018 were characterized by PCR and sequence analysis of the cytochrome B (CytB) gene. Based on these sequence analyses, 30%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24.4-38.6) of bushmeat samples were misidentified by sellers. Misreporting amongst the top five source species (wildebeest, buffalo, impala, zebra, and giraffe) ranged from 20% (CI: 11.4-33.2) for samples reported as wildebeest to 47% (CI: 22.2-72.7) for samples reported as zebra although there was no systematic bias in reporting. Our findings suggest that while misreporting errors are unlikely to confound wildlife offtake estimates for bushmeat consumption within the Serengeti ecosystem, the role of misreporting bias on the risk of spillover events of endemic zoonotic infections from bushmeat requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Carne/provisão & distribução , Zoonoses/etiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Búfalos/genética , Comércio , Citocromos b/genética , Ecossistema , Equidae/genética , Girafas/genética , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0232649, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986709

RESUMO

Emergence of HIV drug resistance poses a serious risk of inactivity to all currently approved antiretroviral drugs. Profiles of HIV drug resistance mutations (HIVDRM) and virological failure (VF) are not extensively studied in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine HIVDRM and predictors of VF in HIV-infected individuals failing first-line HIV drugs in Moshi, Northern Tanzania. A case-control study was conducted at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Mawenzi, Pasua and Majengo health facilities with HIV-care and treatment clinics from October, 2017 to August, 2018. Cases and controls were HIV-infected individuals with VF and viral suppression (VS) respectively. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease genes were amplified and sequenced. Stanford University's HIV drug resistance database and REGA subtyping tool 3.0 determined HIVDRM and HIV-1 subtypes respectively. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) investigated predictors of VF. P-value < 5% was considered statistically significant. A total of 124 participants were recruited, of whom 63 (50.8%) had VF, 61 (49.2%) had VS and 82 (66.1%) were females. Median [IQR] age and duration on ART were 45 [35-52] years and 72 [48-104] months respectively. Twenty-five out of 26 selected samples from cases were successfully sequenced. Twenty-four samples (96%) had at least one major mutation conferring resistance to HIV drugs, with non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistance associated mutations as the majority (92%). Frequent NNRTI-resistance associated mutations were K103N (n = 11), V106M (n = 5) and G190A (n = 5). Prevalent nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors-resistance associated mutations were M184V (n = 17), K70R (n = 7) and D67N (n = 6). Dual-class resistance was observed in 16 (64%) samples. Thirteen samples (52%) had at least one thymidine analogue-resistance associated mutation (TAM). Three samples (12%) had T69D mutation with at least 1 TAM. Two samples (8%) had at least one mutation associated with protease inhibitor resistance. Age [aOR = 0.94, 95% CI (0.90-0.97), p < 0.001] and occupation [aOR = 0.35, 95% CI (0.12-1.04), p = 0.059] associated with VF. In conclusion, HIV drug resistance is common among people failing antiretroviral therapy. Resistance testing will help to guide switching of HIV drugs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Falha de Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886666

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to compare sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, HIV knowledge and risk behaviors of people living with HIV (PLH) and their social network members (NMs) to inform HIV prevention programs that engage PLH as prevention educators in their communities. We compared baseline characteristics of PLH enrolled in an intervention to become HIV prevention Change Agents (CAs) (n = 458) and 602 NMs they recruited. CAs and NMs responded to questionnaires through a computer-driven interface with Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) software. Although NMs scored higher on socio-economic status, self-esteem and general self-efficacy, they had lower HIV knowledge (AOR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), greater inconsistent condom use (AOR 3.2; 95% CI: 2.4-4.9), and recent experience as perpetrators of physical (AOR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2-5.1) or sexual (AOR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4-12.7) intimate partner violence; and as victims of physical (AOR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) or sexual (AOR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8) forms of violence than CAs. Higher HIV knowledge and lower sexual risk behaviors among CAs suggest PLH's potential as communicators of HIV prevention information to NMs. CAs' training should also focus on improving self-esteem, general self-efficacy and social support to increase their potential effectiveness as HIV prevention educators and enhance their own overall health and well-being.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Apoio Social , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239037, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a public health problem particularly in low- and middle-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with infant morbidity and mortality. Survivor of preterm suffers long term health consequences such as respiratory, hearing and visual problems as well as delivering preterm infants. Preterm birth also tends to recur in subsequent pregnancies. Little is known about recurrent rate of preterm birth and associated factors in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the recurrence rate of preterm birth and associated factors among women who delivered at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), in Northern Tanzania. METHODS: A historic cohort study was designed using maternally-linked data from KCMC medical birth registry. Women who delivered 2 or more singletons were included. A total of 5,946 deliveries were analysed. Recurrence of preterm birth and associated risk factors were estimated using multivariable log-binomial regression model with robust standard error to account for repeated births from the same mother. RESULTS: Overall recurrent rate of preterm birth was 24.4%. The recurrence of early preterm birth was higher compared to late preterm birth (26.2% vs. 24.2%). Similar pattern of recurrence was observed for spontaneous and medically indicated preterm birth (13.5% vs. 10.9%, respectively). Previous preterm birth (RR;1.85, 95% CI: 1.49, 2.31), preeclampsia (RR;1.46, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.00), long inter-pregnancy interval (RR;1.22, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49) and clinical subtypes (RR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.86) were important predictors for recurrent preterm birth. CONCLUSION: Recurrence of preterm birth remains higher in this population. The rate of preterm recurrence was dependent of gestational age and sub-clinical subtype. Other factors which were associated with recurrence of preterm birth were previous preterm birth, preeclampsia and long inter-pregnancy interval. Early identification of high risk women during prenatal period is warranted.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Adulto , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008625, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have intensified over the past decade. Field-survey data on STH prevalence, infection intensity and drug efficacy is necessary to guide the implementation of control programs and should be of the best possible quality. METHODOLOGY: During four clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against STHs in Brazil, Ethiopia, Lao PDR and Tanzania, quality control (QC) was performed on the duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the data entry. We analyzed datasets following QC on both fecal egg counts (FECs) and data entry, and compared the prevalence of any STH infection and moderate-to-heavy intensity (MHI) infections and the drug efficacy against STH infections. RESULTS: Across the four study sites, a total of 450 out of 4,830 (9.3%) Kato-Katz thick smears were re-examined. Discrepancies in FECs varied from ~3% (hookworms) to ~6.5% (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). The difference in STH prevalence and prevalence of MHI infections using the datasets with and without QC of the FECs did not exceed 0.3%, except for hookworm infections in Tanzania, where we noted a 2.2 percentage point increase in MHI infections (pre-QC: 1.6% vs. post-QC: 3.8%). There was a 100% agreement in the classification of drug efficacy of albendazole against STH between the two datasets. In total, 201 of the 28,980 (0.65%) data entries that were made to digitize the FECs were different between both data-entry clerks. Nevertheless, the overall prevalence of STH, the prevalence of MHI infections and the classification of drug efficacy remained largely unaffected. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In these trials, where staff was informed that QC would take place, minimal changes in study outcomes were reported following QC on FECs or data entry. Nevertheless, imposing QC did reduce the number of errors. Therefore, application of QC together with proper training of the personnel and the availability of clear standard operating procedures is expected to support higher data quality.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Qualidade , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Ascaris , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Guias como Assunto , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trichuris
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 609, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ratios of different immune cell populations (i.e., monocyte-to-lymphocyte, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios) have been studied as a means of predicting future tuberculosis (TB) disease risk or to assist in the diagnosis of incident TB disease. No studies to-date, however, have evaluated the potential of these ratios to predict or assist in the diagnosis of incident TB infection - the first step in the natural history of TB disease. METHODS: In this prospective study, we evaluated the complete blood count (CBC)-derived metrics of monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as predictors of future TB infection risk or aids in the diagnosis of TB infection among 145 Tanzanian adolescents enrolled in the DAR-901 vaccine trial, using paired CBCs and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) obtained at 0, 60 and 720 days after study enrollment. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences between study participants who remained persistently IGRA negative throughout the study period and those who subsequently converted to IGRA positive with respect to MLR (0.18 vs 0.17, p = 0.10), NLR (0.88 vs 1.02, p = 0.08), or PLR (115 vs 120, p = 0.28). Similarly, no significant differences were noted with respect to MLR, NLR, and PLR between IGRA converters and time-matched negative controls at the time of IGRA conversion. With respect to other blood cell measures, however, there were modest but significant differences between IGRA negatives and IGRA converters with respect to red blood cell count (4.8 vs 4.6 ×  106 cells/mcL, p = 0.008), hemoglobin (12.6 vs 12.3 g/dL, p = 0.01), and hematocrit (38.8 vs 37.8%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to prior studies that have suggested that the ratios of different immune cell populations are associated with development of TB disease, our present findings do not demonstrate an association between these ratios and the development of TB infection. However, decreased red blood cell measures were associated with the subsequent development of TB infection, suggesting either that dysregulation of iron metabolism may play a role in TB pathogenesis or that following TB infection, iron dysregulation may precede IGRA positivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02712424 . Date of registration: March 14, 2016.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Plaquetas , Linfócitos , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/microbiologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008288, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841229

RESUMO

In the absence of national control programmes against Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis, farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroid-based insecticides may be an effective strategy for foci at the edges of wildlife areas, but there is limited evidence to support this. We combined data on insecticide use by farmers, tsetse abundance and trypanosome prevalence, with mathematical models, to quantify the likely impact of insecticide-treated cattle. Sixteen percent of farmers reported treating cattle with a pyrethroid, and chemical analysis indicated 18% of individual cattle had been treated, in the previous week. Treatment of cattle was estimated to increase daily mortality of tsetse by 5-14%. Trypanosome prevalence in tsetse, predominantly from wildlife areas, was 1.25% for T. brucei s.l. and 0.03% for T. b. rhodesiense. For 750 cattle sampled from 48 herds, 2.3% were PCR positive for T. brucei s.l. and none for T. b. rhodesiense. Using mathematical models, we estimated there was 8-29% increase in mortality of tsetse in farming areas and this increase can explain the relatively low prevalence of T. brucei s.l. in cattle. Farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroids is likely, in part, to be limiting the spill-over of human-infective trypanosomes from wildlife areas.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Gado , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Modelos Teóricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Piretrinas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Moscas Tsé-Tsé
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008616, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853202

RESUMO

Podoconiosis is a type of tropical lymphedema that causes massive swelling of the lower limbs. The disease is associated with both economic insecurity, due to long-term morbidity-related loss of productivity, and intense social stigma. The geographical distribution and burden of podoconiosis in Africa are uncertain. We applied statistical modelling to the most comprehensive database compiled to date to predict the environmental suitability of podoconiosis in the African continent. By combining climate and environmental data and overlaying population figures, we predicted the environmental suitability and human population at risk of podoconiosis in Africa. Environmental suitability for podoconiosis was predicted in 29 African countries. In the year 2020, the total population in areas suitable for podoconiosis is estimated at 114.5 million people, (95% uncertainty interval: 109.4-123.9) with 16.9 million in areas suitable for both lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Of the total 5,712 implementation units (typically second administrative-level units, such as districts) defined by the World Health Organization in Africa, 1,655 (29.0%) were found to be environmentally suitable for podoconiosis. The majority of implementation units with high environmental suitability are located in Angola (80, 4.8%), Cameroon (170, 10.3%), the DRC (244, 14.7%), Ethiopia (495, 29.9%), Kenya (217, 13.1%), Uganda (116, 7.0%) and Tanzania (112, 6.8%). Of the 1,655 environmentally suitable implementation units, 960 (58.0%) require more detailed community-level mapping. Our estimates provide key evidence of the population at risk and geographical extent of podoconiosis in Africa, which will help decision-makers to better plan more integrated intervention programmes.


Assuntos
Elefantíase/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Angola/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Previsões , Geografia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008536, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804926

RESUMO

Culture-independent diagnostics have revealed a larger burden of Shigella among children in low-resource settings than previously recognized. We further characterized the epidemiology of Shigella in the first two years of life in a multisite birth cohort. We tested 41,405 diarrheal and monthly non-diarrheal stools from 1,715 children for Shigella by quantitative PCR. To assess risk factors, clinical factors related to age and culture positivity, and associations with inflammatory biomarkers, we used log-binomial regression with generalized estimating equations. The prevalence of Shigella varied from 4.9%-17.8% in non-diarrheal stools across sites, and the incidence of Shigella-attributable diarrhea was 31.8 cases (95% CI: 29.6, 34.2) per 100 child-years. The sensitivity of culture compared to qPCR was 6.6% and increased to 27.8% in Shigella-attributable dysentery. Shigella diarrhea episodes were more likely to be severe and less likely to be culture positive in younger children. Older age (RR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.81 per 6-month increase in age), unimproved sanitation (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.29), low maternal education (<10 years, RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.26), initiating complementary foods before 3 months (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.20), and malnutrition (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.95 per unit increase in weight-for-age z-score) were risk factors for Shigella. There was a linear dose-response between Shigella quantity and myeloperoxidase concentrations. The burden of Shigella varied widely across sites, but uniformly increased through the second year of life and was associated with intestinal inflammation. Culture missed most clinically relevant cases of severe diarrhea and dysentery.


Assuntos
Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/diagnóstico , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intestinos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Paquistão , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Shigella/genética , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity are major public health challenges among reproductive-age women of lower- and middle-income countries (including Tanzania). In those settings, obesogenic factors (attributes that promote excessive body weight gain) are increasing in the context of an existing high burden of undernutrition. The present study investigated factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania. METHODS: This study used 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 11735). To account for the hierarchical nature of the data (i.e., reproductive age women nested within clusters), multilevel multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between individual-level (socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural) and community-level factors with underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Reproductive age women who were informally employed (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 0.96), those who were currently married (RRR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.82) and those who used contraceptives (RRR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90) were less likely to be underweight. Reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.78, 3.03) and those who watched the television (RRR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.50) were more likely to be overweight. The risk of experiencing obesity was higher among reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.61), those who were formally employed (RRR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.98), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 4.77; 95% CI: 3.03, 7.50), those who used alcohol (RRR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.82) and/or watched the television (RRR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.13). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that relevant government jurisdictions need to identify, promote, and implement evidence-based interventions that can simultaneously address underweight and overweight/obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008508, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833959

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a leading cause of morbidity in Africa. Understanding the disease ecology and environmental factors that influence its distribution is important to guide control efforts. Geographic information systems have increasingly been used in the field of schistosomiasis environmental epidemiology. This study reports prevalences of Schistosoma haematobium infection and uses remotely sensed and questionnaire data from over 17000 participants to identify environmental and socio-demographic factors that are associated with this parasitic infection. Data regarding socio-demographic status and S. haematobium infection were obtained between May 2006 and May 2007 from 17280 participants (53% females, median age = 17 years) in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Combined with remotely sensed environmental data (vegetation cover, altitude, rainfall etc.) this data was analyzed to identify environmental and socio-demographic factors associated with S. haematobium infection, using mixed effects logistic regression and geostatistical modelling. The overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0-5.6%). Multivariable analysis revealed increased odds of infection for school-aged children (5-15 years, odds ratio (OR) = 7.8, CI: 5.9-10.4) and the age groups 15-25 and 25-35 years (15-25 years: OR = 5.8, CI: 4.3-8.0, 25-35 years: OR = 1.6, CI: 1.1-2.4) compared to persons above 35 years of age, for increasing distance to water courses (OR = 1.4, CI: 1.2-1.6 per km) and for proximity to Lake Nyasa (<1 km, OR = 4.5, CI: 1.8-11.4; 1-2 km, OR = 3.5, CI: 1.7-7.5; 2-4 km; OR = 3.3, CI: 1.7-6.6), when compared to distances >4 km. Odds of infection decreased with higher altitude (OR = 0.7, CI: 0.6-0.8 per 100 m increase) and with increasing enhanced vegetation index EVI (OR = 0.2, CI: 0.1-0.4 per 0.1 units). When additionally adjusting for spatial correlation population density became a significant predictor of schistosomiasis infection (OR = 1.3, CI: 1.1-1.5 per 1000 persons/km2) and altitude turned non-significant. We found highly focal geographical patterns of S. haematobium infection in Mbeya Region in Southwestern Tanzania. Despite low overall prevalence our spatially heterogeneous results show that some of the study sites suffer from a considerable burden of S. haematobium infection, which is related to various socio-demographic and environmental factors. Our results could help to design more effective control strategies in the future, especially targeting school-aged children living in low altitude sites and/or crowded areas as the persons at highest need for preventive chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose Urinária/complicações , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 557, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistance pathogens such as Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are of great global health concern, since they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Even in the absence of infections caused by these pathogens, colonization is a great threat and can lead to cross transfer among hospitalized patients. To date data on carriage of these pathogens is still limited in Tanzania. Therefore, this study aimed to determine ESBL-PE fecal carriage rate and associated factors among hospitalized patients at Referral hospitals in Dar es Salaam. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted from May to July 2017 among patients admitted in three referral hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Rectal swabs were collected and screened for ESBL production using MacConkey agar supplemented with Ceftazidime 2 µg/ml. Phenotypic confirmation of ESBL-PE was done by double disk diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPPS) software version 20. RESULTS: Of the 196 enrolled participants, 59.7% (117/196) were confirmed to carry ESBL-PE. Diarrheic patients (57/79) had statistically significant high prevalence of ESBL colonization compared to those without diarrhea (60/117) (p = 0.01). A total of 131 ESBL-PE were isolated from 117 patients, whereby, Escherichia coli accounted for 68.7%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 28.2% and Citrobacter species 0.8%. ESBL-PE carriage was significantly higher in patients with diarrhea compared to those without diarrhea (72% vs 53.1%, p = 0.01). Recent antibiotic use was independently associated with carriage of ESBL-PE (aOR 14.65, 95%CI 3.07-69.88, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-PE was observed in patients admitted in tertiary hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The use of antibiotics was associated with carriage of ESBL producers among the study population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 577, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant decline in the prevalence of HIV in Tanzania, the prevalence rates in Mbeya, Iringa, and Njombe regions are higher than the national average and have remained stable for years. The current stable HIV prevalence may be driven by factors such as a high incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high-risk behaviours. In sub-Saharan Africa, it has previously been observed that up to 50% of HIV cases were attributed to herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) among low-risk populations. Because the proportion of sexually transmitted HSV-1 is rising, it is essential to study the interaction between HSV-1 and HIV infections. METHODS: We conducted a study in Mbeya region using the archived blood sera of participants from the recently completed EU-funded EMINI project. A specially designed questionnaire was used to obtain the social and demographic characteristics of the study participants in the database. We tested archived participants' sera for herpes simplex virus type 1 using Virotech HSV-1 (gG1) IgG ELISA (Enzygnost, Behring, Germany). Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with HSV-1. RESULTS: A total of 640 adults were randomly recruited after stratification by HIV status (318 were HIV positive), age, and sex. The overall seroprevalence of HSV-1 in the study population was 92.1%. The extrapolated seroprevalence estimate of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the general population was 95.0% (96.0% in males versus 94.0% in females). Males and females were equally affected by HSV-1. HSV-1 was less prevalent in HIV-positive individuals than in HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSION: People living with HIV were less likely to be HSV-1 seropositive. Further prospective studies are necessary to conclude a causal association.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/sangue , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Herpes Simples/sangue , Herpes Simples/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/virologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 594, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of an effective Tuberculosis Routine Surveillance System in low-income countries like Tanzania is problematic, despite being an essential tool for the detection and effective monitoring of drug resistant tuberculosis. Long delays in specimen transportation from the facilities to reference laboratory and results dissemination back to the health facilities, result in poor patient management, particularly where multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease is present. METHODS: Following a detailed qualitative study, a pilot intervention of a revised Tuberculosis Routine Surveillance System was implemented in Mwanza region, Tanzania. This included the use of rapid molecular methods for the detection of both tuberculosis and drug resistance using Xpert MTB/RIF in some Mwanza sites, the use of Xpert MTB/RIF and Line Probe Assay at the Central Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, a revised communication strategy and interventions to address the issue of poor form completion. A before and after comparison of the intervention on the number of drug resistant tuberculosis cases identified and the time taken for results feedback to the requesting site was reported. RESULTS: The revised system for previously treated cases tested at the Central Reference Laboratory was able to obtain the following findings; the number of cases tested increased from 75 in 2016 to 185 in 2017. The times for specimen transportation from health facilities to the reference laboratory were reduced by 22% (from 9 to 7 days). The median time for the district to receive results was reduced by 36% (from 11 to 7 days). Overall the number of drug resistant tuberculosis cases starting treatment increased by 67% (from 12 to 20). CONCLUSION: Detection of drug resistance could significantly be enhanced, and delays reduced by introduction of new technologies and improved routine surveillance system, including better communication using mobile applications such as 'WhatsApp' and close follow-ups. A larger scale study is now merited to ascertain if these benefits are robust across different contexts.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Comunicação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
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