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1.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 15-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009122

RESUMO

Body weight gain in middle age is thought to be mainly attributable to body fat gain. However, the association between the change in body weight and change in fat weight is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between the changes in body weight and fat weight in a middle-aged general population using a community-based cohort. We studied 3,193 subjects who underwent health check-ups. Fat weight was measured using a TANITA DC-270A body composition analyzer (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo). Good correlation was observed between the changes in body weight and fat weight (Pearson r = 0.88, P < 0.001). Among the study subjects, 408 (13%) were categorized in the weight loss group (weight loss ≥ 5%), 2,442 (76%) in the weight stable group, and 343 (11%) in the weight gain group (weight gain ≥ 5%). The percentage of change in fat weight in relation to the change in body weight was 65% on average in subjects with body weight loss, and 70% on average in those with body weight gain. Good correlation between changes in body weight and fat weight was observed regardless of age, gender, and baseline body mass index. A change in body weight was closely correlated with a change in fat weight among the middle-aged general population. Body weight change in the middle-age population appears to be mainly attributable to the change in fat weight.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS Genet ; 15(10): e1008279, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603892

RESUMO

Muscle development and lipid accumulation in muscle critically affect meat quality of livestock. However, the genetic factors underlying myofiber-type specification and intramuscular fat (IMF) accumulation remain to be elucidated. Using two independent intercrosses between Western commercial breeds and Korean native pigs (KNPs) and a joint linkage-linkage disequilibrium analysis, we identified a 488.1-kb region on porcine chromosome 12 that affects both reddish meat color (a*) and IMF. In this critical region, only the MYH3 gene, encoding myosin heavy chain 3, was found to be preferentially overexpressed in the skeletal muscle of KNPs. Subsequently, MYH3-transgenic mice demonstrated that this gene controls both myofiber-type specification and adipogenesis in skeletal muscle. We discovered a structural variant in the promotor/regulatory region of MYH3 for which Q allele carriers exhibited significantly higher values of a* and IMF than q allele carriers. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and cotransfection assays showed that the structural variant in the 5'-flanking region of MYH3 abrogated the binding of the myogenic regulatory factors (MYF5, MYOD, MYOG, and MRF4). The allele distribution of MYH3 among pig populations worldwide indicated that the MYH3 Q allele is of Asian origin and likely predates domestication. In conclusion, we identified a functional regulatory sequence variant in porcine MYH3 that provides novel insights into the genetic basis of the regulation of myofiber type ratios and associated changes in IMF in pigs. The MYH3 variant can play an important role in improving pork quality in current breeding programs.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Miosinas/genética , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Carne , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Sus scrofa/genética , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Suínos
3.
PLoS Med ; 16(8): e1002888, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated growth in early childhood is an established risk factor for later obesity and cardiometabolic disease, but the relative importance of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) accretion is not well understood. We aimed to study how FM and FFM at birth and their accretion during infancy were associated with body composition and cardiometabolic risk markers at 5 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Healthy children born at term were enrolled in the Infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) birth cohort between December 2008 and October 2012 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital in the city of Jimma, Ethiopia. FM and FFM were assessed using air displacement plethysmography a median of 6 times between birth and 6 months of age. In 507 children, we estimated individual FM and FFM at birth and their accretion over 0-3 and 3-6 months of age using linear-spline mixed-effects modelling. We analysed associations of FM and FFM at birth and their accretion in infancy with height, waist circumference, FM, FFM, and cardiometabolic risk markers at 5 years using multiple linear regression analysis. A total of 340 children were studied at the 5-year follow-up (mean age: 60.0 months; girls: 50.3%; mean wealth index: 45.5 out of 100; breastfeeding status at 4.5 to 6 months post-partum: 12.5% exclusive, 21.4% almost exclusive, 60.6% predominant, 5.5% partial/none). Higher FM accretion in infancy was associated with higher FM and waist circumference at 5 years. For instance, 100-g/month higher FM accretion in the periods 0-3 and 3-6 months was associated with 339 g (95% CI: 243-435 g, p < 0.001) and 367 g (95% CI: 250-484 g, p < 0.001) greater FM at 5 years, respectively. Higher FM at birth and FM accretion from 0 to 3 months were associated with higher FFM and cholesterol concentrations at 5 years. Associations for cholesterol were strongest for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and remained significant after adjusting for current FM. A 100-g higher FM at birth and 100-g/month higher FM accretion from 0 to 3 months were associated with 0.16 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.05-0.26 mmol/l, p = 0.005) and 0.06 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.01-0.12 mmol/l, p = 0.016) higher LDL-cholesterol at 5 years, respectively. Higher FFM at birth and FFM accretion in infancy were associated with higher FM, FFM, waist circumference, and height at 5 years. For instance, 100-g/month higher FFM accretion in the periods 0-3 and 3-6 months was associated with 1,002 g (95% CI: 815-1,189 g, p < 0.001) and 624 g (95% CI: 419-829 g, p < 0.001) greater FFM at 5 years, respectively. We found no associations of FM and FFM growth with any of the other studied cardiometabolic markers including glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and blood pressure. Non-attendance at the 5-year follow-up visit was the main limitation of this study, which may have introduced selection bias and limited the power of the regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: FM accretion in early life was positively associated with markers of adiposity and lipid metabolism, but not with blood pressure and cardiometabolic markers related to glucose homeostasis. FFM accretion was primarily related to linear growth and FFM at 5 years.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição Corporal , Pressão Sanguínea , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 6551-6554, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056330

RESUMO

Lameness and body condition are closely related. Recent studies have shown that cows with low body condition score (BCS) have a greater risk for developing lameness than cows with higher BCS. Among other reasons, this relationship might be related to the reduced thickness of the digital fat cushion in lean cows. The digital cushion is not a homogeneous structure but consists of different fat pads and connective tissue. We hypothesized that either high or low BCS will result in concordant adipocyte sizes in the fat pads of the digital cushion and subcutaneous tailhead fat irrespective of the localization of the latter. Right front claws were collected from 18 Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were selected according to their BCS: 9 cows with BCS <3 (low BCS) and 9 cows with BCS ≥3 (high BCS). After dissecting the horn capsule of the lateral claw, samples of the axial and abaxial fat pads were prepared for histomorphological examinations (adipocyte size measurement) and protein abundance of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) via Western blotting. In addition, fat samples were excised from the tailhead of all cows and used for the same purposes. Adipocyte size in tailhead fat was greater in high-BCS than in low-BCS cows. Similar differences between the BCS groups were apparent for adipocytes from the axial fat pad, although adipocytes in tailhead fat were larger than those in the digital cushion. In contrast to that in the axial fat pad and tailhead fat, adipocyte size in the abaxial fat pad was similar in cows from both BCS groups. A relationship between adipocyte size and VEGF-A protein was only confirmed for the axial fat pad, not for the other fat depots. When comparing BCS groups, differences in VEGF-A protein abundance between high-BCS and low-BCS cows were also limited to the axial fat pad, being absent in tailhead fat and the abaxial fat pad. Taken together, our results show that the fat pads from the digital cushion should not be considered uniform adipose tissue locations but rather discrete units reacting differently to fat mobilization.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Tamanho Celular , Feminino , Gordura Subcutânea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
5.
Elife ; 82019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090541

RESUMO

While lower vertebrates contain adult stem cells (aSCs) that maintain homeostasis and drive un-exhaustive organismal growth, mammalian aSCs display mainly the homeostatic function. Here, we use lineage analysis in the medaka fish gill to address aSCs and report separate stem cell populations for homeostasis and growth. These aSCs are fate-restricted during the entire post-embryonic life and even during re-generation paradigms. We use chimeric animals to demonstrate that p53 mediates growth coordination among fate-restricted aSCs, suggesting a hierarchical organisation among lineages in composite organs like the fish gill. Homeostatic and growth aSCs are clonal but differ in their topology; modifications in tissue architecture can convert the homeostatic zone into a growth zone, indicating a leading role for the physical niche defining stem cell output. We hypothesise that physical niches are main players to restrict aSCs to a homeostatic function in animals with fixed adult size.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Adultas/metabolismo , Brânquias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryzias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Quimera/genética , Quimera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes p53/genética , Brânquias/metabolismo , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Oryzias/metabolismo , Nicho de Células-Tronco/genética
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2658-2673, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982893

RESUMO

The intramuscular adipose tissue deposition in the skeletal muscle of beef cattle is a highly desired trait essential for high-quality beef. In contrast, the excessive accumulation of crosslinked collagen in intramuscular connective tissue contributes to beef toughness. Recent studies revealed that adipose tissue and connective tissue share an embryonic origin in mice and may be derived from a common immediate bipotent precursor in mice and humans. Having the same linkages in the development of adipose tissue and connective tissue in beef, the lineage commitment and differentiation of progenitor cells giving rise to these tissues may directly affect beef quality. It has been shown that these processes are regulated by some key transcription regulators and are subjective to epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. Continued exploration of relevant regulatory pathways is very important for the identification of mechanisms influencing meat quality and the development of proper management strategies for beef quality improvement.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Carne Vermelha/normas , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colágeno/metabolismo , Tecido Conjuntivo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009469

RESUMO

Castration is an important means of improving the beef quality via increasing fat deposition. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the fat deposition after castration. Here, the intramuscular fat (IMF) content of the steer group was shown to be much higher than the bull group. To understand transcriptional changes in the genes involved in fat deposition following castration, differential expression patterns of mRNAs in liver tissue were investigated in steers and bulls using RNA sequencing. In total, we obtained 58,282,367-54,918,002 uniquely mapped reads, which covered 90.13% of the currently annotated transcripts; 5,864 novel transcripts and optimized 9,088 known genes were determined. These results indicated that castration could change the expression patterns of mRNAs in liver tissue, and 282 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between steers and bulls. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the DEGs were mostly enriched in PPAR signaling pathway, steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and biosynthesis of fatty acids. Furthermore, eight DEGs were corroborated via quantitative real-time PCR and we found that FABP1 gene knockdown in bovine hepatocytes prominently reduced intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion in culture medium. In summary, these results indicate that FABP1 may promote fat deposition by promoting the production and secretion of TAG and VLDL in steer liver.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Lipogênese/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Orquiectomia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Carne Vermelha , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Triglicerídeos/genética
8.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 316(6): R802-R818, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969842

RESUMO

Chickens from lines selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight (BW) differ in appetite and adiposity. Mechanisms associated with the predisposition to becoming obese are unclear. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate developmental changes in depot-specific adipose tissue during the first 2 wk posthatch. Subcutaneous (SQ), clavicular (CL), and abdominal (AB) depots were collected at hatch (DOH) and days 4 (D4) and 14 (D14) posthatch for histological and mRNA measurements. LWS chicks had decreased SQ fat mass on a BW basis with reduced adipocyte size from DOH to D4 and increased BW and fat mass with unchanged adipocyte size from D4 to D14. HWS chicks increased in BW from DOH to D14 and increased in fat mass in all three depots with enlarged adipocytes in the AB depot from D4 to D14. Meanwhile, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, neuropeptide Y, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNAs differed among depots between lines at different ages. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids were greater in LWS than HWS at D4 and D14. From DOH to D4, LWS chicks mobilized SQ fat and replenished the reservoir through hyperplasia, whereas HWS chicks were dependent on hyperplasia and hypertrophy to maintain adipocyte size and depot mass. From D4 to D14, adipose tissue catabolism and adipogenesis slowed. Whereas LWS fat depots and adipocyte sizes remained stable, HWS chicks rapidly accumulated fat in CL and AB depots. Chicks predisposed to be anorexic or obese have different fat development patterns during the first 2 wk posthatch.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adiposidade , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase de Cadeia Longa/genética , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase de Cadeia Longa/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anorexia/genética , Anorexia/metabolismo , Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Anorexia/veterinária , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Neuropeptídeo Y/genética , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/veterinária , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 170, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and composition have a strong impact on the nutritional and organoleptic properties of porcine meat. The goal of the current work was to compare the patterns of gene expression and the genetic determinism of IMF traits in the porcine gluteus medius (GM) and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. RESULTS: A comparative analysis of the mRNA expression profiles of the pig GM and LD muscles in 16 Duroc pigs with available microarray mRNA expression measurements revealed the existence of 106 differentially expressed probes (fold-change > 1.5 and q-value < 0.05). Amongst the genes displaying the most significant differential expression, several loci belonging to the Hox transcription factor family were either upregulated (HOXA9, HOXA10, HOXB6, HOXB7 and TBX1) or downregulated (ARX) in the GM muscle. Differences in the expression of genes with key roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (e.g. FABP3, ORMDL1 and SLC37A1) were also detected. By performing a GWAS for IMF content and composition traits recorded in the LD and GM muscles of 350 Duroc pigs, we identified the existence of one region on SSC14 (110-114 Mb) displaying significant associations with C18:0, C18:1(n-7), saturated and unsaturated fatty acid contents in both GM and LD muscles. Moreover, we detected several genome-wide significant associations that were not consistently found in both muscles. Further studies should be performed to confirm whether these associations are muscle-specific. Finally, the performance of an eQTL scan for 74 genes, located within GM QTL regions and with available microarray measurements of gene expression, made possible to identify 14 cis-eQTL regulating the expression of 14 loci, and six of them were confirmed by RNA-Seq. CONCLUSIONS: We have detected significant differences in the mRNA expression patterns of the porcine LD and GM muscles, evidencing that the transcriptomic profile of the skeletal muscle tissue is affected by anatomical, metabolic and functional factors. A highly significant association with IMF composition on SSC14 was replicated in both muscles, highlighting the existence of a common genetic determinism, but we also observed the existence of a few associations whose magnitude and significance varied between LD and GM muscles.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculos Paraespinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculos Paraespinais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coxa da Perna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(4)2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925743

RESUMO

Identifying the genetic basis of improvement in pigs contributes to our understanding of the role of artificial selection in shaping the genome. Here we employed the Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozogysity (XPEHH) and the Wright's fixation index (FST) methods to detect trait-specific selection signatures by making phenotypic gradient differential population pairs, and then attempted to map functional genes of six backfat thickness traits in Yorkshire pigs. The results indicate that a total of 283 and 466 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as trait-specific selection signatures using FST and XPEHH, respectively. Functional annotation suggested that the genes overlapping with the trait-specific selection signatures such as OSBPL8, ASAH2, SMCO2, GBE1, and ABL1 are responsible for the phenotypes including fat metabolism, lean body mass and fat deposition, and transport in mouse. Overall, the study developed the methods of gene mapping on the basis of identification of selection signatures. The candidate genes putatively associated with backfat thickness traits can provide important references and fundamental information for future pig-breeding programs.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Seleção Genética , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Haplótipos/genética , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Suínos
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 4798-4807, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904312

RESUMO

The effect of milk consumption on childhood obesity is unclear and a direct demonstration of an association is needed. In the present study, we used piglets as a model for prepubertal children to determine the effect of milk on adipose tissue. Two studies were conducted: study 1 with 5-wk-old male piglets (n = 8) and study 2 with 8- to 9-wk-old male piglets (n = 12). The piglets were fed a normal growing diet and randomly assigned to receive daily either 750 mL of whole cow milk or an isocaloric maltodextrin solution (control). For approximately 12 wk, body weight, feed intake, and subcutaneous back fat thickness were determined ultrasonographically and recorded. At euthanasia, back and neck fat thicknesses were measured and samples of back fat were collected for adipose histology. In study 1, but not study 2, piglets receiving milk grew more and ate more compared with control. In study 1, both back fat and neck fat thickness were greater in the milk-fed piglets and they had a higher frequency of small adipocytes and a lower frequency of intermediate and large adipocytes compared with controls. In study 2, control pigs had a significantly greater frequency of intermediate adipocytes but the milk-fed piglets tended to have a higher frequency of the largest adipocytes. In conclusion, milk has no apparent causal or consistent effect on adipose tissue in growing piglets.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Dieta/veterinária , Leite , Modelos Biológicos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 17(2): 149-156, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Conventional treatment options for eyelid fat bulging are generally limited to surgical approaches. However, many attempts have been made recently to manage this disfigurement using non-surgical interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a micro-insulated needle radiofrequency system for the treatment of lower eyelid fat bulging. METHODS: This is a single center pre-post comparative study. Twenty-two subjects with lower eyelid fat bulging were treated twice using the needle radiofrequency system, at an interval of four weeks. Two types of partially insulated needles with different lengths were used in each session. A three-dimensional photogrammetry system was used to objectively measure changes in the extent of the fat bulge. The investigator's global assessment (IGA) of the severity of fat bulging was also evaluated. RESULTS: The average extent of fat bulging was decreased significantly after twelve weeks, and was maintained until 24 weeks. The IGA score was significantly decreased after four weeks and further decreased after twelve weeks, and then maintained until 24 weeks. There were no side effects, except for lower eyelid swelling and bruising that lasted for about a week. CONCLUSION: The micro-insulated needle radiofrequency system can be a beneficial and well-tolerated treatment for lower eyelid fat bulging.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pálpebras/patologia , Agulhas/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Radiofrequência/instrumentação , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Técnicas Cosméticas/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/instrumentação , Satisfação do Paciente , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ondas de Rádio
13.
Chemosphere ; 220: 687-695, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605811

RESUMO

The ubiquitous environmental obesogens tributyltin (TBT) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) may accumulate in parent and be transferred to their offspring, resulting in trans-generational adverse effects. In this study, we investigated the combined toxic and obesogenic effects of TBT and PFOS on the early life stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). In ovo nanoinjection was used to simulate the maternal transfer process. Doses were controlled at 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 2.5 ng/egg (TBT) and at 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 ng/egg (PFOS), with a full factorial design for mixture formulations. Relatively high doses of agents in mixtures were needed to induce significant mortality (TBT ≥ 0.5 ng/egg) or delayed hatching (PFOS = 5.0 ng/egg) of embryos. The interaction between TBT and PFOS in mixtures had significant effects on the observed hatching delay, but not on acute mortality. Compared with controls, separate exposure to TBT (or PFOS) notably elevated adipose areas at the doses of 0.05 and 0.5 ng/egg, but not at the highest doses. Combined exposure significantly promoted the fat accumulation in newly hatched larvae, even when the doses of TBT and PFOS were both at the levels that did not show obesogenic effect. The interactive effect of TBT and PFOS could aggravate the total obesogenic effect of their mixtures, indicating a synergistic interaction. These results highlight the importance of paying close attention to interaction effects when addressing the impacts of mixtures of environmental obesogens.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/farmacologia , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacologia , Oryzias/metabolismo , Compostos de Trialquitina/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Oryzias/embriologia
14.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621350

RESUMO

γ-Oryzanol (OZ), abundant in rice bran oil, has gained attention due to its physiological activities (e.g., lipid-lowering effects). However, the absorption and metabolism of orally ingested OZ have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, diets containing normal or high contents of OZ were fed to obesity model mice for 8 weeks, and OZ concentrations in plasma and organs were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. To evaluate the relationship between OZ accumulation and lipid metabolism in vivo, lipid concentrations in the mice plasma and liver were also measured. As a result, the accumulation of intact OZ in plasma and organs was seen in mice fed diets containing OZ, where mice fed diets containing higher OZ contents demonstrated higher levels of OZ accumulation and lower amounts of plasma lipids. These results, in combination with our additional data from a single oral administration test, suggest the possibility that intact OZ, along with its metabolites (e.g., ferulic acid), is biologically-active.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Fenilpropionatos/farmacocinética , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dieta , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Hipolipemiantes , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/química , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilpropionatos/análise , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Gene ; 680: 99-104, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099021

RESUMO

Copy number variation (CNV) related to complex traits, such as disease and quantitative phenotype, is considered an important and wealthy source of genetic and phenotypic diversity. It suggests that the copy number variation of function gene maybe leads to the phenotypic changes. Kupple like factor 3 (KLF3) gene is a vital transcription factor associated with the growth and development of muscle and adipose tissue. It has been mapped in a CNV region by animal genome re-sequencing. In this study, we detected the distribution diversity of KLF3 gene copy numbers in six Chinese cattle breeds (QC, NY, XN, PN, QDM and JX) and associated the phenotypic traits with it. Then, we analyzed the KLF3 gene transcription expression level in different tissues of Jiaxian (JX) cattle. Furthermore, we detected mRNA expression level of muscle and fat tissues of Jiaxian cattle (JX), Angus × Jiaxian (AJ). The results showed that the copy number in CNV loss was more frequent in QC than others. And we revealed a positive effect of KLF3 CNV on growth traits, such as body mass and heart girth (P < 0.05). In a word, we ascertained the significance between CNVs of KLF3 gene and growth traits in different cattle breeds, and our data indicates that the CNVs of KLF3 gene may as a marker for the future molecular breeding of Chinese beef cattle.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(3): 2399-2425, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192004

RESUMO

Globally, the obesity pandemic is profoundly affecting quality of life and economic productivity, but efforts to address this, especially on a pharmacological level, have generally proven unsuccessful to date, serving as a stark demonstration that our understanding of adipocyte biology and pathophysiology is incomplete. To deliver better insight into adipocyte function and obesity, we need improved adipocyte models with a high degree of fidelity in representing the in vivo state and with a diverse range of experimental applications. Adipocyte cell lines, especially 3T3-L1 cells, have been used extensively over many years, but these are limited in terms of relevance and versatility. In this review, I propose that primary adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) present a superior model with which to study adipocyte biology ex vivo. In particular, ASCs afford us the opportunity to study adipocytes from different, functionally distinct, adipose depots and to investigate, by means of in vivo/ex vivo studies, the effects of many different physiological and pathophysiological factors, such as age, body weight, hormonal status, diet and nutraceuticals, as well as disease and pharmacological treatments, on the biology of adipocytes and their precursors. This study will give an overview of the characteristics of ASCs and published studies utilizing ASCs, to highlight the areas where our knowledge is lacking. More comprehensive studies in primary ASCs will contribute to an improved understanding of adipose tissue, in healthy and dysfunctional states, which will enhance our efforts to more successfully manage and treat obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia
17.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 69(5): 284-290, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193395

RESUMO

Obesity is a common and increasingly prevalent human condition due to unhealthy diet and less-exercise lifestyle. Development of obesity is associated with substantial modulation of adipose tissue structure. The expansion of adipose tissue is linked to the development of its vasculature, and modulation of angiogenesis may have the potential to impair adipose tissue development. In this study, we used obesity model of zebrafish fed by egg yolk to investigate the effect of Lysimachia capillipes on the obesity. The results showed that Lysimachia capillipes inhibited angiogenesis of adipose tissue in transgenic zebrafish Tg (Fli 1: EGFP), which was similar to surppressing effect of TNP-470, which was accompanied by decreased Oil Red O staining of the zebrafish. The treatment of Lysimachia capillipes reduced expression of MTP significantly, but modestly reduced expression of Ppar g, FABP10a, and CD36 level through ISH, which was accordant with the results by PCR analysis. The study proved that Lysimachia capillipes might possess novel therapeutic properties for prevention and treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Primulaceae/química , Tecido Adiposo/irrigação sanguínea , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(2): 607-620, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335158

RESUMO

Histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases MLL3 and MLL4 (MLL3/4) are required for enhancer activation during cell differentiation, though the mechanism is incompletely understood. We have attempted to address this issue by generating two mouse lines: one expressing H3.3K4M, a lysine-4-to-methionine (K4M) mutation of histone H3.3 that inhibits H3K4 methylation, and the other carrying conditional double knockout of MLL3/4 enzymatic SET domain. Expression of H3.3K4M in lineage-specific precursor cells depletes H3K4 methylation and impairs adipose tissue and muscle development. Mechanistically, H3.3K4M prevents enhancer activation in adipogenesis by destabilizing MLL3/4 proteins but not other Set1-like H3K4 methyltransferases MLL1, MLL2, SET1A and SET1B. Notably, deletion of the enzymatic SET domain in lineage-specific precursor cells mimics H3.3K4M expression, destabilizes MLL3/4 proteins, and prevents adipose tissue and muscle development. Interestingly, destabilization of MLL3/4 by H3.3K4M in adipocytes does not affect adipose tissue maintenance and thermogenic function. Together, our findings indicate that expression of H3.3K4M, or deletion of the enzymatic SET domain, destabilizes enhancer H3K4 methyltransferases MLL3/4 and impairs adipose tissue and muscle development.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Deleção de Sequência , Termogênese
19.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(4): 777-789, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448891

RESUMO

Thoracic aorta perivascular adipose tissue (T-PVAT) has critical roles in regulating vascular homeostasis. However, the developmental characteristics and cellular lineage of adipocyte in the T-PVAT remain unclear. We show that T-PVAT contains three long strip-shaped fat depots, anterior T-PVAT (A-T-PVAT), left lateral T-PVAT (LL-T-PVAT), and right lateral T-PVAT (RL-T-PVAT). A-T-PVAT displays a distinct transcriptional profile and developmental origin compared to the two lateral T-PVATs (L-T-PVAT). Lineage tracing studies indicate that A-T-PVAT adipocytes are primarily derived from SM22α+ progenitors, whereas L-T-PVAT contains both SM22α+ and Myf5+ cells. We also show that L-T-PVAT contains more UCP1+ brown adipocytes than A-T-PVAT, and L-T-PVAT exerts a greater relaxing effect on aorta than A-T-PVAT. Angiotensin II-infused hypertensive mice display greater macrophage infiltration into A-T-PVAT than L-T-PVAT. These combined results indicate that L-T-PVAT has a distinct development from A-T-PVAT with different cellular lineage, and suggest that L-T-PVAT and A-T-PVAT have different physiological and pathological functions.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Ontologia Genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Fator Regulador Miogênico 5/genética , Fator Regulador Miogênico 5/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(2): 395-408, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483895

RESUMO

Adipose tissue is hypothesized to play a vital role in regulation of feed efficiency (FE; efficiency in converting energy and nutrients into tissue), of which improvement will simultaneously reduce environmental impact and feed cost per pig. The objective of the present study was to sequence the subcutaneous adipose tissue transcriptome in FE-divergent pigs (n = 16) and identify relevant biological processes underpinning observed differences in FE. We previously demonstrated that high-FE pigs were associated with lower fatness when compared to their counterparts. Here, ontology analysis of a total of 209 annotated genes that were differentially expressed at a p < 0.01 revealed establishment of a dense extracellular matrix and inhibition of capillary formation as one underlying mechanism to achieve suppressed adipogenesis. Moreover, mechanisms ensuring an efficient utilization of lipids in high-FE pigs might be orchestrated by upstream regulators including CEBPA and EGF. Consequently, high-FE adipose tissue could exhibit more efficient cholesterol disposal, whilst inhibition of inflammatory and immune response in high-FE pigs may be an indicator of an optimally functioning adipose tissue. Taken together, adipose tissue growth, extracellular matrix formation, lipid metabolism and inflammatory and immune response are key biological events underpinning the differences in FE. Further investigations focusing on elucidating these processes would assist the animal production industry in optimizing strategies related to nutrient utilization and product quality.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular/genética , Obesidade/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adiposidade/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo
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