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2.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 738-750, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827359

RESUMO

A common belief is that high intensity exercise (>60%VO2max) is best sustained by high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. The belief is based, in part, on an idea developed by Krogh and Lindhard in 1920. In the 100 years since, few studies have tested its validity. We tested the null hypothesis that performance in competitive recreational athletes exercising at >80% VO2max, during simulated 5-km running time trials (5KTT) would be impaired during a 6-week period of adaption to a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet, compared to their performances when they ate a diet higher in carbohydrate and lower in fat (HCLF). Seven male athletes (age 35.6 ± 8.4 years, height 178.7 ± 4.1 cm, weight 68.6 ± 1.6 kg) completed two maximal exercise (VO2max) tests (Day 1 and 39) and four 5KTT (Day 4, 14, 28, and 42) in a fasted state during two 6-week periods when they ate either a HCLF or a LCHF diet, in a randomized counterbalanced, crossover design. Exercise performance during the VO2max tests was unchanged on either diet (p = 0.251). Performance in the initial 5KTT was significantly slower on the LCHF diet (p = 0.011). There were no diet-related performance differences in the remaining three 5KTT (p > 0.22). Subjects exercised at ~82%VO2max. Carbohydrate oxidation provided 94% of energy on the HCLF diet, but only 65% on the LCHF diet. 5KTT performance at ~82%VO2max was independent of the runners' habitual diet. The HCLF diet offered no advantage over a diet with a high-fat content. Since these athletes run faster than 88% of recreational distance runners in the United States (U.S.), this finding may have wide general application.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia
3.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(8): 1703-1708, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529226

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) within the first hours of extrauterine life in term neonates. HRV at 2-h and 14-h postpartum were compared by means of time domains (iRR, SDNN, and rMSSD); frequency domains (TP, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio); and Poincare's Plot (SD1 and SD2) indices of HRV in 27 healthy, male, term newborns (NBs) born of elective cesarean delivery. Within 14 h after birth, the mean of the iRRs increased (Δ% = 4.4, p < 0.001) as well as parasympathetic indices (rMSSD: Δ% = 32.6; p < 0.03; HF: Δ% = 43.6; p < 0.00; SD1: Δ% = 32.6, p < 0.03). Respiratory rate (RR) decreased (RR: 2 h = 48 (43-55) cycle/min vs. 14 h = 45 (40-48) cycle/min p < 0.01). We concluded that within the first 14 h of birth, cardiac autonomic adjustments are characterized by an increase in parasympathetic activity. Concurrently, there were no significant changes observed in all other HRV indices in healthy, male, term neonates, and born of elective cesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(16)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395802

RESUMO

Internet gaming disorder in adolescents and young adults has become an increasing public concern because of its high prevalence rate and potential risk of alteration of brain functions and organizations. Cue exposure therapy is designed for reducing or maintaining craving, a core factor of relapse of addiction, and is extensively employed in addiction treatment. In a previous study, we proposed a machine-learning-based method to detect craving for gaming using multimodal physiological signals including photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and electrooculogram. Our previous study demonstrated that a craving for gaming could be detected with a fairly high accuracy; however, as the feature vectors for the machine-learning-based detection of the craving of a user were selected based on the physiological data of the user that were recorded on the same day, the effectiveness of the reuse of the machine learning model constructed during the previous experiments, without any further calibration sessions, was still questionable. This "high test-retest reliability" characteristic is of importance for the practical use of the craving detection system because the system needs to be repeatedly applied to the treatment processes as a tool to monitor the efficacy of the treatment. We presented short video clips of three addictive games to nine participants, during which various physiological signals were recorded. This experiment was repeated with different video clips on three different days. Initially, we investigated the test-retest reliability of 14 features used in a craving detection system by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Then, we classified whether each participant experienced a craving for gaming in the third experiment using various classifiers-the support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors (kNN), centroid displacement-based kNN, linear discriminant analysis, and random forest-trained with the physiological signals recorded during the first or second experiment. Consequently, the craving/non-craving states in the third experiment were classified with an accuracy that was comparable to that achieved using the data of the same day; thus, demonstrating a high test-retest reliability and the practicality of our craving detection method. In addition, the classification performance was further enhanced by using both datasets of the first and second experiments to train the classifiers, suggesting that an individually customized game craving detection system with high accuracy can be implemented by accumulating datasets recorded on different days under different experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Eletroculografia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 125-141, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: and purpose: Heart rate variability (HRV) represents a marker of autonomic activity, self-regulation and psychiatric illness. Few studies of manual therapy have investigated the neurophysiological effects of manual cranial therapy (MC-t). This study assessed the neurophysiological short/medium-term effects of two manual therapy interventions: massage therapy (Mss-t) and MC-t. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A double-blind clinical trial was conducted with 50 healthy children, randomized into two groups who received a Mss-t intervention or MC-t. The variables analysed included vital signs (temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure) and HRV components, including the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF) and LF/HF ratio. RESULTS: Both interventions produced short-term parasympathetic effects, although the effects of MC-t were more persistent. CONCLUSION: The persistence of the MC-t intervention suggested a prominent vagal control and better self-regulation. Autonomic imbalances in mental pathologies may benefit from the neurophysiological effects of MC-t.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia
6.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2653-2659, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419921

RESUMO

This study assessed the intra-individual reliability of oxygen saturation in intercostal muscles (SmO2-m.intercostales) during an incremental maximal treadmill exercise by using portable NIRS devices in a test-retest study. Fifteen marathon runners (age, 24.9 ± 2.0 years; body mass index, 21.6 ± 2.3 kg·m-2; V̇O2-peak, 63.7 ± 5.9 mL·kg-1·min-1) were tested on two separate days, with a 7-day interval between the two measurements. Oxygen consumption (V̇O2) was assessed using the breath-by-breath method during the V̇O2-test, while SmO2 was determined using a portable commercial device, based in the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) principle. The minute ventilation (VE), respiratory rate (RR), and tidal volume (Vt) were also monitored during the cardiopulmonary exercise test. For the SmO2-m.intercostales, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) at rest, first (VT1) and second ventilatory (VT2) thresholds, and maximal stages were 0.90, 0.84, 0.92, and 0.93, respectively; the confidence intervals ranged from -10.8% - +9.5% to -15.3% - +12.5%. The reliability was good at low intensity (rest and VT1) and excellent at high intensity (VT2 and max). The Spearman correlation test revealed (p ≤ 0.001) an inverse association of SmO2-m.intercostales with V̇O2 (ρ = -0.64), VE (ρ = -0.73), RR (ρ = -0.70), and Vt (ρ = -0.63). The relationship with the ventilatory variables showed that increased breathing effort during exercise could be registered adequately using a NIRS portable device.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Músculos Intercostais/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(9): 2083-2094, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The mediators of the perception of effort during exercise are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine physiological responses during runs using a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-clamp model at the RPE corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (RPEGET) and 15% above GET (RPEGET+15%) to identify potential mediators and performance applications for RPE during treadmill running. METHODS: Twenty-one runners ([Formula: see text]max = 51.7 ± 8.3 ml kg-1 min-1) performed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption and the RPE associated with GET and GET + 15% followed by randomized 60 min RPE-clamp runs at RPEGET and RPEGET+15%. Mean differences for [Formula: see text], heart rate (HR), minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), respiratory frequency ([Formula: see text], respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and velocity were compared across each run. RESULTS: After minute 14, [Formula: see text], RER and velocity did not differ across conditions, but decreased across time (p < 0.05). There was a significant (p < 0.05) condition × time interaction for [Formula: see text], where values were significantly higher during RPE-clamp runs at RPEGET+15% and decreased across time in both conditions. There were no differences across condition or time for HR, and only small difference between conditions for [Formula: see text]. CONCLUSIONS: HR and [Formula: see text] may play a role in mediating the perception of effort, while [Formula: see text], RER, and [Formula: see text] may not. Although HR and [Formula: see text] may mediate the maintenance of a perceptual intensity, they may not be sensitive to differentiate perceptual intensities at GET and GET + 15%. Thus, prescribing exercise using an RPE-clamp model may only reflect a sustainable [Formula: see text] within the moderate intensity domain.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Ventilação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(13)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261726

RESUMO

This paper presents a survey of recent developments using Doppler radar sensor in searching and locating an alive person under debris or behind a wall. Locating a human and detecting the vital signs such as breathing rate and heartbeat using a microwave sensor is a non-invasive technique. Recently, many hardware structures, signal processing approaches, and integrated systems have been introduced by researchers in this field. The purpose is to enhance the accuracy of vital signs' detection and location detection and reduce energy consumption. This work concentrates on the representative research on sensing systems that can find alive people under rubble when an earthquake or other disasters occur. In this paper, various operating principles and system architectures for finding survivors using the microwave radar sensors are reviewed. A comparison between these systems is also discussed.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Desastres , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Radar , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia
9.
PLoS Biol ; 17(7): e3000406, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339883

RESUMO

Noncontact methods to measure animal activity and physiology are necessary to monitor undisturbed states such as hibernation. Although some noncontact measurement systems are commercially available, they are often incompatible with realistic habitats, which feature freely moving animals in small, cluttered environments. A growing market of single-board computers, microcontrollers, and inexpensive sensors has made it possible to assemble bespoke integrated sensor systems at significantly lower price points. Herein, we describe a custom-built nesting box imager (NBI) that uses a single-board computer (Raspberry Pi) with a passive infrared (IR) motion sensor, silicon charge-coupled device (CCD), and IR camera CCD to monitor the activity, surface body temperature, and respiratory rate of the meadow jumping mouse during hibernation cycles. The data are logged up to 12 samples per minute and postprocessed using custom Matlab scripts. The entire unit can be built at a price point below US$400, which will be drastically reduced as IR (thermal) arrays are integrated into more consumer electronics and become less expensive.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Hibernação/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ambiente Controlado , Camundongos , Monitorização Fisiológica/economia , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(12)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248200

RESUMO

Among all the vital signs, respiratory rate remains the least measured in several scenarios, mainly due to the intrusiveness of the sensors usually adopted. For this reason, all contactless monitoring systems are gaining increasing attention in this field. In this paper, we present a measuring system for contactless measurement of the respiratory pattern and the extraction of breath-by-breath respiratory rate. The system consists of a laptop's built-in RGB camera and an algorithm for post-processing of acquired video data. From the recording of the chest movements of a subject, the analysis of the pixel intensity changes yields a waveform indicating respiratory pattern. The proposed system has been tested on 12 volunteers, both males and females seated in front of the webcam, wearing both slim-fit and loose-fit t-shirts. The pressure-drop signal recorded at the level of nostrils with a head-mounted wearable device was used as reference respiratory pattern. The two methods have been compared in terms of mean of absolute error, standard error, and percentage error. Additionally, a Bland-Altman plot was used to investigate the bias between methods. Results show the ability of the system to record accurate values of respiratory rate, with both slim-fit and loose-fit clothing. The measuring system shows better performance on females. Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -0.01 breaths · min - 1 , with respiratory rate values between 10 and 43 breaths · min - 1 . Promising performance has been found in the preliminary tests simulating tachypnea.


Assuntos
Respiração , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taquipneia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 270-276, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166123

RESUMO

An increase in the beat-to-beat variability of heart rate (HRV) is a robust marker of enhanced parasympathetic activity and of a calm and relaxed state. The purpose of this laboratory activity was to introduce the concept of HRV to our students, while having them address a novel question of whether two yogic breathing techniques, namely alternate nostril breathing (ANB) and standard deep breathing (DB), impact the SD of instantaneous heart rate (SDHR), a measure of HRV. Fifty-five undergraduates enrolled in a physiology course designed for nonscience majors were tasked with analyzing HR and SDHR from electrocardiograms recorded during normal breathing, DB, and ANB. A repeated-measures ANOVA showed that HR was significantly, albeit slightly, elevated from normal (74.5 ± 13.4 beats/min; means ± SD) during DB (76.5 ± 11.2 beats/min), but not during ANB (75.7 ± 10.1 beats/min). Analysis of SDHR showed significant differences between conditions (normal: 5.5 ± 2.1, DB: 8.6 ± 3.0, ANB: 7.8 ± 2.8 beats/min). The instructors further analyzed the same data set using more robust measures of HRV (SD of sequential N-N intervals, root mean square of successive differences, and high-frequency domain of HRV) to determine whether SDHR during a 2-min epoch is a sufficient measure for HRV in the undergraduate course setting. Statistical analysis for these measures showed a near identical pattern of magnitude and significance among the groups as SDHR. Our students developed a greater appreciation for the effects of breathing patterns on HRV and HR, using the simple measure of SDHR.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Fisiologia/educação , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades
12.
Appl Opt ; 58(15): 3995-3999, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158149

RESUMO

This paper presents an optical extra-body communication (OEBC) for the transmission of human vital signs in an optical camera communication link. The primary vital signs, such as pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, blood pressure, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, are captured from the patient's body. The proposed OEBC system has body sensors installed on various parts of the body for detecting, processing, and communicating the vital sign data. A light-emitting diode (LED) hub is a 4×4 red, green, and blue (RGB) LED array that acts as a coordinator to collect the vital sign data from the sensors and transmit through an optical link, while an android-based smartphone camera is used as the receiver. The proposed OEBC employs color modulation, which assigns colors to each vital sign data and transmits data based on the RGB color combinations. The experiment and simulation results show that the scheme is able to transmit the vital sign data through the optical link with an acceptable bit error rate value of 1.2×10-4 at a peak signal-to-noise ratio value of 15 dB. The proposed OEBC can thus facilitate both reliable and convenient health monitoring in hospital environments.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Fotografação/instrumentação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Smartphone/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Humanos , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Sinais Vitais
13.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(8): 823-828, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146305

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the influence of functional training on cardiorespiratory parameters and cardiac autonomic modulation in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 39 apparently healthy postmenopausal women were randomized into two groups and analyzed: the group that carried out the functional training (FTG; n = 19; age 60 ± 4.5 years; weight 67.64 ± 11.64 kg) for 18 weeks, and the control group (CG) who did not undergo the training (n = 20; age 58.45 ± 4.8 years; weight 66.91 ± 13.24 kg). Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and autonomic modulation trough heart rate variability were evaluated. The Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the differences (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The results obtained from the training showed improvement of the following cardiac parameters in the FTG: systolic blood pressure (CG -5.50 ± 12.76 vs FTG -18.36 ± 18.05, P = 0.021), diastolic blood pressure (CG 5.00 ± 20.13 vs FTG -9.47 ± 10.25, P = 0.002), heart rate (CG 7.00 ± 9.79 vs FTG -4.73 ± 8.41, P = 0.000), root mean square of the successive differences index (CG -0.18 ± 5.66 vs FTG 5.10 ± 11.93, P = 0.035) and RR intervals (CG -22.66 ± 75.75 vs FTG 70.17 ± 104.30, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Functional training promoted beneficial effects on cardiac autonomic modulation and cardiorespiratory parameters in postmenopausal women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 823-828.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Coração/inervação , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 25(3): 259-267, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several scoring systems have been and continue to be developed in numerous countries with the goal of quickly and accurately assessing the severity of trauma injuries. The aim of this study was to identify factors that help to determine the gravity of damage and to minimize it, in order to reduce mortality and morbidity. It is important that the criteria set for the determination of the severity of trauma are objective, measurable, and comparable. This study was an assessment of the contribution of vital signs, hemogram values, and trauma severity scores recorded at initial admission in the prediction of mortality in patients with firearm trauma wounds. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Patients with gunshot injuries who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of a single facility between December 2015 and March 2016 were included in the study. Statistical software was used to perform bivariate analyses using a t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, depending on the distribution of variables, and logistic regression analysis was utilized to determine independent predictors of mortality after ED admission. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 418 patients were included. A statistically significant difference was found between the white blood cell count, respiratory rate, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Abbreviated Injury Scale score, and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patients who survived and those who died (p<0.05). The analysis also indicated that a systolic blood pressure below 90 mmHg and a heart rate above 100 beats/minute were independent variables in terms of the expectation of mortality. CONCLUSION: The objective assessment of the ISS at admission to the ED is an important element in the calculation of hemoglobin requirements, mortality, and morbidity.


Assuntos
Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/diagnóstico , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/fisiopatologia
15.
J Urol ; 202(4): 787-794, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the effects of device guided, slow-paced respiration on urgency associated urinary symptoms, perceived stress and anxiety, and autonomic function in women with overactive bladder syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a randomized, parallel group trial of slow-paced respiration to improve perceived stress and autonomic dysfunction as potential contributors to overactive bladder. Ambulatory women who reported at least 3 voiding or incontinence episodes per day associated with moderate to severe urgency were randomized to use a portable biofeedback device to practice daily, slow, guided breathing exercises or a control device which appeared identical and was reprogrammed to play music without guiding breathing. During 12 weeks we evaluated changes in urinary symptoms by voiding diaries, perceived stress and anxiety by validated questionnaires, and autonomic function by heart rate variability and impedance cardiography. RESULTS: In the 161 randomized participants, including 79 randomized to paced respiration and 82 randomized to the control group, the average ± SD baseline frequency of voiding or incontinence associated with moderate to severe urgency was 6.9 ± 3.4 episodes per day. Compared to controls the participants randomized to paced respiration demonstrated greater improvement in perceived stress (average Perceived Stress Scale score decrease 2.8 vs 1.1, p=0.03) but not in autonomic function markers. During 12 weeks the average frequency of voiding or incontinence associated with moderate to severe urgency, which was the study primary outcome, decreased by a mean of 0.9 ± 3.2 episodes per day but no significant between group difference was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Among women with overactive bladder slow-paced respiration was associated with a modest improvement in perceived stress during 12 weeks. However, it was not superior to a music listening control for reducing urinary symptoms or changing autonomic function.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/instrumentação , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/terapia , Idoso , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relaxamento/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/etiologia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/psicologia , Micção/fisiologia
16.
eNeuro ; 6(2)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043462

RESUMO

There is evidence that a variety of central and afferent stimuli, including swallowing, can produce phase resetting in the respiratory rhythmicity. Also, there are reports about the intrinsic linkage between locomotion and respiration. However, little is known about the interaction between the central pattern generators (CPGs) for scratching and respiration. The present study aims to examine whether the activation of scratching CPG produces phase resetting of the respiratory rhythm. We employed decerebrate cats to apply brief tactile stimuli to the pinna during the inspiratory-expiratory transition. We observed that those stimuli to the pinna not eliciting fictive scratching did not reset the respiratory rhythm. However, when the pinna stimuli elicited fictive scratching, then the respiratory rhythm exhibited a significant phase resetting. We also found interneurons in the medulla oblongata exhibiting phase resetting related to scratching-CPG episodes. This second finding suggests that this type of resetting involves brainstem components of the respiratory CPG. These results shed new light on the resetting action from a spinal CPG on the respiratory rhythm.


Assuntos
Geradores de Padrão Central/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Bulbo/fisiologia , Periodicidade , Reflexo/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Animais , Gatos , Estado de Descerebração/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino
18.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 166(6): 726-730, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020585

RESUMO

Autonomic regulation of the heart was examined in 5 groups of rats: intact, sham-operated, experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute cerebral ischemia, and acute cerebral ischemia modeled against the background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The latter was provoked by combination of inhaled papain and intraperitoneal bacterial LPS, whereas acute cerebral ischemia was modeled by single-stage bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was verified by X-ray computed microtomography. The disturbances in autonomic control of the heart during comorbid pathologies were most prominent; they were manifested by overstrain and decompensation of the mechanisms implicated in the heart control and systolic-diastolic arterial hypotension. The correlations were established between blood oxygenation, respiration rate, and some parameters of autonomic cardiac regulation. The data attest to relevance and usefulness of the developed model of respiratory and cerebrovascular comorbidity in assessment of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dysregulation of the heart and the development of personalized approaches for its pharmacological correction.


Assuntos
Vias Autônomas/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Papaína/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 264: 19-27, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930258

RESUMO

Burrowing rodents have a blunted ventilatory response to CO2 in comparison to non-burrowing rodents. Non-burrowing rats display a period during development where ventilatory responses to hypercarbia become transiently blunted. This study examined the ventilatory responses to CO2 of rats, hamsters and ground squirrels through neonatal development to determine whether the blunted adult response of burrowing species is a retention of the blunting period seen in rats or present from birth. All three species increased ventilation in response to hypercarbia on the day of birth (70-170% in response to 5% CO2; 100-250% in response to 7% CO2). Rats in our study exhibited the triphasic ventilatory response (when expressed as %Δ) to CO2 previously described. In golden-Syrian hamsters, the ventilatory response slowly and progressively waned to a blunted adult response while in the 13-lined ground squirrels, the early ventilatory response to CO2 decreased within days and remained attenuated through development. Our study shows three distinct developmental patterns in the hypercarbic ventilatory response.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Mesocricetus , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sciuridae , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 23(6): 2335-2346, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951480

RESUMO

Knowledge of the pathological instabilities in the breathing pattern can provide valuable insights into the cardiorespiratory status of the critically-ill infant as well as their maturation level. This paper is concerned with the measurement of respiratory rate in premature infants. We compare the rates estimated from the chest impedance pneumogram, the ECG-derived respiratory rhythms, and the PPG-derived respiratory rhythms against those measured in the reference standard of breath detection provided by attending clinical staff during 165 manual breath counts. We demonstrate that accurate RR estimates can be produced from all sources for RR in the 40-80 bpm (breaths per min) range. We also conclude that the use of indirect methods based on the ECG or the PPG poses a fundamental challenge in this population due to their poor behavior at fast breathing rates (upward of 80 bpm).


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Fotopletismografia/métodos
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