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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 317: 108972, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is an epidemic disease with increased incidence annually. It has been reported that taurine can improve cardiac function. This study investigated the cardioprotective effects of taurine in pressure-loaded HF mice and elucidated the possible mechanism. METHODS: HF models were established by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Animals were treated with either taurine for 9 weeks and/or the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 (5 mg/kg/day, every 2days) after TAC operation. Cardiac function and geometry were revealed by echocardiography. Myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis were assessed using Fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining and Masson's trichrome staining. Western blot and RT-PCR were performed to elucidate the expression of target proteins and genes respectively. Apoptosis in cardiomyocytes was detected by TUNEL staining. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by detecting the concentration of myocardial super oxidative dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taurine concentrations and NAD+/NADH ratio were determined by taurine and NAD+/NADH assay kit. RESULTS: Taurine notably relieved cardiac dysfunction after TAC. The mechanisms were attributed to reduced myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis, and alleviated apoptosis and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, taurine increased NAD+/NADH ratio,promoted the expression of SIRT1 and suppressed p53 acetylation. However, EX-527(inhibitor of SIRT1) decreased NAD+/NADH ratio and increased acetyl-p53 levels, and abolished the cardioprotective effects of taurine on mice subjected to TAC and increased apoptosis and oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: The mechanism responsible for cardiac-protective effects of taurine in HF induced by pressure overload is associated with the activation of the SIRT1-p53 pathway.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ligadura , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
2.
J Med Life ; 12(3): 290-295, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666833

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to scrutiny the Dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with PICS with 2nd type DM against the background of Taurine (TN) and meldonium (ME). The results of the investigations prove the decrease of the oxidative stress, which is basis of DACN, under the influence of sulfur-containing amino acid taurine (TN), and meldonium (ME) - a competitive inhibitor of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Biochemical mechanisms of synergistic action of ME and TN are also described. The results of the studies of 98 patients with PICS and concomitant 2nd type diabetes mellitus were analyzed. They were distributed by simple randomization method into two groups, comparable according to age and sex: the main group (MG) (n = 68): and group of comparison (GoC) (n = 30). HRV was evaluated twice daily at the Cardiosense HMEGG system: at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. For the assessment of HRV the frequency and spectral parameters were used. While evaluating the different methods of treatment, their influence on the range of spectral and time indices of HRV was determined (p = 0.001 by the criterion of Kruskall-Wallis). It was learned that the combined application of ME and TN gives a statistically significant (p <0.01) increase of SDNN, HF at night, pNN - on 50% by day (p <0.01, p <0.001 and p <0.01 respectively), and statistically significant decrease in LF at night, compared to GHG.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Metilidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Taurina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metilidrazinas/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taurina/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570558

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic helminth disease that can cause severe inflammatory pathology, leading to organ damage, in humans. During a schistosomal infection, the eggs are trapped in the host liver, and products derived from eggs induce a polarized Th2 cell response, resulting in granuloma formation and eventually fibrosis. Previous studies indicated that the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis and that taurine could ameliorate hepatic granulomas and fibrosis caused by Schistosoma japonicum infection. Nevertheless, the precise role and molecular mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the protective effects of taurine in S. japonicum infection have not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the hepatoprotective mechanism of taurine in schistosoma-induced liver injury in mice. NLRP3 deficiency ameliorated S. japonicum-infection-induced hepatosplenomegaly, liver dysfunction, and hepatic granulomas and fibrosis; it also reduced NLRP3-dependent liver pyroptosis. Furthermore, taurine suppressed hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mice with S. japonicum infections, thereby inhibiting the activation of downstream inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1ß and subsequent pyroptosis. Our results suggest that the TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and mediating pyroptosis are involved in S. japonicum-induced liver injury and may be a potential therapeutic target for schistosomiasis treatment. In addition, taurine may be useful to alleviate or to prevent the occurrence of schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/imunologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Tiorredoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/parasitologia , Cirrose Hepática/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Piroptose/imunologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
4.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1221-1229, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370112

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a causative pathogen of tuberculosis (TB), still threatens human health worldwide. To find a novel drug to eradicate this pathogen, we tested taurine-5- bromosalicylaldehyde Schiff base (TBSSB) as an innovative anti-mycobacterial drug using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a surrogate model for M. tuberculosis. We investigated the antimicrobial activity of TBSSB against M. smegmatis by plotting growth curves, examined the effect of TBSSB on biofilm formation, observed morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and detected differentially expressed proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. TBSSB inhibited mycobacterial growth and biofilm formation, altered cell ultrastructure and intracellular content, and inhibited cell division. Furthermore, M. smegmatis adapted itself to TBSSB inhibition by regulating the metabolic pathways and enzymatic activities of the identified proteins. NDMA-dependent methanol dehydrogenase, NAD(P)H nitroreductase, and amidohydrolase AmiB1 appear to be pivotal factors to regulate the M. smegmatis survival under TBSSB. Our dataset reinforced the idea that Schiff base-taurine compounds have the potential to be developed as novel anti-mycobacterial drugs.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium smegmatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium smegmatis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium smegmatis/ultraestrutura , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Taurina/farmacologia
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(9)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462007

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), used as a therapy in various diseases and abused in sports, are atherogenic in supraphysiological administration, altering the plasma lipid profile. Taurine, a conditionally-essential amino acid often used in dietary supplements, was acknowledged to delay the onset and progression of atherogenesis, and to mitigate hyperlipidemia. The aim of the present study was to verify if taurine could prevent the alterations induced by concomitant chronic administration of high doses of AAS nandrolone decanoate (DECA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats, assigned to 4 equal groups, were treated for 12 weeks either with DECA (A group), taurine (T group), both DECA and taurine (AT group) or vehicle (C group). Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hepatic triglycerides (TGh) and liver non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were then determined. Results: DECA elevated TG level in A group vs. control (p = 0.01), an increase prevented by taurine association in AT group (p = 0.04). DECA decreased HDL-C in A group vs. control (p = 0.02), while taurine tended to increase it in AT group. DECA decreased TGh (p = 0.02) in A group vs. control. Taurine decreased TGh in T (p = 0.004) and AT (p < 0.001) groups vs. control and tended to lower NEFA (p = 0.08) in AT group vs. A group. Neither DECA, nor taurine influenced TC and LDL-C levels. Conclusions: Taurine partially prevented the occurrence of DECA negative effects on lipid profile, suggesting a therapeutic potential in several conditions associated with chronic high levels of plasma androgens, such as endocrine disorders or AAS-abuse.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Decanoato de Nandrolona/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
Amino Acids ; 51(9): 1337-1351, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428912

RESUMO

The application of high concentrations of taurine induces long-lasting potentiation of synaptic responses and axon excitability. This phenomenon seems to require the contribution of a transport system with a low affinity for taurine. The prototypic taurine transporter TauT (SLC6A6) was discarded by experimental evidence obtained in TauT-KO mice. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1; SLC36A1) which is a transport system with low affinity and high capacity for a great variety of amino acids including taurine, contributes to the taurine-induced synaptic potentiation. In rat hippocampal slices, the application of several amino acids (L- and D-alanine, L-glutamine, ß-guanidinopropionic acid, glycine, L-histidine, L- and D-serine, sarcosine, L- and D-threonine) imitated the synaptic potentiation induced by taurine. The magnitude of the potentiation caused by some of these amino acids was even greater than that induced by taurine. By contrast, the application of other amino acids (L-arginine, betaine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L- and D-proline, and L-valine) did not induce potentiation. The behaviour of these different amino acids on synaptic potentiation is not compatible with a role of PAT1 in synaptic potentiation. There was a positive correlation between the accumulation of the different amino acids in the slice and the magnitude of synaptic potentiation induced by them. Some of the amino acids inducing synaptic potentiation, like taurine and L-threonine, also increased electrical resistance of the slice, whereas L-leucine did not modify this parameter. Modifications induced by either taurine or L-threonine in synaptic potentiation, slice resistance and amino acid accumulation were dependent on extracellular chloride concentration. These findings support the idea that the accumulation of amino acids throughout the action of transporters causes cell swelling enhancing the electrical resistance of the slice, which by itself could be sufficient to increase field synaptic potentials.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Simportadores/metabolismo , Potenciais Sinápticos , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Impedância Elétrica , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Taurina/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Treonina/metabolismo , Treonina/farmacologia
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 13-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468382

RESUMO

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid which has strong activities in enhancing immunity. Gut microbiota is closely interrelated with intestinal mucosal immunity, but the effects and mechanisms of taurine on intestinal microbiota and mucosal immune cells under an immunosuppressive condition remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on gut microbiota and immune cells in Peyer's patches (PPs) of dexamethasone (Dex)-induced immunosuppressive mice. Mice (4-week-old, Male) were randomly divided into three groups: the Control group (n = 12), the Dex-induced immunosuppressive model group (n = 12) and the taurine intervention group (n = 12). The model was established by Dex injection for 7 days and the taurine intervention group was gavaged 100 mg/kg soluble taurine for 30 days. The changes of intestinal microbiota and immune cells in PPs were tested by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and flow cytometry, respectively. Results showed that the microbiota in immunosuppressive mice was obvious different compared with control group, in which, the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae groups were significantly reduced, and their reduction were reversed after taurine intervention. Compared to the control group, the total cell number in PPs, as well as the subsets of CD3+ cells (T cells), CD19+ cells (B cells) in model groups were significantly lower, and they were dramatically improved after taurine treatment. Our results suggested that taurine has a positive effect on i ntestinal homeostasis of the immunosuppressive mice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância Imunológica , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 25-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468383

RESUMO

Most studies of taurine on athletic performance have been conducted at acute and high doses in rodents. These doses and duration of administration are not reasonable for normal human life. Thus, it is not valid to extrapolate these animal results to people. Dose and duration that mimic human use of taurine in normal life can help to clarify the taurine effect in humans. This study investigated whether long-term, low-dose taurine (2% taurine drinking water for 25 weeks), similar to normal taurine intake in humans, can affect endurance exercise and body composition. Twenty ICR mice were divided into two groups. The control group received normal drinking water, and the taurine treated group received 2% taurine drinking water for 25 weeks. The mice were evaluated for body composition by mass and for physical strength by treadmill exhaustion and suspension tests. The supply of chronic 2% taurine drinking water has a slight effect on weight gain. In body composition analysis, a slight increase in body weight was due to an increase in muscle mass, not an increase in body fat. However, taurine ingestion did not increase endurance exercise. In conclusion, these results indirectly suggest that acute, high-dose taurine treatment is better than long-term, low-dose treatment to increase athletic performance.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Força Muscular , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Teste de Esforço , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Condicionamento Físico Animal
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 61-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468386

RESUMO

Taurine is an abundant sulfur-containing amino acid in myeloid cells. It undergoes halogenation in activated phagocytes and is converted to taurine chloramine (TauCl) and taurine bromamine. Bone homeostasis is mediated by the balance between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing multinucleated cells differentiated from monocyte/macrophage precursor cells in response to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). In this study, we investigated the effect of TauCl on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis from RAW 264.7 macrophages. TauCl inhibited the formation of multi-nucleated osteoclast and the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). TauCl decreased the mRNA expression of osteoclast markers, such as TRAP, cathepsin K, and calcitonin receptor. TauCl also inhibited expression of the transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells, which are important for osteoclast differentiation. These results suggest that TauCl might be used as a therapeutic agent to treat bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Camundongos , Ligante RANK/fisiologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/fisiologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 71-85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468387

RESUMO

This study has evaluated the effects of a supplementation with taurine (TAU) on the actions of fish oil (FO) against the hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, and hepatic accumulation of lipids and liver damage caused by D-galactosamine (GAL) in the rat. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-225 g), in groups of 6, were orally treated with physiological saline (2.5 mL, control group), FO (60 mg/kg), TAU (2.4 mmol/kg) or FO-TAU for three consecutive days and before a single oral dose of GAL (400 mg/kg) given on day 3. In parallel, rats receiving only GAL on day 3 or N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 2.4 mmol/kg) for 3 days before GAL served as controls. On day 4 blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and used to either measure glucose (GLC) or to obtain plasma fractions. Immediately thereafter, the livers were excised, made into a homogenate in phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4, and centrifuged to obtain clear supernatant. Plasma samples were assayed for their total protein (TP), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), phospholipids (PLP), free fatty acids (FFA) and total bilirubin (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB) contents, and for the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The liver homogenates were used to measure TG, CHOL, PLP and total lipids (TL) contents. Without exceptions, GAL was found to markedly affect (p < 0.001) all of the experimental parameters examined, with increases occurring in all instances except for the values of the plasma GLC, TP and PLP which were decreased. A pretreatment with either FO or TAU led to significant attenuation of the effects of GAL and which, in most cases, were of similar magnitude. On the other hand, a combined pretreatment with FO plus TAU usually resulted in a greater protection than with either agent alone (p ≤ 0.05). NAC, serving as a reference treatment, was, in most instances, equipotent with FO alone and. in addition, was the only agent that significantly attenuated the increases in both liver weight and liver weight to body weight ratio caused by GAL.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Galactosamina/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 87-99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468388

RESUMO

The present study has investigated the effect of adding taurine (TAU) to a treatment of diabetes with metformin (MET), a hypoglycemic, and lovastatin (LOV), an antihyperlipidemic. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats, agent, 250-275 g in weight, were made diabetic with a single 60 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of streptozocin (STZ) in 10 mM citrate buffer pH 4.5, and, after 14 days, treated daily with oral doses of MET (2.4 mM/kg), LOV (0.075 mM/kg) or TAU (2.4 mM/kg), and with binary and ternary combinations of these agents. Rats receiving only 10 mM citrate buffer pH 4.5 or only STZ served as negative and positive controls, respectively. In addition, rats receiving insulin (INS, 4 units/kg) by the subcutaneous route served as a reference treatment. All the rats were sacrificed on day 57 and their bloods collected into heparinized tubes. The corresponding plasma samples were analyzed for their glucose (GLC), insulin (INS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TG) contents. In comparison to normal rats, diabetic ones showed marked increases in GLC (+313%), HbA1c (+207%), CHOL (+66%) and TG (+188) and a profound decrease of INS levels (-76%) (p < 0.001 vs. control values). Among the various treatments, one with INS produced the greatest lowering effect on the plasm a GLC (+23%, p < 0.05), INS (+23%, p < 0.05) and TG (+3%), with the remaining changes being similar to those seen with MET. A treatment with MET reduced all the diabetic changes by at least threefold; and one with LOV had a significant (p < 0.001) lowering effect on the plasma CHOL and TG but was without an effect on the plasma GLC, INS and HbA1c. In common with LOV, TAU reduced the diabetic levels of both CHOL and TG and, in addition, reduced the diabetic plasma GLC and raised the corresponding INS level. Among binary combinations, one with LOV-MET provided a greater effect than MET alone only in terms of the plasma CHOL and TG; and one with LOV-TAU was only significantly better than TAU alone in lowering the TG levels. However, a treatment with LOV-MET-TAU led to reductions in all the plasma parameters examined that were much greater than those achieved with any of the individual agents or with their binary combinations (at p ≤ 0.05).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lovastatina/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia , Carboidratos/sangue , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 101-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468389

RESUMO

Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar intake from weaning onward worsen cardiac damage and arterial pressure control after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in adult male and female rats, which can be ameliorated by high taurine diets or inhibition of renin-angiotensin system. This study tests if taurine supplementation ameliorates cardiac damage and arterial pressure control in adult female rats via alterations of both cardiac and systemic renin-angiotensin system. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and drank water alone (control, C) or water containing 3% beta-alanine (taurine depletion, TD) from conception to weaning, and female offspring were subjected to high sugar intake (normal rat chow and 5% glucose in water; CG and TDG) or the normal rat diet (CW and TDW). At 7 weeks of age, half of the rats in each group received 3% taurine in water (CW+T, CG+T, TDW+T, and TDG+T). One week later, rats were subjected to IR or Sham procedures followed by renal nerve recording, plasma and cardiac angiotensin II measurements. Cardiac angiotensin II levels significantly elevated in CG, TDW, and TDG. Further, plasma angiotensin II concentrations were significantly elevated only in the TDG, in consistent with a significant increase in renal nerve activity to juxtaglomerular cells, but not renal vessels and tubules. These abnormalities were ameliorated by short-term taurine supplementation. Thus, in adult female rats that are perinatally depleted of taurine followed by high sugar intake after weaning, taurine supplementation decreases the adverse effects of cardiac IR via inhibition of both cardiac and systemic renin-angiotensin system overactivity.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Taurina/deficiência
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 119-131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468391

RESUMO

Excessive consumption causes alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which injures hepatocytes and induces imbalance of lipid metabolism. Taurine is known to protect the liver from various liver injuries, and relieve lipid profile. Our previous studies also found that taurine can prevent or cure ALD, reduce fat deposition, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, ALD rat model was established by administration of alcohol, pyrazole and high fat diet. Two percent taurine was administered at the same time or after ALD model establishment. Serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum and hepatic TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed. Real-Time RT-PCR was conducted to detect the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthetase (FAS), acetyl-CoA catboxylase (ACC), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl glutaric acid acyl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), peroxisome proliferators activated receptor α (PPARα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). The results showed that serum ALT, AST, serum and hepatic TC, TG and LDL-C were higher, while HDL-C in ALD model rats was lower than normal rats, the changes of which can be significantly relieved by taurine administration. mRNA expressions of ACC, FAS, CPT-1, HMGCR, PPARα and SREBP-1c which were significantly changed by ethanol can also be regulated by taurine. The results indicated that taurine can prevent and repair hepatic injury of ALD rats and balance lipid metabolism indexes in the liver, the mechanisms may involves in the regulation of related enzymes and transcriptional regulators participated in lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Ratos
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 133-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468392

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a lifestyle-related disease caused by high nutrient condition and lack of exercise. The insulin resistance due to obesity has attracted attention as an underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance refers to reduced insulin sensitivity in insulin target tissues. In this case, in order to maintain normal blood glucose levels, a compensatory large amount of insulin is released, leading to the occurrence of hyperinsulinemia. Taurine is widely distributed in animal tissues. Although it is not involved in protein synthesis, taurine plays an important role in maintaining the body's physiological function. In this experiment, insulin resistance model was induced by high fat and high sugar diet. Two percent taurine was added in drinking water to explore the mechanism of taurine in insulin resistance and to provide theoretical basis for using taurine to improve insulin resistance. The result showed that high-fat and high-sugar diet could decrease insulin sensitivity, and taurine could improve it by oral glucose tolerance test. Moreover, serum TG, TC were higher, while HDL-C in rats fed with high sugar and high fat diet was lower than normal rats, the changes of which can be significantly relieved by 2% taurine administration. mRNA and protein expressions of IRS1, and GLUT4 which were significantly changed by high sugar and high fat diet can also be regulated by 2% taurine. The results indicated that taurine can improve insulin sensitivity through remediating lipid metabolism disorder and regulating the expressions of IRS and GLUT4.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ratos
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 147-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468393

RESUMO

It has been confirmed by our laboratory that taurine could decrease uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and regulate the expressions of some urate transporters. The present study aims to investigate the effects of taurine on uric acid uptake in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). The cell growth inhibition rate was measured by MTS assay, which was up to 50% after treatment with 1.5 mmol/L uric acid. After administration of 15 mmol/L taurine, the inhibition rate and uric acid uptake were both significantly decreased. Then the HK-2 cells were grouped as follows: control group (C); model group (M), in which 1.5 mmol/L uric acid was added to the medium; taurine group (MT), in which 1.5 mmol/L uric acid and 15 mmol/L taurine were added to the medium; and taurine control group (T), in which 15 mmol/L taurine was added to the medium. The mRNA and protein expression levels of URAT1 and GLUT9 were measured by real-time PCR and western-blot. The results showed that URAT1 and GLUT9 mRNA/protein expression levels in group M were significantly increased compared with group C, and they were both down-regulated in MT group. In addition, the expression levels of these two transporters in group T were significantly lower than group C. The results indicated that taurine could inhibit uric acid uptake and down-regulate the expressions of URAT1 and GLUT9 in HK-2 cells.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 155-162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468394

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked dominant disorder and the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. It is caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) at the Xq27.3. The expansion blocks expression of the gene product, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). The syndrome includes mild to moderate mental retardation and behavioral manifestations such as tactile defensiveness, gaze avoidance, repetitive motor mannerisms, perseverative (repetitive) speech, hyperarousal and it frequently includes seizures. This behavioral phenotype overlaps significantly with autism spectrum disorder. The knockout mice lack normal Fmr1 protein and show macro-orchidism, learning deficits, and hyperactivity. Consequently, this knockout mouse may serve as a valuable tool in the elucidation of the physiological role of FMR1 and the mechanisms involved in macroorchidism, abnormal behavior, abnormalities comparable to those of human fragile X patients. In this study we evaluated the effects of taurine on the testicular physiology to better understand the cellular mechanisms underlying macro-orchidism. We found that there was a significant decrease in the number of Leydig cells in the testis of fragile X mouse. Furthermore, the expression of somatostatin was drastically decreased and differential expression pattern of CDK5 in fragile X mouse testis. In the control testis, CDK is expressed in primary and secondary spermatids whereas in the Fmr1 ko mice CDK 5 is expressed mainly in spermatogonia. Taurine supplementation led to an increase in CDK5 expression in both controls and Ko mice. CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinases) are a group of serine/threonine protein kinases activated by binding to a regulatory subunit cyclin. Over 20 functionally diverse proteins involved in cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, transport, and membrane trafficking act as CDK5 substrates elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CDK5 function. CDK5 phosphorylates a diverse list of substrates, implicating it in the regulation of a range of cellular processes. CDK5 is expressed in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and peritubular cells indicating a role in spermatogenesis. In this study we examined the expression levels of CDK5 and how it is affected by taurine supplementation in the testes and found that taurine plays an important role in testicular physiology and corrected some of the pathophysiology observed in the fragile x mouse testis.


Assuntos
Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Taurina/farmacologia , Testículo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 163-172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468395

RESUMO

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a sulfur-containing ß-amino acid, is a free amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. Taurine has pivotal roles in anti-oxidation, membrane stabilization, osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, and other process. In a DNA microarray analysis, we previously found that taurine markedly increases the mRNA expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of these taurine-induced changes in TXNIP on the function of Caco-2 cells. We found that taurine decreases glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. The taurine-induced decrease in glucose uptake was completely abolished by transfection with siRNA against TXNIP, suggesting that TXNIP is involved in the taurine-induced down-regulation of glucose uptake. We also revealed that taurine induces AMPK activation and further increases the intracellular ATP content in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that taurine could regulate the function of Caco-2 cells via TXNIP induction, leading to extend our understanding of the functions of taurine.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 173-182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468396

RESUMO

Taurine plays an important role in the modulation of cardiovascular function by acting not only within the brain but also within peripheral tissues. We found that IV injection of taurine to male rats caused hypotension and tachycardia. A single injection of taurine significantly lowered the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure blood pressure in freely moving long Evans control rats. Previousely, we found that the endothelial cells express high levels of taurine transporters and GABAA receptors and showed that taurine activates GABAA receptors. Thus we suggest that the functional implication of GABAA receptors activation is the relaxation of the arterial muscularis, vasodilation and a decrease in blood pressure. Interestingly however, the effects of acute taurine injection were very different that chronic supplementation of taurine. When rats were supplemented taurine (0.05%, 4 weeks) in their drinking water, taurine has significant hypertensive properties. The increase in blood pressure was observed however only in females, males supplemented with taurine did not show an increase in systolic, diastolic or mean arterial pressure. In both genders however, taurine supplementation caused a significant tachycardia. Thus, we suggest that acute administration of taurine may be beneficial to lowering blood pressure. However, our data indicate that supplementation of taurine to females caused a significant increase in blood pressure. It remains to be seen the effect of taurine supplementation on hypertensive rats.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Sexuais , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Masculino , Ratos , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 185-196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468397

RESUMO

In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-stress activities of taurine in electric foot-shock stress model rats. Taurine supplementation markedly increased the hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, compared to the levels in the stress group. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were improved in the taurine-treated group. Plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels were significantly reduced in the taurine-supplemented group compared to those in the stress group. In contrast, the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were markedly increased in the taurine or betaine-treated group compared to those in the stress group. It may be concluded that taurine produces beneficial effects in the form of antioxidant status and biochemical alterations in foot-shock-induced acute stress in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estimulação Elétrica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina/sangue
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 197-203, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468398

RESUMO

It is well known that a large quantity of taurine is present in mammalian ovaries. Taurine reportedly promotes the secretion of female reproductive hormones by stimulating hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis function. Therefore, we speculated that taurine may have beneficial effects on follicle growth, oocyte maturation, fertilization and cleavage. Here, we cultured rat follicles, immature oocytes and sperms in vitro and treated with taurine to observe the changes in follicle diameter, estradiol concentration as well as the rate of oocytes maturation, fertilization and cleavage using an inverted microscope. The results showed that taurine can elevate ovarian follicles growth and oocyte maturation, fertilization, and cleavage rates in vitro, which may be attributed to its osmoregulation and stimulation on the estradiol secretion. Our results provide important insights into taurine application in female production, although the underlying mechanism need to be further addressed.


Assuntos
Oócitos/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estradiol , Feminino , Ratos
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