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1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 74-88, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556183

RESUMO

Herein, we describe several newly-collected specimens of Neopolystoma cf. orbiculare from the urinary bladder of 2 alligator snapping turtles, Macrochelys temminckii (Troost in Harland, 1835) (Cryptodira: Chelydridae Gray, 1831) from Comet Lake (30°35'46.94″N, 88°36'3.12″W), Pascagoula River, Mississippi. Our specimens differed from all previous descriptions of N. orbiculare and its junior subjective synonyms by the combination of having intestinal ceca adorned with triangular pockets and that terminate dorsal to the haptor, distinctive hooklets each having a handle and guard of approximately equal length and having a much longer and curved blade, 16 genital coronet spines that each possess 1-2 flanges per spine, pre-testicular vaginal pores, and vaginal ducts that are anterior to the junction of the oviduct and genito-intestinal canal. Some of our specimens were enantiomorphic (4 and 3 had a dextral and sinistral ovary, respectively). Nucleotide sequences (large subunit ribosomal DNA [28S], small subunit ribosomal DNA [18S], and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene [COI]) for our specimens were most similar to GenBank sequences ascribed to N. orbiculare. Single-gene and concatenated phylogenetic analyses confirmed that NeopolystomaPrice, 1939 is polyphyletic and that our isolates share a recent common ancestor with those ascribed to N. orbiculare. This is the first record of a polystomatid from Mississippi, from the Pascagoula River, and from the alligator snapping turtle (and only the second species of Neopolystoma reported from any snapping turtle).


Assuntos
Platelmintos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Lagos/parasitologia , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Platelmintos/anatomia & histologia , Platelmintos/genética , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Rios/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Bexiga Urinária/parasitologia
2.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 755-771, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326587

RESUMO

Sea turtles are difficult to sample because of their protected status; however, museum collections and sea turtle stranding networks provide unique opportunities for parasitological research. Four gastrointestinal tracts from stranded, endangered green turtles, Chelonia mydas, were collected between 1993 and 1995 from the upper Texas coast and opportunistically sampled for parasite fauna. Two new species of Telorchis, a common freshwater amphibian and reptilian intestinal parasite genus, were found and described. Telorchis marinus n. sp. differs from Telorchis mydas n. sp. by its short body length, lack of pharyngeal glands, long esophagus relative to total body length, short and straight cirrus sac, short ventral sucker to ovary length relative to total body length, and an ovary located in the anterior one-third of body; it differs from its congeners in the number of ovary lengths between the ventral sucker and ovary, the number of ventral sucker lengths the cirrus sac extends beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, and the vitelline field extent. Telorchis mydas differs from its congeners in the number of ovary lengths between the ventral sucker and ovary, the number of ventral sucker lengths the cirrus sac extends beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, and the combination of having its ovary position near the midbody and a long, sinuous cirrus sac that is 35-44% of the total body length. Given the taxonomic complexities within Telorchis, a revised key to North American species is provided using morphological characteristics to assist future researchers in delineating true species and appropriate synonymies with molecular explorations. We reject the majority of synonymies in the genus until molecular data are available; we accept the synonymies of Telorchis necturi as Telorchis stunkardi and Telorchis gutturosi as Telorchis chelopi. Both Telorchis linstowi and Telorchis stossichi should be considered as species inquirenda. This is the first confirmed report of Telorchis from a marine host and the first report on parasites of cheloniid sea turtles in Texas, and this study adds to the ever-growing evidence that collections are essential to understanding biodiversity.


Assuntos
Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Golfo do México/epidemiologia , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Água do Mar , Texas/epidemiologia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244760, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378394

RESUMO

Placobdelloides siamensis is a glossiphoniid leech with a short life cycle. In a laboratory setting, ten mature P. siamensis left their host (a turtle) after feeding for approximately three days and initiated copulation. The adults spent 3-4 days gestating before depositing eggs (272.8±62.9 eggs/clutch; range: 186-359 eggs/clutch). The eggs then changed from a creamy white to a creamy brownish color before hatching. Hatching occurred after incubation on the parent's ventral surface for 5-7 days. The transparent brood, with a single pair of red eyes, spent a couple of weeks under the venters of their parents. After this period, they left their parents and grew to maturity in 10-15 days; leeches were considered mature when their color was similar to that of their parents and they performed their first copulation. In addition, the mature leeches survived for 163 days on one feeding.


Assuntos
Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Animais , Tartarugas/parasitologia
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3459-3467, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677002

RESUMO

Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) was considered as a specific host of Placobdella costata (Fr. Mûller, 1846). However, since the parasite was recorded from outside the distribution area of its host, some authors suggested a possible relationship with other hosts. Although two accidental associations were found with another turtle, Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger, 1812), the obtained data remain insufficient to better understand this discovered host-parasite ecological system. In this context, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the Mediterranean pond turtle, M. leprosa, and the freshwater rhynchobdellid leech, P. costata (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae), in aquatic ecosystems of Morocco. During the period from April to June 2018, we found leeches attached to turtles in five out of 30 populations sampled with a prevalence of infection significantly higher in adult than that in juvenile turtles. Moreover, the males are the most infested with 51% of the total, followed by females (33.3%) and juveniles (15.7%). The obtained results indicated that 51 turtles were infested by 139 leeches with a mean intensity of infestation of 4.17 ± 0.47 leeches/turtle (up to 10 leeches/turtle). It was higher in males than that in females in almost all sites. The posterior limbs are the most preferred attachment site, and the body condition of turtles was not affected by the intensity of infestation but it is rather a function of altitude. Our findings proved that M. leprosa-P. costata association is more than accidental and that M. leprosa is rather the main host of P. costata in aquatic ecosystems of Morocco.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3315-3326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699938

RESUMO

Haemogregarina species are apicomplexan blood parasites infecting vertebrates such as fish, lizards, and turtles. Due to the high morphological similarity of the erythrocytic stages infecting host species, it has always been a challenge to identify the true diversity of these parasites. Therefore, taxonomic studies are presently based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. In Tunisia, two species of Haemogregarina have been reported within the freshwater turtle Mauremys leprosa (Geoemydidae) for more than 40 years. Since M. leprosa occurs in the same aquatic environments as Emys orbicularis (Emydidae) in Tunisia, our objectives were to assess parasite diversity and specificity on the basis of both morphological and molecular approaches. The turtles were surveyed and sampled across six aquatic areas of Tunisia. Among the 39 specimens of M. leprosa and seven of E. orbicularis that were trapped and investigated, the presence of haemogregarines was detected in the blood of turtles only at sites where leeches were observed. Three 18S variants were identified, which corresponded to three distinct Haemogregarina species, among which one was identified as Haemogregarina stepanowi. The two other species that were detected are likely new to science. Because we show the occurrence of more than one blood parasite species within a single host specimen, our study provides the first report of coinfection with molecularly distinct Haemogregarina spp.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Água Doce/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Sanguessugas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/classificação
6.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(4): 335-345, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583335

RESUMO

Enterohaematotrema Mehra, 1940 is emended herein based upon a review of the literature and a description of a new species (Enterohaematotrema triettruongi n. sp.) infecting yellow-headed temple turtles, Heosemys annandalii (Boulenger) (Cryptodira: Geoemydidae), in the Mekong River, Vietnam. The new species differs from the published descriptions of its congeners Enterohaematotrema palaeorticum Mehra, 1940 and Enterohaematotrema hepaticum (Simha, 1958) Simha & Chattopadhyaya, 1980 by having two distinctive oesophageal glands, a short and eversible cirrus (vs protrusive with 3 distinct processes), a dorsal common genital pore that is sinistral (vs ventral and medial), a transverse (vs longitudinal) external seminal vesicle, an oviducal seminal receptacle that is sinistral (vs dextral), and a vitellarium distributing from the caecal bifurcation (anterior to the ventral sucker) to the caecal tips (vs vitellarium not extending anteriad beyond ventral sucker in E. palaeorticum or vitellarium wholly posterior to the terminal genitalia in E. hepaticum). A phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D3 domains of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S) recovered Enterohaematotrema and Platt Roberts & Bullard, 2016 as sister taxa that share a recent common ancestor with the clade comprising Ruavermis Dutton & Bullard, 2020 and Coeuritrema Mehra, 1933. These flukes collectively comprise a monophyletic group of southeast Asian turtle blood flukes. This analysis also indicated that the massive, longitudinal metraterm of species of Enterohaematotrema and Uterotrema Platt & Pichelin, 1994 represents homoplasy (convergent evolution). The present study comprises the first morphological study of original specimens of any species of Enterohematotrema in more than 50 years and is the first molecular phylogenetic placement of the genus among the various turtle blood fluke lineages.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Schistosomatidae/classificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Rios , Schistosomatidae/anatomia & histologia , Schistosomatidae/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Vietnã
7.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(2): 263-283, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327035

RESUMO

Chelonians are increasingly challenged by anthropogenic threats and disease. This article summarizes recent literature and clinical experiences regarding 4 emerging infectious diseases in turtles and tortoises: ranaviruses, cryptosporidiosis, intranuclear coccodiosis of Testudines, and Emydomyces testavorans.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Répteis/microbiologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Onygenales/fisiologia , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Répteis/parasitologia , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 201, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have demonstrated the presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genomic material in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks feeding primarily on tortoises belonging to the genus Testudo. This raises the question if these ticks and their hosts play a role in the natural transmission dynamics of CCHFV. However, the studies are limited, and assessing the relevance of H. aegyptium in perpetuating the virus in nature, and a potential spillover to humans remains unknown. This study aimed to detect CCHFV in H. aegyptium ticks and their tortoise hosts in the East Thrace region of Turkey, where H. aegyptium is the most common human-biting tick and where a high density of tortoises of the genus Testudo can be found. METHODS: During the study period, 21 blood samples from different tortoises (2 T. hermanni and 19 T. graeca), 106 tick pools (containing 448 males, 152 females, 93 nymphs and 60 larvae) collected from 65 tortoises (5 T. hermanni and 60 T. graeca), 38 adult unfed questing ticks (25 males and 13 females, screened individually) and 14 pools (containing 8 nymphs and 266 larvae) of immature unfed questing ticks collected from the ground were screened for CCHFV genome by nested PCR and partial genomes sequenced. RESULTS: As a result of the screening of these 179 samples, 17 (9.5%) were detected as positive as follows: 2 of 21 blood samples (9.52%), 13 (containing 18 nymphs in 3 pools, and 52 males and 8 females in 10 pools) of 106 tick pools from tortoises (12.26%), and 2 of 38 adult questing ticks (5.26%). No positive result was determined in 14 pools of immature questing ticks. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies have shown that reptiles can participate in the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses, but they may contribute to different aspects of the disease ecology and evolution of tick-borne viral pathogens. Our results indicate the presence of CCHFV in questing and feeding H. aegyptium ticks as well as tortoise hosts. This may indicate that CCHFV circulates in a cryptic transmission cycle in addition to the primary transmission cycle that could play a role in the natural dynamic of the virus and the transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/transmissão , Carrapatos/virologia , Tartarugas/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/virologia , DNA Viral , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Turquia/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 52, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Spirorchiidae is a family of blood flukes parasitizing turtles. Spirorchiids may cause a wide range of inflammatory reactions in the vascular system of their host being frequently implicated with stranding and death of sea turtles worldwide. Recent studies revealed the presence of two spirorchiid species in the Mediterranean basin. Our study presents comparative epidemiological data of spirorchiid infections in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded during an eight-year period from Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas, and the first report of Neospirorchis Neogen-11 in a green turtle (Chelonia mydas). METHODS: We screened a total of 319 carcasses of loggerhead turtles stranded from January 2011 to December 2018 along the Tyrrhenian coast (n = 111) and the north-western Adriatic coast (n = 208) of Italy using traditional (copromicroscopy and histopathology) and molecular assays. Three green turtles from the Tyrrhenian coast were also included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 56 (17.5%) loggerhead turtles and one green turtle (33.3%) were found to be infected with spirorchiid flukes. Amplification, sequencing of the ITS2 region of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and BLAST analysis confirmed the presence of Hapalotrema mistroides and Neospirorchis Neogen-11 in 51 (16.0%) and 24 (7.5%) loggerhead turtles, respectively, and Neospirorchis Neogen-11 in an infected green turtle. Differences in prevalence of infection between the two sampling areas were found. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of spirorchiid infection in the Tyrrhenian Sea is lower than in the Adriatic Sea and in general the risk of infection in the Mediterranean is lower than in other geographical locations. Differences in the prevalence of infection between the two sampling areas were related to the differences of regional habitats supporting different abundance of spirorchiid intermediate hosts. A systematic monitoring to evaluate the progress of the infection is recommended, as well as studies on the occurrence and distribution of spirorchiid species from other Mediterranean areas.


Assuntos
Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Genes de Helmintos , Mar Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Patologia Molecular , Prevalência , RNA de Helmintos/genética , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 16, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasites of the family Spirorchiidae cause disease and mortality in marine and freshwater turtles; two species, Hapalotrema mistroides and Neospirorchis sp., are reported in the resident population of loggerhead turtles of the Mediterranean Sea, with the first being the most widespread. In vivo diagnosis of spirorchidiasis can represent a challenge in guaranteeing prompt control and treatment of the disease and is currently limited to copromicroscopy. The aim of this study was the development of a real time PCR assay with TaqMan probe for the detection of H. mistroides infection in the blood of live loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, hospitalized in rehabilitation centres. Its potential use for in vivo diagnosis is explored. RESULTS: The developed real time PCR successfully detected H. mistroides DNA from both positive controls and experimental blood samples of live loggerhead sea turtles, showing good specificity, sensitivity and good reaction efficiency. Two out of three turtles which had demonstrated positivity at copromicroscopy also tested positive to this blood assay; DNA of H. mistroides was detected within the blood of one sea turtle, which tested negative for copromicroscopy. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a specific and rapid molecular assay to detect H. mistroides infection from live sea turtles and highlights for the first time the presence of DNA of this species in turtle blood samples. Since this assay is able to detect low amounts of the parasitic free DNA in blood samples, its application could be helpful for in vivo diagnosis of H. mistroides infection as well as for epidemiological purposes.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Tartarugas/sangue
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 601-609, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754857

RESUMO

The Bellinger River snapping turtle (Myuchelys georgesi) is endemic to Australia and is confined to a highly restricted distribution in the Bellinger River in New South Wales. Routine veterinary health examinations of 17 healthy turtles were undertaken, along with the collection and analysis of blood samples, during conservation efforts to save the species following a catastrophic population decline. Microscopy analysis of blood films detected Haemoproteidae parasites that morphologically resembled Haemocystidium chelodinae inside turtle erythrocytes. Of the 17 turtles examined, 16 were positive for infection with H. chelodinae by both light microscopy and PCR. DNA sequencing of a partial fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene and phylogenetic analysis identified two different H. chelodinae-like genotypes. The phylogenetic relationship of H. chelodinae-like to other Haemoproteidae species based on cytb sequences grouped H. chelodinae-like into the reptile clade, but revealed the Haemocystidium genus to be paraphyletic as the clade also contained Haemoproteus, thus supporting a re-naming of Haemoproteus species from reptiles to Haemocystidium species. This study reports for the first time the genetic characterisation of H. chelodinae-like organisms isolated from a new Testudine host species, the Bellinger River snapping turtle. As evidence grows, further research will be necessary to understand the mode of transmission and to investigate whether these parasites are pathogenic to their hosts.


Assuntos
Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Citocromos b/genética , DNA de Protozoário , Feminino , Genes Mitocondriais , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Masculino , New South Wales , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 461-465, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574580

RESUMO

The dissemination of vector arthropods harbouring zoonotic pathogens through the uncontrolled transboundary trade of exotic and pet animals poses an important threat to Public Health. In the present report, we describe the introduction of pathogenic Rickettsia africae and R. aeschlimanni in ticks removed from imported tortoises in Qatar. A total of 21 ticks were collected from pet spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) from Doha, May 2018, and studied for species identification and characterization of Rickettsia spp. Morphological and molecular analysis of ticks allowed their identification as Hyalomma aegyptium. Molecular analysis of partial ompA and gltA genes showed that Rickettsia sequences found on these ticks clustered with sequences classified as R. aeschilimanii and R. africae. Since pre-adult stages of H. aegyptium also feed on humans, this tick species may play a role in the transmission of R. aeschilimanii and R. africae. We alert for the introduction of non-native pets as vehicles for tick importation, known vectors for animal and human pathogenic agents. Importation of exotic species into non-autochthonous countries deserves strict control to enforce robust surveillance and mitigate potential exotic diseases epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Catar/epidemiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Zoonoses
13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 77: 104050, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676445

RESUMO

Borrelia turcica, a member of the reptile-associated Borrelia clade, is vectored by Hyalomma aegyptium. The only suggested reservoir hosts of B. turcica are tortoises of the genus Testudo. Borrelia turcica has been described to occur in several Southeastern European countries including Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece but so far nothing is known about the relationship of these populations and whether or how they are structured. Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on eight chromosomally located housekeeping loci (clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB and uvrA) we analyzed 43 B. turcica isolates from Serres, Greece (n = 15) collected in 2017 and Izmir, Turkey (n = 28) collected in 2018. To understand their relationship a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree and goeBURST analysis were done based on MLST sequence data and allelic profiles, respectively. The data we generated confirmed that the samples of B. turcica investigated here were divergent from Lyme disease (LD) and relapsing fever (RF) species. Within the B. turcica clade, samples of different geographic origin (Greece, Turkey) clustered together in terminal branches; no obvious differences between the Greek and Turkish samples were noticeable. A goeBURST analysis using triple-locus variants revealed very few clonal complexes with the majority of samples appearing as singletons. Minor clonal complexes (consisting of two sequence types) comprised only Greek isolates, only Turkish isolates or both, so no pattern of clustering of isolates from the two geographical regions was observed. Interestingly, very little population structure was discerned in our study. This was surprising in view of the large geographic distance between collection sites of B. turcica and raises questions about the evolution or spatial spread of this species.


Assuntos
Borrelia/classificação , Genes Essenciais , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Grécia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Masculino , Filogenia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/veterinária , Turquia , Tartarugas/microbiologia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4679(1): zootaxa.4679.1.11, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715977

RESUMO

The genus Serpinema was erected from the genus Camallanus to include species parasitising freshwater turtles. Following this, the taxonomic status of Serpinema was challenged by different authors considering it as a subgenus or junior synonym of Camallanus. Several specimens of these nematodes were retrieved from the spot-legged wood turtle Rhinoclemmys punctularia from Cayenne, French Guiana. These specimens clearly differed from previously reported Serpinema and Camallanus species parasitising turtles by the number of caudal papillae, shape of spicules and development of vulvar lips. Based on morphological characters the nematodes were assigned to the genus Serpinema and described as a new species S. cayennensis n. sp. The description followed by the molecular data analyses based on 28S, 18S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Tartarugas , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Água Doce , Filogenia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3443-3447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720843

RESUMO

Galápagos giant tortoises are an essential component of their ecosystem and evaluation of parasites in their populations is essential for the management of conservation processes. Coccidiosis is the most common intestinal infection in free-living and captive reptiles. The aim of this study was to characterize molecularly the presence of Eimeria sp. in captive reared giant tortoises from Santa Cruz, Santiago, Española, and Pinzon Islands hatched and housed at the tortoise rearing center on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, by sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Galápagos. All samples were previously analyzed by coproparasitoscopic flotation technique and PCR for molecular identification. The results obtained by microscopy examination showed oocysts in all samples. PCR and sequencing indicated the presence Eimeria sp., showing a similarity percentage of 98% with Eimeria environmental. In conclusion, we identified a group of coccidia of the genus Eimeria sp. (MK909931) in Galápagos tortoises.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Ilhas
16.
J Parasitol ; 105(6): 827-839, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742484

RESUMO

Levisunguis subaequalis Curran, Overstreet, Collins & Benz, 2014 , was recently described from the lungs of the definitive hosts, softshell turtles, Apalone ferox (Schneider, 1783), and Apalone spinifera aspera (Agassiz, 1857) as well as the viscera of an intermediate host, the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard, 1853). However, the original account lacked molecular data. Furthermore, histological examination of infected host tissues in the original account of L. subaequalis did not reveal any pathological changes in the intermediate host. The present work provides a robust morphological description of the nymph and novel molecular data from the 18S and 28S ribosomal gene regions and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analysis with concatenated sequence data from these 3 regions, as well as each region individually, placed the turtle pentastomid L. subaequalis as a sister clade to the crocodilian pentastomids of the genus Sebekia Sambon, 1922. While only concatenated phylogenetic analyses agreed with the currently accepted classification of the Eupentastomida and phylogenetic signal assessment indicated that the concatenated data set yielded the most phylogenetic signal, data from more taxa are still needed for robust phylogenetic inferences to be made. The intensity of infection ranged from 2 to 171 nymphs per fish, compared with the highest previously reported intensity of 6. These high-intensity infections with L. subaequalis were characterized by the nymphs occupying 5-50% of the coelomic cavity of G. affinis. However, despite this heavy parasite infection, fish exhibited minimal pathology. Observed pathology was characterized by compression or effacement of organs adjacent to the nymphs, particularly liver, swim bladder, and intestines, as well as the formation of granulomas around shed pentastomid cuticles. Nonetheless, the morphological and molecular data provided in the present work will bolster future efforts to identify this pentastomid in other hosts where pathology may be present in addition to aiding in the advancement of the field of molecular pentastomid systematics.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Pentastomídeos/genética , Alabama/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Pulmão/parasitologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Ninfa/anatomia & histologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Pentastomídeos/anatomia & histologia , Pentastomídeos/classificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Tartarugas/parasitologia
17.
J Helminthol ; 94: e93, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581954

RESUMO

We describe Hedruris dratini n. sp. (Nematoda, Hedruridae) from Hydromedusa tectifera and Phrynops hilarii in Argentina based on morphological and molecular characters. Also, we provide information about its life cycle. The new species differs from other species of the genus by possessing the excretory pore, nerve ring and deirids at equal distance from the anterior end. Additionally, H. dratini n. sp. has mammilated eggs and males possess nine pairs of caudal papillae. The subadults and adults of H. dratini n. sp and H. orestiae were characterized by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S). We present for the first time a life cycle of a species of Hedruris that includes an amphipod as intermediate host and a reptile as definitive host. Furthermore, we analysed the host and geographic distribution of all Hedruris species. Although the genus has a cosmopolitan distribution and parasitizes a great host diversity, the majority of species have a Gondwanian distribution, with amphibians being the preferred hosts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Espirurídios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espirurídios/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Espirurídios/genética , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 370, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caretta caretta is the most abundant sea turtle species in the Mediterranean, and studies on this species have vastly expanded during recent years, including those investigating gut bacterial and parasitic communities. Members of these communities have been reported with variable prevalence and pathogenicity, mainly depending on their host and environment (e.g. lifespan, distribution, habitat, diet, health status and stressors). Indeed, many species commonly inhabiting the sea turtle gastrointestinal tract exhibit an opportunistic behaviour. This study aimed to provide baseline data on enterobacterial and parasitic composition, through bacteriological culture-based methods and the FLOTAC parasitological technique, in cloacal and faecal samples of 30 live Caretta caretta, examined upon their arrival at the Marine Turtle Research Centre (Portici, Italy). RESULTS: Enterobacteriaceae were isolated in 18/23 cloacal samples (78.3%), with Citrobacter and Morganella as the most common genera, followed by Proteus, Enterobacter, Providencia, and Hafnia. Parasitic elements were detected in 11/30 faecal samples (36.7%), with Enodiotrema, Rhytidodes, and Eimeria as most common genera, followed by Pachypsolus and Cymatocarpus. Additionally, Angiodyctium is reported for the first time in this host. The majority (47.8%) of sea turtles hosted exclusively Enterobacteriaceae, whereas 30.4% hosted both parasites and Enterobacteriaceae; the remaining 21.8% hosted neither of the agents. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria and parasites evaluated in the present study are common in Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles, with slight differences between the western and eastern basin. Although naturally present in the gastrointestinal system of free-living sea turtles, their relationship with these hosts might range from mutualism to parasitism. Indeed, members of the gut community might express their pathogenic potential in immune-compromised animals, such as those in rehabilitation facilities. Therefore, it is advisable to include in the standard work-up of rescued sea turtles a screening procedure for such opportunistic agents, in order to better evaluate the animal's health status and achieve timely intervention with appropriate treatment, thus improving rehabilitation. Furthermore, data collected from free-living sea turtles represent a starting point for investigating wild populations. However, further studies are needed to clarify the differences between sea turtle's normal gut microbiome and pathobiome.


Assuntos
Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Cloaca/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Itália
19.
J Parasitol ; 105(5): 671-685, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566518

RESUMO

Herein we describe a new species of turtle blood fluke (TBF) and propose a new genus to accommodate it, Pitiutrema revelae n. gen., n. sp. This blood fluke infects the heart of six-tubercled Amazon River turtles (Podocnemis sextuberculata [Cornalia, 1849] [Pleurodira: Podocnemididae]) in the headwaters of the Amazon River near Iquitos, Peru. It resembles the other 2 described species of South American freshwater TBFs (Atamatam amazoniensis Bullard and Roberts, 2019, and Paratamatam iquitosiensis Bullard and Roberts, 2019) by having a dorsoventrally flattened and ovoid body, an oral sucker with anteroventral spines, 2 inter-cecal testes arranged in a column, inter-gonadal terminal genitalia, an inter-cecal and post-ovarian Laurer's canal pore, and a Y-shaped excretory bladder. It differs from all other nominal TBFs by having the combination of an aspinose body that lacks mammillae, a tapered (not broadly rounded) posterior body end, a ventral sucker, slightly M-shaped or inverse U-shaped ceca, a deeply-lobed (dendritic) ovary, a transverse uterus, and a dispersed vitellarium. The new genus is further unique among TBF genera by having an anterior to posterior sequence of ventral sucker, anterior testis, ovary, cirrus sac (lateral to posterior half of ovary), and posterior testis. The phylogenetic results and placement of the new taxon (1) were both predicted by our morphological diagnosis and comparisons with related taxa, (2) further indicated monophyly of the nominal South American freshwater TBFs, (3) reaffirmed the marine derived lineage identity of the nominal South American freshwater TBFs, and (4) highlighted that the single cercarial sequence (TBF sp. W-810) from an ampullariid in Brazil does not share a recent common ancestor with any of the nominal South American freshwater TBFs. The new species is the eighth TBF reported from a side-necked turtle (Pleurodira), the first TBF from a member of Podocnemididae, and the third freshwater TBF from South America.


Assuntos
Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Peru , Filogenia , Rios , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0218838, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490927

RESUMO

There is a wealth of published information on the epibiont communities of sea turtles, yet many of these studies have exclusively sampled epibionts found only on the carapace. Considering that epibionts may be found on almost all body-surfaces and that it is highly plausible to expect different regions of the body to host distinct epibiont taxa, there is a need for quantitative information on the spatial variation of epibiont communities on turtles. To achieve this, we measured how total epibiont abundance and biomass on olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea varies among four body-areas of the hosts (n = 30). We showed that epibiont loads on olive ridleys are higher, both in terms of number and biomass, on the skin than they are on the carapace or plastron. This contrasts with previous findings for other hard-shelled sea turtles, where epibionts are usually more abundant on the carapace or plastron. Moreover, the arguably most ubiquitous epibiont taxon for other hard-shelled sea turtles, the barnacle Chelonibia spp., only occurred in relatively low numbers on olive ridleys and the barnacles Stomatolepas elegans and Platylepas hexastylos are far more abundant. We postulate that these differences between the epibiont communities of different sea turtle taxa could indicate that the carapaces of olive ridley turtles provide a more challenging substratum for epibionts than do the hard shells of other sea turtles. In addition, we conclude that it is important to conduct full body surveys when attempting to produce a holistic qualitative or quantitative characterization of the epibiont communities of sea turtles.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Simbiose , Thoracica/fisiologia , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Costa Rica , Thoracica/patogenicidade , Tartarugas/parasitologia
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