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1.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153550, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) has been widely used to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The metabolites of BBR were believed to contribute significantly to its pharmacological effects. Oxyberberine (OBB), a gut microbiota-mediated oxidative metabolite of BBR, has been firstly identified in our recent work. PURPOSE: Here, we aimed to comparatively investigate the anti-NAFLD properties of OBB and BBR. METHODS: The anti-NAFLD effect was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese NAFLD rats with biochemical/ELISA tests and histological staining. The related gene and protein expressions were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation were also performed to provide further insight. RESULTS: Results indicated OBB remarkably and dose-dependently attenuated the clinical manifestations of NAFLD, which (100 mg/kg) achieved similar therapeutic effect to metformin (300 mg/kg) and was superior to BBR of the same dose. OBB significantly inhibited aberrant phosphorylation of IRS-1 and up-regulated the downstream protein expression and phosphorylation (PI3K, p-Akt/Akt and p-GSK-3ß/GSK-3ß) to improve hepatic insulin signal transduction. Meanwhile, OBB treatment remarkably alleviated inflammation via down-regulating the mRNA expression of MCP-1, Cd68, Nos2, Cd11c, while enhancing Arg1 mRNA expression in white adipose tissue. Moreover, OBB exhibited closer affinity with AMPK in silicon and superior hyperphosphorylation of AMPK in vivo, leading to increased ACC mRNA expression in liver and UCP-1 protein expression in adipose tissue. CONCLUSION: Taken together, compared with BBR, OBB was more capable of maintaining lipid homeostasis between liver and WAT via attenuating hepatic insulin pathway and adipocyte inflammation, which was associated with its property of superior AMPK activator.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Homeostase , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Obesidade , Oxirredução , Fosforilação , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Phytomedicine ; 86: 153557, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pine nut oil (PNO), a standardized and well-defined extract of Pinus koraiensis (Korean pine), has beneficial effects on wound healing, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. However, the explanation for the mechanism by which PNO reduces body fat remains uncertain. We performed a protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis to explore the genes associated with pinolenic acid using the MEDILINE database from PubChem and PubMed. It was concluded through the PPIN analysis that PNO was involved in a neutral lipid biosynthetic process. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of PNO predicted by the network analysis of fat accumulation in chronic obesity mouse models established by feeding a high fat diet (HFD) to C57BL/6J mice and explored potential mechanisms. METHODS: HFD mice were fed only HFD or HFD with PNO at 822 and 1644 mg/kg. After an oral administration of 7 weeks, several body weight and body fat-related parameters were examined, including the following: adipose weight, adipocyte size, serum lipid profiles, adipocyte expression of PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and leptin. RESULTS: We showed that oral administration of PNO to HFD mice reduces body fat weight, fat in tissue, white adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte size. The serum cholesterol was improved in the HFD mice treated with PNO. Additionally, PNO has significantly attenuated the HFD-induced changes in the adipose tissue expression of PPAR-γ, SREBP-1c, LPL, and leptin. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study based on the PPIN analysis suggest that PNO has potential as drug to reduce body fat through fat regulatory mechanisms by PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c.


Assuntos
Nozes/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Leptina/sangue , Ácidos Linolênicos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671850

RESUMO

The increasing impact of obesity on global human health intensifies the importance of studies focusing on agents interfering with the metabolism and remodeling not only of the white adipose tissue (WAT) but also of the liver. In the present study, we have addressed the impact of n-3 PUFA in adipose cells' proliferation and adipogenesis, as well as in the hepatic lipid profile and morphology. Mice were induced to obesity by the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. At the 9th week, the treatment with fish oil (FO) was initiated and maintained until the end of the period. The FO treatment reduced the animals' body mass, plasma lipids, glucose, plasma transaminases, liver mass, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol liver content when compared to animals consuming only HFD. FO also decreased the inguinal (ing) WAT mass, reduced adipocyte volume, increased adipose cellularity (hyperplasia), and increased the proliferation of adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) which corroborates the increment in the proliferation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes or AdSCs treated in vitro with n-3 PUFA. After submitting the in vitro treated (n-3 PUFA) cells, 3T3-L1 and AdSCs, to an adipogenic cocktail, there was an increase in the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcriptional factors and other late adipocyte markers, as well as an increase in lipid accumulation when compared to not treated cells. Finally, the expression of browning-related genes was also higher in the n-3 PUFA treated group. We conclude that n-3 PUFA exerts an attenuating effect on body mass, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis induced by HFD. FO treatment led to decreasing adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy in ingWAT while increasing hyperplasia. Data suggest that FO treatment might induce recruitment (by increased proliferation and differentiation) of new adipocytes (white and/or beige) to the ingWAT, which is fundamental for the healthy expansion of WAT.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações
4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 415: 115427, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524448

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies show that individuals with underlying diabetes and diet-associated ailments are more susceptible than healthy individuals to adverse health effects of air pollution. Exposure to air pollutants can induce metabolic stress and increase cardiometabolic disease risk. Using male Wistar and Wistar-derived Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, which exhibit a non-obese type-2 diabetes phenotype, we investigated whether two key metabolic stressors, type-2 diabetes and a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet, exacerbate ozone-induced metabolic effects. Rats were fed a normal control diet (ND) or high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 12 weeks and then exposed to filtered air or 1.0-ppm ozone (6 h/day) for 1 or 2 days. Metabolic responses were analyzed at the end of each day and after an 18-h recovery period following the 2-day exposure. In GK rats, baseline hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance were exacerbated by HCD vs. ND and by ozone vs. air. HCD also resulted in higher insulin in ozone-exposed GK rats and circulating lipase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase in all groups (Wistar>GK). Histopathological effects induced by HCD in the liver, which included macrovesicular vacuolation and hepatocellular necrosis, were more severe in Wistar vs. GK rats. Liver gene expression in Wistar and GK rats fed ND showed numerous strain differences, including evidence of increased lipid metabolizing activity and ozone-induced alterations in glucose and lipid transporters, specifically in GK rats. Collectively, these findings indicate that peripheral metabolic alterations induced by diabetes and high-cholesterol diet can enhance susceptibility to the metabolic effects of inhaled pollutants.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Colesterol na Dieta/toxicidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Exposição por Inalação , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 326, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436607

RESUMO

Adipose tissue-resident T cells have been recognized as a critical regulator of thermogenesis and energy expenditure, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding greatly suppresses the expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a mitochondria-localized chaperone protein, in adipose-resident T cells, which correlates with reduced T cell mitochondrial function. T cell-specific knockout of DsbA-L enhances diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and protects mice from HFD-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, DsbA-L deficiency in T cells reduces IFN-γ production and activates protein kinase A by reducing phosphodiesterase-4D expression, leading to increased BAT thermogenesis. Taken together, our study uncovers a mechanism by which T cells communicate with brown adipocytes to regulate BAT thermogenesis and whole-body energy homeostasis. Our findings highlight a therapeutic potential of targeting T cells for the treatment of over nutrition-induced obesity and its associated metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glutationa Transferase/deficiência , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Termogênese , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Interferon gama/administração & dosagem , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
6.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1614-1625, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476356

RESUMO

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) have been reported to improve metabolic disorders, but their differential effects on anti-obesity under insulin resistance (IR) are still unclear. We fed IR mice with high-fat diet with added 1%, 2%, 4% (w/w) DHA or EPA for 12 weeks. Changes in weight, food intake, white adipose tissue (WAT), liver and blood lipids were assessed. GPR120 and PPARγ of WAT were evaluated to explore the related molecular mechanisms of DHA and EPA for anti-obesity in IR mice. 1%DHA and 1%EPA inhibit adipogenesis by down-regulating GPR120; 4%DHA stimulates browning of WAT and improves IR and inflammatory infiltration by up-regulating PPARγ; 4%EPA exerts its anti-obesity effect by mechanisms independent of PPARγ and GPR120 signaling.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipocinas/genética , Tecido Adiposo Branco/química , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , PPAR gama/análise , PPAR gama/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/análise , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Phytomedicine ; 82: 153457, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enhancement of energy expenditure has attracted attention as a therapeutic target for the management of body weight. Withaferin A (WFA), a major constituent of Withania somnifera extract, has been reported to possess anti-obesity properties, however the underlying mechanism remains unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate whether WFA exerts anti-obesity effects via increased energy expenditure, and if so, to characterize the underlying pathway. METHODS: C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks, and WFA was orally administered for 7 days. The oxygen consumption rate of mice was measured at 9 weeks using an OxyletPro™ system. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR methods were used. RESULTS: Treatment with WFA ameliorated HFD-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure by improving of mitochondrial activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and promotion of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) browning via increasing uncoupling protein 1 levels. WFA administration also significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the BAT of obese mice. Additionally, WFA activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, including p38/extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK, in both BAT and scWAT. CONCLUSION: WFA enhances energy expenditure and ameliorates obesity via the induction of AMPK and activating p38/extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK, which triggers mitochondrial biogenesis and browning-related gene expression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitanolídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Termogênese/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Withania/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia
8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 413: 115393, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412187

RESUMO

Prolonged treatment with rifampicin (RFP), a first-line antibacterial agent used in the treatment of drug-sensitive tuberculosis, may cause various side effects, including metabolic disorders. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2, also known as NRF2) plays an essential regulatory role in cellular adaptive responses to stresses via the antioxidant response element (ARE). Our previous studies discovered that NRF2 regulates the expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein ß (Cebpb) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) in the process of adipogenesis. Here, we found that prolonged RFP treatment in adult male mice fed a high-fat diet developed insulin resistance, but reduced fat accumulation and decreased expression of multiple adipogenic genes in white adipose tissues. In 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes, RFP reduced the induction of Cebpb, Pparg and Cebpa at mRNA and protein levels in the early and/or later stage of hormonal cocktail-induced adipogenesis. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that RFP inhibits NRF2-ARE luciferase reporter activity and expression of NRF2 downstream genes under normal culture condition and in the early stage of adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes, suggesting that RFP can disturb adipogenic differentiation via NRF2-ARE interference. Taken together, we demonstrate a potential mechanism that RFP impairs adipose function by which RFP likely inhibits NRF2-ARE pathway and thereby interrupts its downstream adipogenic transcription network.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibióticos Antituberculose/toxicidade , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Rifampina/toxicidade , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/patologia , Adipogenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
9.
Gene ; 766: 145155, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950634

RESUMO

Expression of browning genes are lower in both humans and animals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims at determining effects of long-term nitrate administration on protein and mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and PPAR-γ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1-α) in epididymal adipose tissue (eAT) of rats with T2D. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6/group): Control, diabetes, control + nitrate (CN), and diabetes + nitrate (DN). T2D was induced using high fat diet combined with a low-dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg body weight). Sodium nitrate was administrated at a dose of 100 mg/L for 6 months in nitrate-treated rats. Fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at months 0 (i.e. at start of the protocol), 3, and 6. At month 6, protein and mRNA levels of UCP1, PPAR-γ, and PGC1-α were measured in eAT samples. In addition, tissue concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was measured and histological analyses were done at month 6. In rats with T2D, 6-month administration of nitrate decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations by 13% and 23%, respectively and increased cGMP level by 85%. Rats with T2D had lower mRNA and protein levels of PPAR-γ (62%, P < 0.0001 and 18%, P = 0.0472), PGC1-α (49%, P = 0.0019 and 21%, P = 0.0482), and UCP1 (35%, P = 0.0613 and 30%, P = 0.0031) in eAT; 6-month nitrate administration restored these decreased levels to near control values. In addition, nitrate increased adipocyte density by 193% and decreased adipocyte area by 53% in rats with T2D. In conclusion, long-term low-dose nitrate administration increased mRNA and protein expressions of browning genes in white adipose tissue of male rats with T2D; these findings partly explain favorable metabolic effects of nitrate administration in diabetes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epididimo/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 334: 27-35, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956827

RESUMO

Methyl- and propyl- parabens are generally regarded as safe by the U.S Food and Drug Administration and as such are commonly used in personal care products. These parabens have been associated with increased white adipogenesis in vitro and methyl paraben also increased the white adipose mass of mice. Given brown adipose also plays a role in energy balance, we sought to evaluate whether the effects of methyl- and propyl- parabens on white adipocytes extended to brown adipocytes. We challenged white and brown pre-adipocytes at low doses of both parabens (up to 1 µM) during the differentiation process and examined adipogenesis with the ORO assay. The impact of each paraben on glucose uptake and lipolytic activity of adipocytes were measured with a fluorescent glucose analog and enzymatically, respectively. Methyl- and propyl- parabens increased adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 white adipocytes but not brown adipocytes. In white adipocytes, methyl paraben increased glucose uptake and both parabens reduced basal lipolysis. However, in brown adipocytes, parabens had no effect on basal lipolysis and instead attenuated isoproterenol induced lipolysis. These data indicate that methyl- and propyl- parabens target the differentiation and metabolic processes of multiple types of adipocytes in a cell autonomous manner.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Parabenos/toxicidade , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/toxicidade , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cosméticos , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
11.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153290, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral obesity and fatty liver are prevalent in postmenopausal women. The stilbene-rich extract of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. has been reported to prevent ovariectomy-induced and diet-induced weight gain in animal models, and stilbenoids from C. cajan are thought to have the potential to prevent postmenopausal obesity and fatty liver. PURPOSE: Cajanolactone A (CLA) is the main stilbenoid from C. cajan with osteoblastogenic promoting activity. This study investigated the potential of CLA to prevent postmenopausal obesity and fatty liver. Underlying mechanisms were also investigated. METHOD: Ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice fed a regular diet were used as mimics of postmenopausal women and given 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/d of CLA, 0.1 mg/kg/d of estradiol valerate (EV, positive control), or vehicle (OVX) orally for 16 weeks. Mice of the same age subjected to a sham operation were used as control (Sham). Body weights were recorded every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Body compositions were analyzed via micro-CT. Serum levels of lipids, adipocytokines and aminotransferases were measured using the relevant kits. mRNA levels of genes of interest were detected by RT-qPCR. Proteomic study of perigonadal white adipose tissue (pWAT) was performed using tandem-mass-tags-based proteomic technology combined with Parallel-Reaction-Monitoring (PRM) validation. RESULTS: CLA showed potential equivalent to that of EV to prevent ovariectomy-induced overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, liver steatosis and liver dysfunction, but did not prevent uterine atrophy. In the liver, CLA significantly inhibited ovariectomy-induced upregulation in expression of lipogenic genes SREBP-1c and ChREBP, and stimulated the mRNA expression of apolipoprotein B gene ApoB. In pWAT, CLA reversed, or partially reversed ovariectomy-induced downregulation in the expression of a number of metabolism- and mitochondrial-function-related proteins, including Ndufa3, Pcx, Pdhb, Acly, Acaca, Aldh2, Aacs and Echs1. In addition, ovariectomy-inhibited mRNA expression of Pdhb, Aacs, Acsm5, Echs1, and Aldh2 genes in pWAT was also reversed. CONCLUSION: CLA was demonstrated to be a potential non-estrogen-like drug candidate for prevention of postmenopausal obesity and fatty liver. The underlying mechanism might involve the inhibition of lipogenesis and promotion of triglycerides output in the liver, and the promotion of metabolism and mitochondrial functions of visceral white adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Cajanus/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Apolipoproteína B-100/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Pós-Menopausa , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
12.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 49: 107259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692664

RESUMO

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a fat tissue deposit that encircles the vasculature. PVAT is traditionally known to protect the vasculature from external stimuli that could cause biological stress. In addition to the protective role of PVAT, it secretes certain biologically active substances known as adipokines that induce paracrine effects on proximate blood vessels. These adipokines influence vascular tones. There are different types of PVAT and they are phenotypically and functionally distinct. These are the white and brown PVATs. Under certain conditions, white PVAT could undergo phenotypic switch to attain a brown PVAT-like phenotype. This type of PVAT is referred to as Beige PVAT. The morphology of adipose tissue is influenced by species, age, and sex. These factors play significant roles in adipose tissue mass, functionality, paracrine activity, and predisposition to vascular diseases. The difficulty that is currently experienced in extrapolating animal models to human physiology could be traceable to these factors. Up till now, the involvement of PVAT in the development of vascular pathology is still not well understood. Brown and white PVAT contribute differently to vascular pathology. Thus, the PVAT could be a therapeutic target in curbing certain vascular diseases. In this review, knowledge would be updated on the multifaceted involvement of PVAT in vascular pathology and also explore its vascular therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Bege/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Artérias/patologia , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias/metabolismo , Artérias/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina , Transdução de Sinais , Doenças Vasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
13.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1537-1553, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556103

RESUMO

Hyperuricaemia (HUA) significantly increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and is strongly associated with the increased prevalence of high serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well established, especially the effect of uric acid (UA) on adipose tissue, a vital organ in regulating whole-body energy and FFA homeostasis. In the present study, we noticed that adipocytes from the white adipose tissue of patients with HUA were hypertrophied and had decreased UCP1 expression. To test the effects of UA on adipose tissue, we built both in vitro and in vivo HUA models and elucidated that a high level of UA could induce hypertrophy of adipocytes, inhibit their hyperplasia and reduce their beige-like characteristics. According to mRNA-sequencing analysis, UA significantly decreased the expression of leptin in adipocytes, which was closely related to fatty acid metabolism and the AMPK signalling pathway, as indicated by KEGG pathway analysis. Moreover, lowering UA using benzbromarone (a uricosuric agent) or metformin-induced activation of AMPK expression significantly attenuated UA-induced FFA metabolism impairment and adipose beiging suppression, which subsequently alleviated serum FFA elevation and insulin resistance in HUA mice. Taken together, these observations confirm that UA is involved in the aetiology of metabolic abnormalities in adipose tissue by regulating leptin-AMPK pathway, and metformin could lessen HUA-induced serum FFA elevation and insulin resistance by improving adipose tissue function via AMPK activation. Therefore, metformin could represent a novel treatment strategy for HUA-related metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Bege/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Células 3T3-L1 , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Animais , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Leptina/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Lipólise , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 399: 115068, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445754

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as vinyl chloride (VC), can be directly toxic at high concentrations. However, we have shown that 'nontoxic' exposures to VC and its metabolite chloroethanol (CE) enhances experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), suggesting an unpredicted interaction. Importantly, VOC exposure has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of obesity and its sequelae in humans. As there is a known axis between adipose and hepatic tissue in NAFLD, the impact of CE on white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and lipolysis was investigated. Mice were administered CE (or vehicle) once, after 10 weeks of being fed high-fat or low-fat diet (LFD). CE significantly enhanced hepatic steatosis and inflammation caused by HFD. HFD significantly increased the size of epididymal fat pads, which was enhanced by CE. The relative size of adipocyte lipid droplets increased by HFD + CE, which was also correlated with increased expression of lipid-associated proteins (e.g., PLINs). CE also enhanced HFD-induced indices of WAT inflammation, and ER stress. Hepatic-derived circulating FGF21, a major modulator of WAT lipolysis, which is hypothesized to thereby regulate hepatic steatosis, was significantly increased by CE in animals fed HFD. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH, involving the liver-adipose axis in this process. Specifically, CE enhances local inflammation and alters lipid metabolism and WAT-mediated hepatic steatosis due to changes in WAT lipolysis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cloreto de Vinil/toxicidade , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2379, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404872

RESUMO

Brown and beige fat share a remarkably similar transcriptional program that supports fuel oxidation and thermogenesis. The chromatin-remodeling machinery that governs genome accessibility and renders adipocytes poised for thermogenic activation remains elusive. Here we show that BAF60a, a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes, serves an indispensable role in cold-induced thermogenesis in brown fat. BAF60a maintains chromatin accessibility at PPARγ and EBF2 binding sites for key thermogenic genes. Surprisingly, fat-specific BAF60a inactivation triggers more pronounced cold-induced browning of inguinal white adipose tissue that is linked to induction of MC2R, a receptor for the pituitary hormone ACTH. Elevated MC2R expression sensitizes adipocytes and BAF60a-deficient adipose tissue to thermogenic activation in response to ACTH stimulation. These observations reveal an unexpected dichotomous role of BAF60a-mediated chromatin remodeling in transcriptional control of brown and beige gene programs and illustrate a pituitary-adipose signaling axis in the control of thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/deficiência , Temperatura Baixa , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/ultraestrutura , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6666, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313039

RESUMO

Obesity and its numerous adverse health consequences have taken on global, pandemic proportions. White adipose tissue (WAT) - a key contributor in many metabolic diseases - contributes about one fourth of a healthy human's body mass. Despite its significance, many WAT-related pathophysiogical mechanisms in humans are still not understood, largely due to the reliance on non-human animal models. In recent years, Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) platforms have developed into promising alternatives for animal models; these systems integrate engineered human tissues into physiological microenvironment supplied by a vasculature-like microfluidic perfusion. Here, we report the development of a novel OoC that integrates functional mature human white adipocytes. The WAT-on-a-chip is a multilayer device that features tissue chambers tailored specifically for the maintenance of 3D tissues based on human primary adipocytes, with supporting nourishment provided through perfused media channels. The platform's capability to maintain long-term viability and functionality of white adipocytes was confirmed by real-time monitoring of fatty acid uptake, by quantification of metabolite release into the effluent media as well as by an intact responsiveness to a therapeutic compound. The novel system provides a promising tool for wide-ranging applications in mechanistic research of WAT-related biology, in studying of pathophysiological mechanisms in obesity and diabetes, and in R&D of pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Adipócitos Brancos/citologia , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/citologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Humanos , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Microtecnologia/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células
17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 686: 108364, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315653

RESUMO

Fucoxanthin (Fx), a major carotenoid found in brown seaweed, is known to show a unique and wide variety of biological activities. Upon absorption, Fx is metabolized to fucoxanthinol and amarouciaxanthin, and these metabolites mainly accumulate in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT). As seen in other carotenoids, Fx can quench singlet oxygen and scavenge a wide range of free radicals. The antioxidant activity is related to the neuroprotective, photoprotective, and hepatoprotective effects of Fx. Fx is also reported to show anti-cancer activity through the regulation of several biomolecules and signaling pathways that are involved in either cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or metastasis suppression. Among the biological activities of Fx, anti-obesity is the most well-studied and most promising effect. This effect is primarily based on the upregulation of thermogenesis by uncoupling protein 1 expression and the increase in the metabolic rate induced by mitochondrial activation. In addition, Fx shows anti-diabetic effects by improving insulin resistance and promoting glucose utilization in skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Alga Marinha/química , Xantofilas/química , Xantofilas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores/metabolismo , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/química , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Xantofilas/efeitos adversos , beta Caroteno/análogos & derivados , beta Caroteno/química
18.
Endocrinology ; 161(4)2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157301

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) synthesized by the gut regulates lipid metabolism. Sympathetic innervation of adipose tissues also controls lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that ApoA-IV required sympathetic innervation to increase fatty acid (FA) uptake by adipose tissues and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. After 3 weeks feeding of either a standard chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), mice with unilateral denervation of adipose tissues received intraperitoneal administration of recombinant ApoA-IV protein and intravenous infusion of lipid mixture with radioactive triolein. In chow-fed mice, ApoA-IV administration increased FA uptake by intact BAT but not the contralateral denervated BAT or intact white adipose tissue (WAT). Immunoblots showed that, in chow-fed mice, ApoA-IV increased expression of lipoprotein lipase and tyrosine hydroxylase in both intact BAT and inguinal WAT (IWAT), while ApoA-IV enhanced protein levels of ß3 adrenergic receptor, adipose triglyceride lipase, and uncoupling protein 1 in the intact BAT only. In HFD-fed mice, ApoA-IV elevated FA uptake by intact epididymal WAT (EWAT) but not intact BAT or IWAT. ApoA-IV increased sympathetic activity assessed by norepinephrine turnover (NETO) rate in BAT and EWAT of chow-fed mice, whereas it elevated NETO only in EWAT of HFD-fed mice. These observations suggest that, in chow-fed mice, ApoA-IV activates sympathetic activity of BAT and increases FA uptake by BAT via innervation, while in HFD-fed mice, ApoA-IV stimulates sympathetic activity of EWAT to shunt FAs into the EWAT.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas A/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Camundongos , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(5): E600-E612, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154743

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that exposing mouse dams to metformin during gestation results in increased beta-cell mass at birth and increased beta-cell insulin secretion in adult male offspring. Given these favorable changes after a gestational maternal metformin exposure, we wanted to understand the long-term metabolic impact on offspring after exposing dams to metformin during the postnatal window. The newborn period provides a feasible clinical window for intervention and is important for beta-cell proliferation and metabolic tissue development. Using a C57BL/6 model, we administered metformin to dams from the day of birth to postnatal day 21. We monitored maternal health and offspring growth during the lactation window, as well as adult glucose homeostasis through in vivo testing. At necropsy we assessed pancreas and adipocyte morphology using histological and immunofluorescent staining techniques. We found that metformin exposure programmed male and female offspring to be leaner with a higher proportion of small adipocytes in the gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT). Male, but not female, offspring had an improvement in glucose tolerance as young adults concordant with a mild increase in insulin secretion in response to glucose in vivo. These data demonstrate long-term metabolic programming of offspring associated with maternal exposure to metformin during lactation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
20.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 75(5): 475-482, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141988

RESUMO

Nitrate esters have been used in clinical practice for more than one century for the treatment of angina. Their clinical effectiveness is due to vasodilator activity in arteries through a method of delivering nitric oxide or a nitric oxide-like compound. Recently, an increasing numbers of functions of this molecule in biology and pathophysiology have been discovered. Macrophage polarization shift in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been demonstrated to be correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether nitrate esters could improve coronary atherosclerosis through inhibition of macrophage polarization shift in EAT. A case-control study enrolled 48 subjects in 2 groups: CAD patients with or without nitrate esters treatment. Infiltration of M1/M2 macrophages and the expressions of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in EAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue were investigated by immunohistochemical stain among subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The expression levels of metabolic genes were investigated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that nitrate ester treatment significantly inhibited NF-кB activity and decreased macrophage infiltration and M1/M2 macrophage ratio in EAT in patients with CAD. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly decreased, along with significantly elevated expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines in CAD patients with nitrate ester treatment, corresponding EAT dysfunction was ameliorated and the severity of patients with CAD (Gensini score) was significantly decreased. The protective effects on macrophage polarization and EAT function through NF-кB activity inhibition suggested a potential mechanism of nitrate esters in alleviating the severity of CAD.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Ésteres/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nitratos/uso terapêutico , Pericárdio/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Pericárdio/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais
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