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1.
Toxicology ; 441: 152506, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512034

RESUMO

Maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation (NIC) is associated with dysfunction of white adipose tissue (WAT). We focused on the NIC-induced WAT angiogenesis and explored its sex and age differences. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to NIC (1.0 mg/kg nicotine twice per day) or control groups. Distribution and density of blood vessels were observed. Angiogenesis-related genes were tested at 4, 12 and 26 weeks to estimate angiogenic activity. In vitro, nicotine concentration- and time-response experiments (0-50 µM) were conducted in 3T3-L1. Lipid accumulation and angiogenesis-related genes were tested. NIC increased the blood vessels in inguinal subcutaneous WAT (igSWAT) and gonadal WAT (gWAT) of 26-week-aged male and 4-week-aged female offspring. In males, nicotine showed higher angiogenic activity at 26 weeks than at 4 weeks in igSWAT and gWAT. In females, nicotine's angiogenic activity was higher at 4 weeks than 26 weeks in igSWAT and gWAT. In vitro, nicotine promoted adipocyte differentiation, and increased the expression of angiogenesis-related genes in concentration- and time dependent manners. In conclusion, NIC-induced enhancement of angiogenic activity in WAT presented sex and age differences: nicotine showed higher angiogenic activity in adulthood than in childhood of male offspring, but the converse results were observed in female offspring.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/irrigação sanguínea , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Nicotina/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 611-615, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098295

RESUMO

El incremento en las cifras de obesidad se debe esencialmente a factores de carácter ambiental asociados al consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de grasas saturadas. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de una dieta alta en grasas sobre parámetros alimentarios y tejido adiposo blanco visceral. Se utilizaron ratas macho Sprague Dawley (n=10), divididas en dos grupos experimentales, el grupo control recibió dieta convencional (DC) y el grupo experimental una dieta alta en grasas (HFD), durante 10 semanas. Se determinó peso corporal, ingesta alimentaria, conversión alimenticia y características de tejido adiposo. El análisis de datos se realizó utilizando software IBM SPSS versión 21; tras evaluación de la normalidad de los datos, se aplicaron pruebas paramétricas T para muestras independientes y ANOVA de dos vías para medidas repetidas en uno de los factores, con ajuste Bonferroni. Se observó que el promedio de peso fue mayor en los animales alimentados con HFD, sin diferencia estadística respecto a DC, no obstante, existen diferencias significativas en el peso de las ratas alimentadas con HFD en distintos tiempos del protocolo, específicamente semanas 1, 5 y 10 (p<0,001). La ingesta alimentaria fue mayor en los animales alimentados con DC (p<0,005), sin embargo el consumo de energía fue mayor en aquellos alimentados con HFD (p=0,016), lo que derivó en una mayor conversión alimenticia (p<0,005). El promedio de diámetro teórico calculado de los adipocitos es estadísticamente mayor en grupo HFD (p<0,005), lo que se relaciona a la hipertrofia clásica generada tras un período de alimentación con elevado contenido de grasas. Conclusión: El protocolo permite establecer que efectivamente, dado la mayor densidad energética, HFD induce hipertrofia de los adipocitos, proceso característico de la obesidad.


The continued increase in obesity statistics is the result of environmental factors associated with the consumption of foods high in saturated fat. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of a high fat diet on food parameters and visceral white adipose tissue. in Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10) were used, divided into two experimental groups, the control group received conventional diet (DC) and the experimental group a high fat diet (HFD), for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, food conversion and adipose tissue characteristics were determined. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 21 software; after evaluating the normality of the data, parametric T tests were applied for independent samples and two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements in one of the factors, with Bonferroni adjustment. It was observed that the average weight was higher in animals fed with HFD, without statistical difference with respect to DC, however, there were significant differences in the weight of rats fed with HFD at different times of the protocol, specifically weeks 1.5 and 10 (p <0.001). Food intake was higher in animals fed DC (p <0.005), however the energy consumption was higher in those fed with HFD (p=0.016), which resulted in a higher feed conversion (p <0.005). The average theoretical diameter calculated for adipocytes is statistically higher in the HFD group (p <0.005), which is related to the classical hypertrophy generated after a period of feeding with high fat content. In conclusion, the protocol allows us to establish that, given the higher energy density, HFD induces adipocyte hypertrophy, a characteristic in the obesity process.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Obesidade , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ingestão de Alimentos
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 737-746, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098314

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate changes in beige adipocytes at different times of melatonin administration, in the morning (ZT01) or in the evening (ZT11), at 30 mg/kg daily by gavage for 7 weeks or continuously with drinking water in the term of high-calorie diet-induced obesity (HCD). Melatonin received at ZT11 or with drinking water resulted in an increased area of the browning zone in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), even in rats with HCD (compared with Control or HCD, respectively). The beige adipocyte and lipid droplet area after melatonin use were reduced compared to those with HCD and Control, in all administration modes (group ZT01 showed smaller changes compared to ZT11 or with drinking water groups). The fibrosis level decreased and significantly differed in HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11, and HCD water compared to that in HCD; moreover, the lowest value determined in HCD water, reached the control parameters. Furthermore, the IL-1b and IL-8 level was decreased in the HCD groups under melatonin treatment at ZT11 or with drinking water compared to that in HCD. The obtained results suggest that melatonin promotes sWAT browning in rats with diet-induced obesity and influences morphological signs of normal rats depending on the time of administration. Different functional activity of beige adipocytes was observed after melatonin was used depending on the time of administration, resulting in heat production and lipolysis (the relative mass of visceral fat was likewise diminished). More rapid browning was observed when melatonin treatment was performed at 1 h before lights-off (ZT11) or continuously via drinking water. Melatonin acted on beige adipocytes of obese rats through changing some parameters such as the area of adipocytes and lipid drops, the number of lipid drops, the relative area browning of sWAT, and the level of tissue fibrosis.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los cambios en los adipocitos beige en diferentes momentos de la administración de melatonina, en la mañana (ZT01) o por la noche (ZT11). Se administraron 30 mg/kg diariamente por sonda durante 7 semanas o continuamente con agua potable durante el periodo de obesidad inducida por una dieta alta en calorías (HCD). La melatonina recibida en ZT11 o con agua potable resultó en un aumento de área dorada en tejido adiposo blanco subcutáneo (sWAT), incluso en ratas con HCD (en comparación con Control o HCD, respectivamente). El área de gotas de lípidos y adipocitos de color beige después del uso de melatonina se redujo en comparación con aquellos con HCD y Control, en todos los modos de administración (el grupo ZT01 mostró cambios más pequeños en comparación con ZT11 o con grupos de agua potable). El nivel de fibrosis disminuyó y difirió significativamente en HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11 y agua HCD, en comparación con el HCD; además, el valor más bajo determinado en agua HCD alcanzó los parámetros de control. Además, el nivel de IL-1b e IL-8 disminuyó en los grupos HCD bajo tratamiento con melatonina en ZT11 o con agua potable en comparación con el de HCD. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la melatonina promueve el dorado sWAT en ratas con obesidad inducida por la dieta e influye en los signos morfológicos de las ratas normales dependiendo del momento de la administración. Se observó una actividad funcional diferente de los adipocitos de color beige después de usar melatonina dependiendo del tiempo de administración, dando como resultado la producción de calor y lipólisis (la masa relativa de grasa visceral también disminuyó). Se observó un ennegrecimiento más rápido cuando el tratamiento con melatonina se realizó 1 h antes de apagar las luces (ZT11) o de forma continua en grupos de agua potable. La melatonina actuó en los adipocitos beige de ratas obesas al cambiar algunos parámetros, como el área de adipocitos y gotas de lípidos, el número de gotas de lípidos, el área relativa de ennegrecimiento de sWAT y el nivel de fibrosis tisular.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Adipócitos Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade , Fatores de Tempo , Fibrose , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Interleucina-8/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1254-1262, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of empagliflozin on glycerol-derived hepatic gluconeogenesis in adults with obesity without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using oral carbon 13 (13 C)-labeled glycerol. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in participants with magnetic resonance imaging assessment of body fat and measurement of glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment in plasma glucose by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy following ingestion of [U-13 C3 ]glycerol. Participants were randomized to oral empagliflozin 10 mg once daily or placebo for 3 months. Glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment studies were repeated, and treatment differences in the mean percentage of 13 C glycerol enrichment in glucose were compared using mixed linear models. RESULTS: Thirty-five participants completed the study. Empagliflozin increased glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment between baseline and follow-up by 6.5% (P = 0.005), consistent with less glycerol from visceral adipose tissue (VAT). No difference was found with placebo. Glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment was lower in participants with high VAT compared with low VAT by 12.6% (P = 0.04), but there was no heterogeneity of the treatment effect by baseline VAT. Glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment was inversely correlated with VAT but was not correlated with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: VAT is associated with endogenous glycerol-derived hepatic gluconeogenesis, and empagliflozin reduces endogenous glycerol gluconeogenesis in adults with obesity without T2DM. These findings suggest a mechanism by which sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors may prevent T2DM in obesity.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Glicerol/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Placebos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Food Chem ; 327: 127061, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454271

RESUMO

This study mainly investigated the effect of different salt concentrations (1, 3, or 5%) on triglycerides (TG) hydrolysis in muscle during salting by analyzing moisture distribution, TG hydrolysis, TG hydrolase activity, native and phosphorylated adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein content, lipid droplets morphology, and muscle microstructure. The results showed that increasing salt concentration could significantly decrease T21 moisture proportion and relaxation time (p < 0.05), which was more beneficial to the lipase activity. The TG hydrolase activity increased first and then decreased with the salt concentration increasing during dry-salting process, and 3% salt concentration was the point of inflection. Western blot (WB) analysis detected both ATGL, HSL and their phosphorylated proteins, which were increased with the salt content increase. The microstructure analysis showed that the lipid droplets were split into small lipid droplets with the increase of salt content, which was more conducive to the triglycerides hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Músculos Isquiossurais/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Músculos Isquiossurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Gotículas Lipídicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Suínos
6.
Mol Cell ; 79(1): 43-53.e4, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464093

RESUMO

The physiological role of immune cells in the regulation of postprandial glucose metabolism has not been fully elucidated. We have found that adipose tissue macrophages produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) upon feeding, which suppresses hepatic glucose production in cooperation with insulin. Both elevated insulin and gut-microbiome-derived lipopolysaccharide in response to feeding are required for IL-10 production via the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Indeed, myeloid-specific knockout of the insulin receptor or bone marrow transplantation of mutant TLR4 marrow cells results in increased expression of gluconeogenic genes and impaired glucose tolerance. Furthermore, myeloid-specific Akt1 and Akt2 knockout results in similar phenotypes that are rescued by additional knockout of TSC2, an inhibitor of mTOR. In obesity, IL-10 production is impaired due to insulin resistance in macrophages, whereas adenovirus-mediated expression of IL-10 ameliorates postprandial hyperglycemia. Thus, the orchestrated response of the endogenous hormone and gut environment to feeding is a key regulator of postprandial glycemia.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Gluconeogênese/genética , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Knockout , Período Pós-Prandial , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/fisiologia
7.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(4): 297-301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cannabis sativa L has remained the most widely used recreational and abused drug worldwide. This study determined adipose tissue histological changes and the anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus-maze tests in rats treated with C. sativa. METHODS: C. sativa L. was provided from Islamic Azad University Herbarium. To reach cannabis powder, a rotary evaporator was used. Forty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups of experimental receiving 2 mg/kg of cannabis extract dissolved in 70 % ethanol in 0.6 mL volume subcutaneously daily for three weeks, the sham group subcutaneously injected with equal volume of 70 % ethanol and the control receiving just distilled water, identically. To assess the anxiety level, elevated plus maze was used. Histopathological changes in adipose tissue was evaluated after 7, 14, and 21 days post-intervention. RESULTS: After cannabis administration, inflammation, degeneration and necrosis in adipose tissue occured. Regarding the anxiety level for the percentage of time spent in open arm (OAT), the percentage of time spent in closed arm (CAT), the percentage of time spent in central parts, and head dipping over the side of the maze) after one week, no significant difference was noticed between the groups; but 2 and 3 weeks of cannabis use, the anxiety level significantly increased. CONCLUSION: Histological findings denoted to inflammation, degeneration and necrosis in adipose tissue after cannabis use. Behavioral assessment of anxiety level revealed that one week after cannabis, no changes were seen in anxiety, but 2 and 3 weeks after cannabis use, the anxiety level increased significantly (Fig. 5, Ref. 38).


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cannabis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Emoções , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2397, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409697

RESUMO

Obesity is a health problem affecting more than 40% of US adults and 13% of the global population. Anti-obesity treatments including diet, exercise, surgery and pharmacotherapies have so far failed to reverse obesity incidence. Herein, we target obesity with a pharmacotherapeutic approach that decreases caloric efficiency by mitochondrial uncoupling. We show that a recently identified mitochondrial uncoupler BAM15 is orally bioavailable, increases nutrient oxidation, and decreases body fat mass without altering food intake, lean body mass, body temperature, or biochemical and haematological markers of toxicity. BAM15 decreases hepatic fat, decreases inflammatory lipids, and has strong antioxidant effects. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies show that BAM15 improves insulin sensitivity in multiple tissue types. Collectively, these data demonstrate that pharmacologic mitochondrial uncoupling with BAM15 has powerful anti-obesity and insulin sensitizing effects without compromising lean mass or affecting food intake.


Assuntos
Diaminas/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Oxidiazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diaminas/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Oxidiazóis/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos
9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(6): 1068-1074, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness is a marker of visceral fat and an emerging therapeutic target. Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, improves glucose control and induces moderate weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dapagliflozin has recently been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, whether dapagliflozin could reduce EAT thickness is unknown. METHODS: This hypothesis was tested in a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 and a hemoglobin A1c level ≤ 8% on metformin monotherapy. Individuals were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive additional dapagliflozin up to 10 mg once daily or to remain on metformin up to 1,000 mg twice daily. Ultrasound-measured EAT thickness was measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. RESULTS: In the dapagliflozin group, EAT decreased by 20% from baseline to 24 weeks, by 15% after 12 weeks, and by 7% between 12 and 24 weeks, respectively (P < 0.01 for all), whereas in the metformin group, there was a significant but smaller EAT reduction. There was no statistically significant correlation between EAT and body weight changes. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin causes a rapid and significant EAT reduction that could be independent of weight loss.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(5): 46, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455434

RESUMO

Purpose: Topical prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) are common treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) but reportedly may cause adnexal fat atrophy. We asked if patients with POAG treated with PGAs have abnormalities in orbital fat volume (OFV). Methods: We studied 23 subjects with POAG who had never experienced intraocular pressure (IOP) exceeding 21 mm Hg and were treated long term with PGAs, in comparison with 21 age-matched controls. Orbital volume, non-fat orbital tissue volume, and OFV were measured using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Subjects with POAG had been treated with PGAs for 39 ± 19 months (SD) and were all treated within the 4 months preceding study. In the region from trochlea to orbital apex, OFV in POAG was significantly less at 9.8 ± 1.9 mL than in the control subjects at 11.1 ± 1.3 mL (P = 0.019). However, between the globe-optic nerve junction (GONJ) and trochlea, OFV was similar in both groups. Width and cross sectional area of the bony orbit were significantly smaller in POAG than in controls (P < 0.0001). Posterior to the GONJ, the average orbital cross-sectional area was 68.2 mm2 smaller, and the orbital width averaged 1.5 mm smaller throughout the orbit, in patients with POAG than in controls. Conclusions: Patients with POAG who have been treated with PGAs have lower overall OFV than controls, but OFV in the anterior orbit is similar in both groups. Lower overall OFV in POAG may be a primary association of this disorder with a horizontally narrower bony orbit, which may be a risk factor for POAG at nonelevated IOPs.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Prostaglandinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Administração Tópica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Órbita/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Prostaglandinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Prostaglandinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico
11.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 17, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human obesity is linked with systemic inflammation. However, it is still controversial if equines produce more inflammatory cytokines with increasing body weight and if the production of those show breed type specific patterns. The main objective of this study was to determine if diet induced obesity is associated with increased inflammatory signatures in adipose tissue of equines and if a breed predisposition exists between ponies and horses. Additionally, we aimed to identify adipose tissue depot differences in inflammatory cytokine expression. Nineteen healthy, non-overweight and metabolically healthy equines received a hypercaloric diet for 2 years. Body weight, body condition score and cresty neck score were assessed weekly throughout the study. At three time points, insulin sensitivity was determined by a combined glucose-insulin test. Adipose tissue samples were collected from two intra-abdominal and two subcutaneous depots under general anesthesia at each time point after an endotoxin trigger. In the adipose tissue samples levels of CD68 mRNA (a marker of macrophage infiltration) and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα) were analyzed with RT-qPCR. As markers of lipid metabolism mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were determined with RT-qPCR. RESULTS: CD68 mRNA levels increased with body weight gain in several adipose tissue (AT) depots (Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni correction; retroperitoneal AT horses: P = 0.023, mesocolonial AT horses: P = 0.023, subcutaneous tail head AT ponies: P = 0.015). In both abdominal depots CD68 mRNA levels were higher than in subcutaneous adipose tissue depots (Kruskal-Wallis-ANOVA with Bonferroni correction: P < 0.05). No breed related differences were found. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα levels were higher in subcutaneous depots compared to abdominal depots after body weight gain. IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα mRNA levels of mesocolon adipose tissue were higher in obese horses compared to obese ponies (Mann-Whitney-U test; IL-1ß: P = 0.006; IL-6: P = 0.003; TNFα: P = 0.049). In general, horses had higher FABP4 and LPL mRNA levels compared to ponies in neck AT and tail AT at all time points. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest an increased invasion of macrophages in intra-abdominal adipose tissue with increasing body weight gain in equines in combination with a low dose endotoxin stimulus. This might predispose equines to obesity related comorbidities. In obese horses mesocolon adipose tissue showed higher inflammatory cytokine expression compared to obese ponies. Additionally, subcutaneous adipose tissue expressed more pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Horses had higher FABP4 and LPL mRNA levels in selected AT depots which may indicate a higher fat storage capacity than in ponies. The differences in lipid storage might be associated with a higher susceptibility to obesity-related comorbidities in ponies in comparison to horses.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavalos/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Obesidade/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
12.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(7): 827-851, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271386

RESUMO

Major shifts in human lifestyle and dietary habits toward sedentary behavior and refined food intake triggered steep increase in the incidence of metabolic disorders including obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Patients with metabolic disease are at a high risk of cardiovascular complications ranging from microvascular dysfunction to cardiometabolic syndromes including heart failure. Despite significant advances in the standards of care for obese and diabetic patients, current therapeutic approaches are not always successful in averting the accompanying cardiovascular deterioration. There is a strong relationship between adipose inflammation seen in metabolic disorders and detrimental changes in cardiovascular structure and function. The particular importance of epicardial and perivascular adipose pools emerged as main modulators of the physiology or pathology of heart and blood vessels. Here, we review the peculiarities of these two fat depots in terms of their origin, function, and pathological changes during metabolic deterioration. We highlight the rationale for pharmacological targeting of the perivascular and epicardial adipose tissue or associated signaling pathways as potential disease modifying approaches in cardiometabolic syndromes.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Pericárdio/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Pericárdio/patologia , Pericárdio/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 324: 109093, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298659

RESUMO

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), as a common endocrine disorder is accompanied by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, ovulation problems, and infertility. Various types of off-label drugs like metformin have been used for the management of targeted problems caused by PCOS such as insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Nicotinamide (NAM) acts as a substrate of visfatin and Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase (NNMT) leading to the generation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) and N1-Methylnicotinamide (MNAM), respectively. MNAM is known as an anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombosis, and anti-diabetic agent. In this study, the effects of NAM and MNAM on metabolic and endocrine abnormalities were evaluated in the adipose and ovarian tissues of a letrozole-induced rat model of PCOS. Our results showed that MNAM and NAM reversed abnormal estrous cycle and reduced the serum testosterone levels and CYP17A1 gene expression. Furthermore, all therapeutic factors improved HOMA-IR after treatment and NAM significantly increased the expression of GLUT4 and decreased the gene expression of visfatin. Also, MNAM diminished the gene expression of visfatin and resistin. It is noteworthy that all the therapeutic factors successfully activated the AMPK. In summary, this study is the first study reported beneficial effects of NAM and MNAM on the treatment of PCOS. Additionally, the alleviative effects of our therapeutic factors may be partially mediated by the AMPK-dependent manner due to the contribution of the AMPK in the expression of CYP17A1, visfatin, resistin, and GLUT4. Although more studies are required to unravel the exact mode of actions of MNAM and NAM in the PCOS, the findings of the current study shed light on an urgent need for discovering novel therapeutic pharmaceuticals regarding the treatment of PCOS.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Hiperandrogenismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Resistina/genética , Resistina/metabolismo , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1873(2): 188359, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222610

RESUMO

Advanced cancer patients exhibit cachexia, a condition characterized by a significant reduction in the body weight predominantly from loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Decreased food intake and multi-organ energy imbalance in cancer patients worsen the cachexia syndrome. Cachectic cancer patients have a low tolerance for chemo- and radiation therapies and also have a reduced quality of life. The presence of tumors and the current treatment options for cancer further exacerbate the cachexia condition, which remains an unmet medical need. The onset of cachexia involves crosstalk between different organs leading to muscle wasting. Recent advancements in understanding the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy and adipose tissue wasting/browning provide a platform for the development of new targeted therapies. Therefore, a better understanding of this multifactorial disorder will help to improve the quality of life of cachectic patients. In this review, we summarize the metabolic mediators of cachexia, their molecular functions, affected organs especially with respect to muscle atrophy and adipose browning and then discuss advanced therapeutic approaches to cancer cachexia.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Caquexia/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos da radiação , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Apetite/farmacologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos da radiação , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/metabolismo , Caquexia/terapia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos da radiação , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos da radiação , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos da radiação , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/efeitos da radiação , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(5): 1110-1122, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131612

RESUMO

The immune system plays an important role in obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and the resultant metabolic dysfunction, which can lead to hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance and their downstream sequelae of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. While macrophages are the most abundant immune cell type in adipose tissue, other immune cells are also present, such as B cells, which play important roles in regulating adipose tissue inflammation. This brief review will overview B-cell subsets, describe their localization in various adipose depots and summarize our knowledge about the function of these B-cell subsets in regulating adipose tissue inflammation, obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Paniculite/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/terapia , Autoimunidade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Paniculite/diagnóstico , Paniculite/metabolismo , Paniculite/terapia , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1560, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214091

RESUMO

Exercise training is a powerful means to combat metabolic diseases. Mice are extensively used to investigate the benefits of exercise, but mild cold stress induced by ambient housing temperatures may confound translation to humans. Thermoneutral housing is a strategy to make mice more metabolically similar to humans but its effects on exercise adaptations are unknown. Here we show that thermoneutral housing blunts exercise-induced improvements in insulin action in muscle and adipose tissue and reduces the effects of training on energy expenditure, body composition, and muscle and adipose tissue protein expressions. Thus, many reported effects of exercise training in mice are likely secondary to metabolic stress of ambient housing temperature, making it challenging to translate to humans. We conclude that adaptations to exercise training in mice critically depend upon housing temperature. Our findings underscore housing temperature as a critical parameter in the design and interpretation of murine exercise training studies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Composição Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insulina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
17.
Nature ; 579(7798): 279-283, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132708

RESUMO

Although it is well-established that reductions in the ratio of insulin to glucagon in the portal vein have a major role in the dysregulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in type-2 diabetes1-3, the mechanisms by which glucagon affects hepatic glucose production and mitochondrial oxidation are poorly understood. Here we show that glucagon stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis by increasing the activity of hepatic adipose triglyceride lipase, intrahepatic lipolysis, hepatic acetyl-CoA content and pyruvate carboxylase flux, while also increasing mitochondrial fat oxidation-all of which are mediated by stimulation of the inositol triphosphate receptor 1 (INSP3R1). In rats and mice, chronic physiological increases in plasma glucagon concentrations increased mitochondrial oxidation of fat in the liver and reversed diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. However, these effects of chronic glucagon treatment-reversing hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance-were abrogated in Insp3r1 (also known as Itpr1)-knockout mice. These results provide insights into glucagon biology and suggest that INSP3R1 may represent a target for therapies that aim to reverse nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type-2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Glucagon/farmacologia , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucagon/sangue , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipólise/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 2973-3005, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105058

RESUMO

Leaf teas are widely used as a purported treatment for dysregulated glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the clinical and cellular-metabolic evidence, published between January 2013 and May 2019, and indexed on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, supporting the use of leaf teas for this purpose. Fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (13 on Camellia sinensis teas) were included, with mixed results, and providing scant mechanistic information. In contrast, 74 animal and cell culture studies focusing on the pancreas, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue yielded mostly positive results and highlighted enhanced insulin signaling as a recurring target associated with the effects of teas on glucose metabolism. We conclude that more studies, including RCTs and pre-clinical studies examining teas from a wider variety of species beyond C. sinensis, are required to establish a stronger evidence base on the use of leaf teas to normalize glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(4): E492-E503, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017594

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) have been reported to improve obesity, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in addition to exercise training, whereas the combined effects remain to be elucidated fully. We investigated the effect of the combination of the SGLT2i canagliflozin (CAN) and exercise training in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. High-fat diet-fed mice were housed in normal cages (sedentary; Sed) or wheel cages (WCR) with or without CAN (0.03% of diet) for 4 wk. The effects on obesity, glucose metabolism, and hepatic steatosis were evaluated in four groups (Control/Sed, Control/WCR, CAN/Sed, and CAN/WCR). Numerically additive improvements were found in body weight, body fat mass, blood glucose, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and the fatty liver of the CAN/WCR group, whereas CAN increased food intake and reduced running distance. Exercise training alone, CAN alone, or both did not change the weight of skeletal muscle, but microarray analysis showed that each resulted in a characteristic change of gene expression in gastrocnemius muscle. In particular, in the CAN/WCR group, there was acceleration of the angiogenesis pathway and suppression of the adipogenesis pathway compared with the CAN/Sed group. In conclusion, the combination of an SGLT2i and exercise training improves obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in an additive manner. Changes of gene expression in skeletal muscle may contribute, at least in part, to the improvement of obesity and insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Canagliflozina/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
20.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(4): E579-E585, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101030

RESUMO

Defining the host receptors and metabolic consequences of bacterial components can help explain how the microbiome influences metabolic diseases. Bacterial peptidoglycans that activate nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing (NOD)1 worsen glucose control, whereas NOD2 activation improves glycemia. Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) is required for innate immunity instigated by NOD1 and NOD2. The role of RIPK2 in the divergent effects of NOD1 versus NOD2 on blood glucose was unknown. We found that whole body deletion of RIPK2 negated all effects of NOD1 or NOD2 activation on blood glucose during an acute, low level endotoxin challenge in mice. It was known that NOD1 in hematopoietic cells participates in insulin resistance and metabolic inflammation in obese mice. It was unknown if RIPK2 in hematopoietic cells is required for the glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of NOD2 activation. We hypothesized that RIPK2 in nonhematopoietic cells dictated the glycemic effects of NOD2 activation. We found that whole body deletion of RIPK2 prevented the glucose-lowering effects of repeated NOD2 activation that were evident during a glucose tolerance test (GTT) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type (WT) mice. NOD2 activation lowered glucose during a GTT and lowered adipose tissue inflammation in mice with RIPK2 deleted in hematopoietic cells. We conclude that RIPK2 in nonhematopoietic cells mediates the glucose lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of NOD2-activating postbiotics. We propose a model where lipopolysaccharides and NOD1 ligands synergize in hematopoietic cells to promote insulin resistance but NOD2 activation in nonhematopoietic cells promotes RIPK2-dependent immune tolerance and lowering of inflammation and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Microbiota , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinase 2 de Interação com Receptor/metabolismo , Ativação Metabólica , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD1/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinase 2 de Interação com Receptor/genética
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