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1.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 178-186, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive sodium intake is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Daily sodium intake is usually inferred from sodium excretion in a 24-hour urine collection, which is cumbersome and prone to errors. Different formulas have attempted to estimate 24-hour urinary sodium from a spot urine sample. Unfortunately, their concordances are insufficient and have not been tested in our population. AIM: To develop an equation to predict 24-hour urine sodium from parameters in plasma and spot urine samples. To validate the equation and compare it with other formulas in Chilean population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of 24-hour urine collections, plasma sample and spot urine sample from 174 adult outpatients (81% females) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2. These were collected between 2015 and 2019 using standardized methods and educating patients about the correct method to collect 24 h urine samples. In all these patients, creatinine and electrolytes were measured in plasma and urine. A new equation was developed using a multiple linear regression model. RESULTS: Twenty-four-hour urine sodium excretion was significantly correlated with age, weight, height, eGFR, plasma osmolarity, urine electrolytes and parameters obtained from spot urine sample, among others. The new equation had a linear correlation with 24-hour natriuresis of 0.91 and the concordance was 0.9. The predictive capacity of the new equation was better than the existing formulas. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a formula to accurately predict daily natriuresis in the Chilean population.


Assuntos
Natriurese , Sódio , Adulto , Creatinina , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Urinálise
2.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 187-195, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation in older adults using a creatinine clearance/24-hour (CrCl) or an equation based on serum creatinine, are often considered equivalent by clinicians. AIM: To compare GFR estimated (eGFR) with the available equations and measured CrCl in patients ≥ 70 years. A secondary aim was to know the differences in chronic kidney disease (CKD) classification, when using the different eGFR formulas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 144 patients aged 77 ± 5 years (58% men), CrCl was measured and GFR was estimated using MDRD, CKD-EPI, BIS-1 and FAS formulas. The eGFR and the stage of CKD were compared according to the different equations used. RESULTS: GFR estimated by MDRD and CKD-EPI equations was 7.8 and 8.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower than 24-hour ClCr, respectively. This difference was even greater using the BIS-1 and FAS equations. Twenty-four-hour CrCl classified 47.2% of the patients in a category of renal function > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, while MDRD and CKD-EPI equations classified just over a third, and BIS-1 and FAS formulas around 20% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The practice of considering equivalent the GFR estimation using the creatinine-based equations with measured creatinine clearance in older adults should be reconsidered, because their results differ markedly.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Creatinina , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico
3.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(3): 409-421, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479320

RESUMO

The evaluation of renal function in older adults is usually carried out with a creatinine clearance or an estimation of glomerular filtration rate using formulas such as Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD or CKD-EPI. The results obtained with these formulas are often regarded as equivalent. However, in adults older than 70 years, the Cockcroft-Gault formula frequently underestimates the glomerular filtration rate with respect to reference methods and the MDRD formula overestimates it. CKD-EPI has a more unpredictable behavior. This leads to erroneously classifying patients in the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), artificially increasing the prevalence of this condition, overloading health systems and generating emotional disorders in patients mistakenly classified as carriers of CKD. Also, when kidney function is overestimated, CKD patients are prevented from receiving the treatments appropriate for their condition. In recent years, new formulas have been proposed (FAS, BIS) with a greater accuracy to estimate glomerular filtration rate in older adults. This review describes the behavior of these formulas in a significant number of older adults, from various countries, and proposes using those equations with the best performance in older adults.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4443-4446, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is one of the most effective treatments for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, it has been reported that the use of ADT is significantly associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic PCa. We investigated changes in renal function that occurred in Japanese patients with PCa after ADT was discontinued. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 121 patients who underwent prostate biopsies, were pathologically diagnosed with PCa, and received ADT for ≥6 months at our Institution between 2009 and 2014, 60 patients who underwent radiotherapy for stage B or C PCa were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study. Renal function was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of ADT and the rate of change in the eGFR (ΔeGFR) during ADT and after the discontinuation of ADT was investigated. We divided patients into two groups: Group 1 received ADT for 6 months, and group 2 received ADT for 12 months. Age; ΔeGFR; prostate-specific antigen, testosterone and hemoglobin levels; clinical stage; Gleason score; comorbidities; body mass index; heart rate; and the cardiothoracic ratio were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients (group 1: n=23, group 2: n=37) were analyzed. The Gleason score of group 2 was higher than that of group 1 (p=0.0011). Regarding clinical stage, group 1 had more patients with stage B disease, and group 2 had more with stage C (p<0.0001). The eGFR decreased with the duration of ADT treatment. At 12 months, renal function had started to recover in group 1, while it had continued to decrease in group 2. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of ADT tended to result in improvements in renal function. Furthermore, this study indicated that renal dysfunction caused by 6 months of ADT is transient. Normalization of the serum testosterone level seen after the discontinuation of ADT may be associated with improvements in renal function. Thus, intermittent ADT may be a useful treatment for PCa, as it would help to preserve renal function.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Japão , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Suspensão de Tratamento
5.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 297, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney disease and renal failure are associated with hospital deaths in patients with COVID - 19. We aimed to test if contrast enhancement affects short-term renal function in hospitalized COVID - 19 patients. METHODS: Plasma creatinine (P-creatinine) was measured on the day of computed tomography (CT) and 24 h, 48 h, and 4-10 days after CT. Contrast-enhanced (n = 142) and unenhanced (n = 24) groups were subdivided, based on estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), > 60 and ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Contrast-induced acute renal failure (CI-AKI) was defined as ≥27 µmol/L increase or a > 50% rise in P-creatinine from CT or initiation of renal replacement therapy during follow-up. Patients with renal replacement therapy were studied separately. We evaluated factors associated with a > 50% rise in P-creatinine at 48 h and at 4-10 days after contrast-enhanced CT. RESULTS: Median P-creatinine at 24-48 h and days 4-10 post-CT in patients with eGFR> 60 and eGFR≥30-60 in contrast-enhanced and unenhanced groups did not differ from basal values. CI-AKI was observed at 48 h and at 4-10 days post contrast administration in 24 and 36% (n = 5/14) of patients with eGFR≥30-60. Corresponding figures in the eGFR> 60 contrast-enhanced CT group were 5 and 5% respectively, (p < 0.037 and p < 0.001, Pearson χ2 test). In the former group, four of the five patients died within 30 days. Odds ratio analysis showed that an eGFR≥30-60 and 30-day mortality were associated with CK-AKI both at 48 h and 4-10 days after contrast-enhanced CT. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID - 19 and eGFR≥30-60 had a high frequency of CK-AKI at 48 h and at 4-10 days after contrast administration, which was associated with increased 30-day mortality. For patients with eGFR≥30-60, we recommend strict indications are practiced for contrast-enhanced CT. Contrast-enhanced CT had a modest effect in patients with eGFR> 60.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , COVID-19/complicações , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Creatinina/sangue , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 481, 2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of the estimated glomerular filter rate (eGFR) in elderly patients is debatable. In 2020, a new creatinine-based equation by European Kidney Function Consortium (EKFC) was applied to all age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the new EKFC equation with Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Lund-Malmö Revised (LMR), Berlin Initiative Study 1 (BIS1), and full age spectrum (FAS) equations based on serum creatinine (SCR) for elderly Chinese patients. METHODS: A total of 612 elderly patients with a measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by the dual plasma sample clearance method with Technetium-99 m-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Tc-99 m-DTPA) were divided into four subgroups based on age, sex, mGFR, and whether combined with diabetes. The performance of GFR was assessed while considering bias, precision, accuracy, and root-mean-square error (RMSE). Bland-Altman plots, concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs), and correlation coefficients were applied to evaluate the validity of eGFR. RESULTS: The median age of the 612 participants was 73 years, and 386 (63.1%) were male. Referring to mGFR (42.1 ml/min/1.73 m2), the CKD-EPI, LMR, BIS1, FAS, and EKFC equations estimated GFR at 44.4, 41.1, 43.6, 41.8 and 41.9 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Overall, the smallest bias was found for the BIS1 equation (- 0.050 vs. range - 3.015 to 0.795, P<0.05, vs. the CKD-EPI equation). Regarding P30, interquartile range (IQR), RMSE, and GFR category misclassification, the BIS1 equation generally performed more accurately than the other eqs. (73.9%, 12.7, 12.9, and 35.3%, respectively). Nevertheless, no equation achieved optimal performance for the mGFR≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 subgroup. Bland-Altman analysis showed the smallest mean difference (- 0.3 ml/min/1.73 m2) for the BIS1 equation when compared to the other equations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the BIS1 equation was the most applicable for estimating GFR in Chinese elderly patients with moderate to severe renal impairment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): 1333-1340, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney function assessment by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equations, such as the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, is important to determine dosing and eligibility for anticancer drugs. Inclusion of race in eGFR equations calculates a higher eGFR at a given serum creatinine concentration for Black patients versus non-Black patients. We aimed to characterise the effect of removing race from the CKD-EPI equation on dosing and eligibility of anticancer drugs with kidney function cutoffs. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of patients enrolled in phase 1 studies sponsored by the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program between January, 1995, and October, 2010. eGFR based on creatinine (eGFRCr) was calculated by the CKD-EPI equation and a version of the CKD-EPI equation without the race term (CKD-EPIwithout race). Estimated creatinine clearance (eClCr) was calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Dosing simulations based on each assessment of kidney function were done for ten anticancer drugs with kidney function cutoffs for dosing (oxaliplatin, capecitabine, etoposide, topotecan, fludarabine, and bleomycin) or eligibility (cisplatin, pemetrexed, bendamustine, and mitomycin) based on labelling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or consensus guidelines. The absolute proportion of patients eligible or in each renal dosing range was calculated for each drug. Eligibility and dosing discordance rates were also calculated. FINDINGS: Demographics and laboratory values from 340 Black patients (172 men and 168 women) were used. Median age was 57 years (IQR 47-64), median bodyweight was 78·1 kg (67·0-89·8), median body surface area was 1·91 m2 (1·77-2·09), and median serum creatinine concentration was 0·9 mg/dL (0·8-1·1). Median eGFRCr or eClCr was 103 mL/min (85-122) calculated by CKD-EPI, 89 mL/min (73-105) by CKD-EPIwithout race, and 90 mL/min (72-120) by Cockcroft-Gault. Black patients were recommended to receive dose reductions or were rendered ineligible to receive drug more frequently when using CKD-EPIwithout race than when using CKD-EPI, but at a similar rate as when using Cockcroft-Gault. The number of patients ineligible for therapy or recommended to receive any renal dose adjustment when CKD-EPIwithout race versus CKD-EPI was used increased by 72% (from 25 of 340 to 43 of 340 patients) for cisplatin, by 120% (from five to 11) for pemetrexed, by 67% (from three to five) for bendamustine, by 150% (from ten to 25) for capecitabine, by 150% (from ten to 25) for etoposide, by 67% (from three to five) for topotecan, by 61% (from 74 to 119) for fludarabine, and by 163% (from eight to 21) for bleomycin. Up to 18% of patients had discordant recommendations using CKD-EPIwithout race versus CKD-EPI. INTERPRETATION: Removing race from the CKD-EPI equation will calculate a lower eGFR for Black patients and exclude more patients from receiving anticancer therapy, which could lead to undertreatment of Black patients with cancer and adversely affect their outcomes. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Creatinina/sangue , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Definição da Elegibilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047770, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the literature and determine if prematurity has an impact on long-term adverse kidney outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: OVID Medline, PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL and EMBASE databases were searched for studies relating to the adverse outcomes of prematurity from 1990 to April 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: All articles published between January 1990 and April 2021 that investigated whether premature infants developed long-term adverse renal outcomes were included in this review. Articles must have been human studies and written in English. Case series with less than 20 participants and case studies were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: One reviewer completed the database searches. Article selection was performed independently and in a non-blinded manner by both reviewers. Initial screening was by title and abstract. Full texts of remaining articles were reviewed. Articles for which inclusion was unclear were re-reviewed by both reviewers, and a unanimous decision was taken as to whether they should be included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for quality assessment of the included articles. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 31 human studies, which investigated the short-term and long-term kidney outcomes of prematurity. These studies were conducted in 17 different countries. The most common outcomes measured were blood pressure (BP) and glomerular filtration rate. Other common outcomes measured included kidney size and mass, proteinuria, albuminuria, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and physical parameters such as height, weight and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Prematurity is likely linked to increased risk of kidney dysfunction and high BP in childhood and into early adulthood. Premature birth conferred a twofold increased risk of CKD and extremely premature birth conferred a threefold increased risk of CKD. However, further larger multicentre studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions on the long-term kidney outcomes of prematurity.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Rim , Gravidez , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(30): 2400-2404, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404134

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the value of serum cystatin C for the evaluation of renal function damage in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Methods: The clinical data of PDR patients treated in ophthalmic wards of Beijing Tongren Hospital from July 2019 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. Based on the eGFR level, the patients were divided into no obvious renal function damage group [≥ 60 ml·min⁻¹·(1.73 m2)⁻1] and renal inadequacy group [<60 ml·min⁻¹·(1.73 m2)⁻1]. The clinical characteristics between the two groups were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the relevant factors of renal inadequacy. The value of cystatin C to predict the renal inadequacy was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: A total of 1 009 patients [593 males and 416 females; mean age: (52±12) years] were finally included in the study, with 192 cases (19.0%) and 817 cases (81.0%) in renal inadequacy group and no obvious renal function damage group, respectively. There were no significant statistically differences in gender, age, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and low-density lipoprotein between the two groups (all P>0.05). The systolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol and cystatin C were higher in the renal inadequacy group than those of no obvious renal function damage group (all P<0.05). However, the glycosylated hemoglobin, albumin and high-density lipoprotein were lower in the renal inadequacy group (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum creatinine (OR=1.189, 95%CI: 1.101-1.284, P<0.001) and cystatin C (OR=3.175, 95%CI: 1.272-7.923, P=0.013) were independent risk factors for renal inadequacy in PDR patients. The ROC curve showed that cystatin C had a predictive value for renal inadequacy, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.966 (95%CI: 0.952-0.979). Meanwhile, the cutoff value was 1.315 mg/L, and the Youden index was 0.826, with the sensitivity of 94.3% and specificity of 88.4%. Conclusion: Serum cystatin C can be used as an important laboratory indicator to evaluate the renal impairment in PDR patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Creatinina , Cistatina C , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e053019, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400461

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the USA and worldwide. Recent experimental and clinical data suggest that the non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) may decrease progression of chronic kidney disease. However, a large-scale randomised clinical trial is needed to determine whether PTX can reduce ESRD and death in DKD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Veterans Affairs (VA) PTXRx is a pragmatic, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre VA Cooperative Study to test the hypothesis that PTX, when added to usual care, leads to a reduction in the time to ESRD or death in patients with type 2 diabetes with DKD when compared with usual care plus placebo. The study aims to enrol 2510 patients over a 4-year period with an additional up to 5-year follow-up to generate a total of 646 primary events. The primary objective of this study is to compare the time until ESRD or death (all-cause mortality) between participants randomised to PTX or placebo. Secondary endpoints will be: (1) health-related quality of life, (2) time to doubling of serum creatinine, (3) incidence of hospitalisations for congestive heart failure, (4) incidence of a three-point major adverse cardiovascular events composite (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke), (5) incidence of peripheral vascular disease, (6) change in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio from baseline to 6 months and (7) rate of annual change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the study period. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the VA Central Institutional Review Board (cIRB/18-36) and will be conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice. The Hines Cooperative Studies Programme will finalise the study results, which will be published in accordance with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03625648.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Pentoxifilina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26946, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414956

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the association between serum uric acid (SUA) level and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).T2DM patients hospitalized in the Department of Hepatology, Yantai Qishan Hospital, between April 2012 and December 2018 were classified into the NAFLD group and the non-NAFLD group. Clinical data, glucose and lipid metabolism biomarkers, and liver and kidney function parameters were retrospectively collected.Five hundred eighty-three T2DM patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria; 227 patients were included in the non-NAFLD group and 356 patients were included in the NAFLD group. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that SUA was positively correlated with body mass index (P = .003), triglycerides (P = .009), aspartate aminotransferase (P = .036), and alanine aminotransferase (P = .038) and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P < .001) in T2DM patients. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that after adjusting for confounding factors, the SUA tertile was still significantly associated with NAFLD occurrence in T2DM patients (P for trend = .008). With reference to SUA tertile I, the odds ratios for NAFLD in the SUA tertile II and tertile III groups were 1.729 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.086-2.753) and 2.315 (95% CI: 1.272-4.213), respectively.The level of SUA in T2DM patients was associated with the occurrence of NAFLD. Elevated SUA was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of NAFLD. The SUA level was an independent risk factor for NAFLD occurrence in patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(747): 1397-1403, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431632

RESUMO

The relationships between sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and kidney are complex: reduction of the glucose-lowering effect with the decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), biphasic effects on GFR along with treatment duration, low risk of acute kidney injury, rapid reduction of albuminuria, and, most importantly in clinical practice, a remarkable nephroprotection, with a decrease of the risk of end-stage renal disease or death from renal cause. This article describes the renal outcomes in the main clinical trials and analyses the impact of treatment with SGLT2is on renal prognosis according to different patient baseline characteristics. A nephroprotection is observed whatever the severity (even if GFR < 45 ml/min/1,73 m²) and type (with or without albuminuria, with or without diabetes) of renal disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26889, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397910

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to assess pediatricians' knowledge of augmented renal clearance (ARC).We conducted cross-sectional analyses of 500 pediatricians from 16 tertiary hospitals in Anhui Province, China. Pediatricians provided demographic information and were asked questions about their knowledge of ARC, including risk factors, evaluation tools, and the impact on patient prognosis, with a focus on the attitude and practice of pediatricians related to adjusting vancomycin regimens when ARC occurs.A total of 491 valid questionnaires were finally included, only 276 pediatricians stated that they "know about ARC." Compared with the "do not know about ARC" group, the "know about ARC" group was younger (43.7 ±â€Š8.0 vs 48.0 ±â€Š7.9, P < .001), and their main source of ARC knowledge was from social networking platforms. A total of 193 (70%) chose at least 4 of the following factors as risk factors for children with ARC: severe trauma, sepsis, burns, major surgery, lower disease severity, and hematological malignancies. A total of 110 (40%) and 105 (38%) pediatricians chose the Schwartz formula and cystatin C, respectively, as the indicators to evaluate the renal function of ARC children. Concerning the estimated glomerular filtration rate threshold to identify ARC children, 201 (73%) pediatricians chose 130 mL/min/1.73 m2, while 55 (20%) chose "age-dependent ARC thresholds." Overall, 220 (80%) respondents indicated that ARC would impact the treatment effect of vancomycin, but 149/220 (68%) were willing to adjust the vancomycin regimen; only 22/149 (8%) considered that the dose should be increased, but no one knew how to increase. Regarding the prognosis of ARC children, all respondents chose "unclear."ARC is relatively common in critically ill children, but pediatricians do not know much about it, as most of the current knowledge is based on adult studies. Furthermore, ARC is often confused with acute kidney injury, which would lead to very serious treatment errors. Therefore, more pediatric studies about ARC are needed, and ARC should be written into official pediatric guidelines as soon as possible to provide reference for pediatricians.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pediatras/normas , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26935, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397942

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is the most common (1%-23%) vascular complication following kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to review our experience with an endovascular approach to treat TRAS.We retrospectively reviewed kidney transplant recipients who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) due to TRAS in our institute from January 2009 to December 2015. We analyzed the patient's baseline characteristics, postoperative renal function, blood pressure evolution, and the number of pre- and post-procedure antihypertensive drugs.A total of 21 patients (15 men, 6 women) were treated with the endovascular technique. The predominant presentation was graft dysfunction (76.2%). Stenosis or hemodynamic kinking was located at the anastomosis in 7 (33.3%) patients, proximal to the anastomosis in 13 (61.9%) patients, and distal the anastomosis in 1 (4.8%) patient. PTA without stent placement was performed in 7 patients (33.3%), and PTA with stent placement was performed in 14 patients (67.7%). Serum creatinine levels demonstrated no difference between the pre-procedure level and that on discharge day (1.61 mg/dl [0.47-3.29 mg/dl] vs 1.46 mg/dl [0.47-3.08 mg/dl]; P = .33). The glomerular filtration rate also showed no difference between the pre-procedure value and that on discharge day (53.6 ml/min [22.4-145.7 ml/min] vs 57.0 ml/min [17.56 -145 ml/min]; P = .084). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) varied from 137 mm Hg (120-160 mm Hg) and 84 mm Hg (70-100 mm Hg) pre-procedure to 129 mm Hg (90-150 mm Hg) and 79 mm Hg (60-90 mm Hg) at discharge, respectively (P = .124 and P = .07). The number of antihypertensive medications significantly decreased from 1.5 (0-6) pre-procedure to 0.5 (0-2) at discharge (P = .023). In our study, there were no technical failures, procedure-related complications or deaths. During the follow-up period, the free-from-reintervention rate was 100%, and graft failures occurred in 2 patients (9.5%) due to rejection.Endovascular procedures for TRAS show a high technical success rate with a low complication rate and a low reintervention rate. PTA showed a trend toward a positive impact on lowering serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure and improving estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the number of antihypertensive medications could be significantly reduced after this procedure.


Assuntos
Angioplastia/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Stents , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/diagnóstico , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Transplantados , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 209: 106329, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a condition characterized by a progressive loss of kidney function over time caused by many diseases. The most effective weapons against CKD are early diagnosis and treatment, which in most of the cases can only postpone the onset of complete kidney failure. The CKD grading system is classified based on the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), and it helps to stratify patients for risk, follow up and management planning. This study aims to effectively predict how soon a CKD patient will need to be dialyzed, thus allowing personalized care and strategic planning of treatment. METHODS: To accurately predict the time frame within which a CKD patient will necessarily have to be dialyzed, a computational model based on a supervised machine learning approach is developed. Many techniques, regarding both information extraction and model training phases, are compared in order to understand which approaches are most effective. The different models compared are trained on the data extracted from the Electronic Medical Records of the Vimercate Hospital. RESULTS: As final model, we propose a set of Extremely Randomized Trees classifiers considering 27 features, including creatinine level, urea, red blood cells count, eGFR trend (which is not even the most important), age and associated comorbidities. In predicting the occurrence of complete renal failure within the next year rather than later, it obtains a test accuracy of 94%, specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 96%. More and shorter time-frame intervals, up to 6 months of granularity, can be specified without relevantly worsening the model performance. CONCLUSIONS: The developed computational model provides nephrologists with a great support in predicting the patient's clinical pathway. The model promising results, coupled with the knowledge and experience of the clinicians, can effectively lead to better personalized care and strategic planning of both patient's needs and hospital resources.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444907

RESUMO

Background-Some data suggest favorable effects of a high potassium intake on kidney function. The present population-based study investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal relations of urinary potassium with kidney function. Methods-Study cohort included 2027 Gubbio Study examinees (56.9% women) with age ≥ 18 years at exam-1 and with complete data on selected variables at exam-1 (1983-1985), exam-2 (1989-1992), and exam-3 (2001-2007). Urinary potassium as urinary potassium/creatinine ratio was measured in daytime spot samples at exam-1 and in overnight timed collections at exam-2. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured at all exams. Covariates in analyses included demographics, anthropometry, blood pressure, drug treatments, diabetes, smoking, alcohol intake, and urinary markers of dietary sodium and protein. Results-In multivariable regression, urinary potassium/creatinine ratio cross-sectionally related to eGFR neither at exam-1 (standardized coefficient and 95%CI = 0.020 and -0.059/0.019) nor at exam-2 (0.024 and -0.013/0.056). Exam-1 urinary potassium/creatinine ratio related to eGFR change from exam-1 to exam-2 (0.051 and 0.018/0.084). Exam-2 urinary potassium/creatinine ratio related to eGFR change from exam-2 to exam-3 (0.048 and 0.005/0.091). Mean of urinary potassium/creatinine ratio at exam-1 and exam-2 related to eGFR change from exam-1 to exam-3 (0.056 and 0.027/0.087) and to incidence of eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 from exam-1 to exam-3 (odds ratio and 95%CI = 0.78 and 0.61/0.98). Conclusion-In the population, urinary potassium did not relate cross-sectionally to eGFR but related to eGFR decline over time. Data support the existence of favorable effects of potassium intake on ageing-associated decline in kidney function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/urina , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Potássio/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Creatinina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
18.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(4): 680-685, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors influencing renal functional compensation(RFC) of the preserved kidney after radical nephrectomy (RN). METHODS: A total of 286 patients treated with RN in Peking University People's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), history of smoking, history of chronic diseases and other basic information, as well as preoperative blood biochemistry, urine routine, imaging examination results were recorded. All the patients underwent 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) renal scans before operation. The surgical method, pathology and blood creatinine values from 1 month to 60 months after RN were recorded. Preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula. Renal functional compensation was defined as percent change in eGFR of the preserved kidney after RN compared with the preoperative eGFR. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify predictive factors of RFC. RESULTS: Median age was 61 years and 65.4% of the patients were male. Early stage (T1 or T2) tumors were found in 83.6% of the cases. 18.5% of the patients had preoperative diabetes mellitus, 39.5% had hypertension, 19.2% had a history of smoking, and 27.6% were found to have renal cyst on the contralateral side. In the study, 226 cases underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and 60 cases underwent open radical nephrectomy. Renal clear cell carcinoma was the most common pathological type, accounting for 88.5%. The median tumor maximum diameter was 4.5 cm (0.7-13.5 cm). Median renal function compensation was 27% one month after radical nephrectomy. Functional stability was then observed to 5 years. The results of univariate analysis showed that age, gender, preoperative blood uric acid, preoperative urine protein, contralateral renal cyst, and percentage of split renal function of contralateral kidney were correlated with RFC (P < 0.05). Among them, UA level and split renal function of contralateral kidney were strongly negatively correlated with RFC. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis showed age (P < 0.001), blood uric acid (P < 0.001), urine protein (P=0.002), preoperative eGFR (P < 0.001) and the split renal function of contralateral kidney (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of RFC. CONCLUSION: The basic examinations, such as blood biochemistry, urine routine and renal scan before RN are of great significance in predicting the compen-satory ability of the preserved kidney after RN, which is supposed to be taken into consideration when making clinical decision.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/fisiologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
20.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(3): 644-650, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402675

RESUMO

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a key index of renal function. The classic method for assessing GFR is the clearance of inulin. Several current methods using isotopic (125I-iothalamate, 51Cr-EDTA, or 99Tc-DTPA) or nonisotopic (iohexol or iothalamate) markers are available. Clinically, GFR is estimated (eGFR) from serum creatinine or cystatin C levels. Estimated GFR based on creatinine and/or cystatin are less accurate than measured GFR. The creatinine-based equations calculate higher eGFR values (suggesting better kidney function) for black individuals. This upward adjustment for all black individuals is embedded in eGFR calculations on the belief of higher serum creatinine concentrations among black individuals than among white individuals. Thus "race-corrected" eGFR has become a widely accepted and scientifically valid procedure. However, race is not a genetic or biological category. Rather, race is a social construction defined by region-specific cultural and historical ideas. Furthermore, there is no accepted scientific method for classifying people as black or white individuals. Studies typically rely on self-identification of race. However, any person in the United States with any known black ancestry is considered to be a black individual. This is known as the "one-drop rule," meaning that a single drop of "black blood" makes anyone a black individual. It does not matter if an individual has 50%, 25%, 5%, or 0.5% African ancestry. The limited accuracy and reliability of this approach would not be allowed for any other scientific variable. Admixture and migration have produced such broad variations that race categories should not be used as experimental variables.


Assuntos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Biomarcadores , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos
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