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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3771, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226548

RESUMO

3D printing has emerged as one of the most promising tools to overcome the processing and morphological limitations of traditional tissue engineering scaffold design. However, there is a need for improved minimally invasive, void-filling materials to provide mechanical support, biocompatibility, and surface erosion characteristics to ensure consistent tissue support during the healing process. Herein, soft, elastomeric aliphatic polycarbonate-based materials were designed to undergo photopolymerization into supportive soft tissue engineering scaffolds. The 4D nature of the printed scaffolds is manifested in their shape memory properties, which allows them to fill model soft tissue voids without deforming the surrounding material. In vivo, adipocyte lobules were found to infiltrate the surface-eroding scaffold within 2 months, and neovascularization was observed over the same time. Notably, reduced collagen capsule thickness indicates that these scaffolds are highly promising for adipose tissue engineering and repair.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Elasticidade , Cimento de Policarboxilato/química , Impressão Tridimensional/normas , Estereolitografia/normas , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Polímeros , Porosidade , Ratos
2.
Anim Genet ; 52(5): 633-644, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291482

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is a critical indicator of pork quality that affects directly the purchasing desire of consumers. However, to measure IMF content is both laborious and costly, preventing our understanding of its genetic determinants and improvement. In the present study, we constructed an accurate and fast image acquisition and analysis system, to extract and calculate the digital IMF content, the proportion of fat areas in the image (PFAI) of the longissimus muscle of 1709 animals from multiple pig populations. PFAI was highly significantly correlated with marbling scores (MS; 0.95, r2  = 0.90), and also with IMF contents chemically defined for 80 samples (0.79, r2  = 0.63; more accurate than direct analysis between IMF contents and MS). The processing time for one image is only 2.31 s. Genome-wide association analysis on PFAI for all 1709 animals identified 14 suggestive significant SNPs and 1 genome-wide significant SNP. On MS, we identified nine suggestive significant SNPs, and seven of them were also identified in PFAI. Furthermore, the significance (-log P) values of the seven common SNPs are higher in PFAI than in MS. Novel candidate genes of biological importance for IMF content were also discovered. Our imaging systems developed for prediction of digital IMF content is closer to IMF measured by Soxhlet extraction and slightly more accurate than MS. It can achieve fast and high-throughput IMF phenotype, which can be used in improvement of pork quality.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Carne de Porco , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Masculino , Fenótipo
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202475

RESUMO

Recently, intermittent fasting, also known as time-restricted eating (TRE), has become a popular diet trend. Compared to animal studies, there have been few studies and inconclusive findings investigating the effects of TRE in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of 8 h TRE on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were mainly active at night. A total of 33 young adults completed the 8 h TRE for 4 weeks. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and every 2 weeks, and blood samples were collected at baseline and week 4. Daily dietary records were logged throughout the intervention period. Participants experienced significant changes in body weight (-1.0 ± 1.4 kg), body mass index (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2), and body fat (-0.4 ± 1.9%) after 4 weeks of TRE. When participants were divided into weight loss/gain groups based on their weight change in week 4, fat mass reduction was significantly higher in the weight loss group than in the weight gain group. Regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance improved in the weight loss group after intervention, but not in the weight gain group. All subjects showed late-shifted sleeping patterns, but no significant differences in sleep duration, sleep quality, or psychological measures between the two groups. When meal frequency and energy proportion were evaluated, the average meal frequency was 2.8 ± 0.5 and energy proportions of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks were 4.5, 39.2, 37.6, and 18.5%, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the saturated fat intake at dinner was lower in the weight loss group (3.1 ± 3.2%, 6.0 ± 2.5% respectively). In conclusion, 8 h TRE can be applied as a lifestyle strategy to manage body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors among young adults with late chronotypes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Registros de Dieta , Impedância Elétrica , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069293

RESUMO

The gonadal steroids, including androgens, estrogens and progestogens, are involved in the control of body fat distribution in humans. Nevertheless, not only the size and localization of the fat depots depend on the sex steroids levels, but they can also highly affect the functioning of adipose tissue. Namely, the gonadocorticoids can directly influence insulin signaling, lipid metabolism, fatty acid uptake and adipokine production. They may also alter energy balance and glucose homeostasis in adipocytes in an indirect way, e.g., by changing the expression level of aquaglyceroporins. This work presents the recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanism of how the gonadal steroids influence the functioning of adipose tissue leading to a set of detrimental metabolic consequences. Special attention is given here to highlighting the sexual dimorphism of adipocyte functioning in terms of health and disease. Particularly, we discuss the molecular background of metabolic disturbances occurring in consequence of hormonal imbalance which is characteristic of some common endocrinopathies such as the polycystic ovary syndrome. From this perspective, we highlight the potential drug targets and the active substances which can be used in personalized sex-specific management of metabolic diseases, in accord with the patient's hormonal status.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Esteroides/fisiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072788

RESUMO

The concerning worldwide increase of obesity and chronic metabolic diseases, such as T2D, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease, motivates further investigations into preventive and alternative therapeutic approaches. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence that the formation and activation of thermogenic adipocytes (brown and beige) may serve as therapy to treat obesity and its associated diseases owing to its capacity to increase energy expenditure and to modulate circulating lipids and glucose levels. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanism of brown and beige adipocytes formation and activation will facilitate the development of strategies to combat metabolic disorders. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of pathways and players involved in the development of brown and beige fat, as well as the role of thermogenic adipocytes in energy homeostasis and metabolism. Furthermore, we discuss the alterations in brown and beige adipose tissue function during obesity and explore the therapeutic potential of thermogenic activation to treat metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/embriologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Termogênese , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo Bege/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia , Organogênese , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/fisiologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065598

RESUMO

Bone transplantation is regarded as the preferred therapy to treat a variety of bone defects. Autologous bone tissue is often lacking at the source, and the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) responsible for bone repair mechanisms are extracted by invasive procedures. This study explores the potential of autologous mesenchymal stem cells derived from the hair follicle outer root sheath (MSCORS). We demonstrated that MSCORS have a remarkable capacity to differentiate in vitro towards the osteogenic lineage. Indeed, when combined with a novel gelatin-based hydrogel called Osteogel, they provided additional osteoinductive cues in vitro that may pave the way for future application in bone regeneration. MSCORS were also compared to MSCs from adipose tissue (ADMSC) and bone marrow (BMMSC) in a 3D Osteogel model. We analyzed gel plasticity, cell phenotype, cell viability, and differentiation capacity towards the osteogenic lineage by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and specific gene expression. The novel injectable hydrogel filled an irregularly shaped lesion in a porcine wound model displaying high plasticity. MSCORS in Osteogel showed a higher osteo-commitment in terms of calcium deposition and expression dynamics of OCN, BMP2, and PPARG when compared to ADMSC and BMMSC, whilst displaying comparable cell viability and ALP activity. In conclusion, autologous MSCORS combined with our novel gelatin-based hydrogel displayed a high capacity for differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage and are acquired by non-invasive procedures, therefore qualifying as a suitable and expandable novel approach in the field of bone regeneration therapy.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Gelatina/química , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Hidrogéis/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Suínos , Tecidos Suporte/química
7.
Life Sci ; 278: 119639, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043987

RESUMO

AIMS: Strength training (ST) improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance by yet unknown mechanisms. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of ST on mitochondrial adaptation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, on heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in skeletal muscle, and on visceral adipocyte size in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Balb/c mice were divided into sedentary control-chow (C-chow), strength trained-chow (ST-chow), sedentary control-HFD (C-HFD) and strength trained-HFD (ST-HFD). Diet was provided for 12 weeks, while ladder climbing ST was performed for the final six weeks of the study at a frequency of three days per week. KEY FINDINGS: Strength training led to increased strength, muscular endurance, and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Compared to the C-HFD group, mice in the ST-HFD group decreased their whole-body insulin resistance, improved their glucose tolerance, and had higher activation of the insulin pathway in skeletal muscle. ST increased citrate synthase (CS) activity in skeletal muscle, but this increase was blunted in ST-HFD. Conversely, HFD reduced adipose tissue CS activity regardless of training status. Hsp72 content was reduced in C-HFD, but returned to control levels in ST-HFD. Finally, reduced epididymal adipocyte size was observed in ST-HFD. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the improvement in insulin resistance induced by ST is related to mitochondrial adaptation in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue. Moreover, this improvement might be related to increased skeletal muscle Hsp72 and reduced epididymal adipocyte size.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Força Muscular , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Treinamento de Força
8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793621

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the condition of fat accumulation in the liver. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between body composition and fatty liver and determine of cut-off point for predicting NAFLD. Samples were selected from the nutrition clinic from 2016 to 2017 in Tehran, Iran. The liver steatosis was calculated using the CAP score through the FiroScan™ and body composition was measured using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan method. A total of 2160 patients participated in this study, 745 (34.5%) subjects had NAFLD. We found that fat-free tissue was inversely and fat tissue was directly correlated with the risk of NAFLD in almost all factors and the risk of developing NAFLD increases if the total fat exceeds 32.23% and 26.73% in women and men and abdominal fat exceeds 21.42% and 13.76% in women and men, respectively. Finally, we realized that the total fat percent had the highest AUC (0.932 for men and 0.917 for women) to predict the risk of NAFLD. Overall, the likelihood of NAFLD development rose significantly with increasing the amount of total fat and abdominal fat from the cut-off point level.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805982

RESUMO

Adipose tissue and its crosstalk with other organs plays an essential role in the metabolic homeostasis of the entire body. Alteration of this communication (i.e., due to obesity) is related to the development of several comorbidities including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, or cancer. Within the adipose depot, adipocytes are the main cell type and thus the main source of secreted molecules, which exert modulating effects not only at a local but also at a systemic level. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently emerged as important mediators in cell-cell communication and account for part of the cellular secretome. In recent years, there has been a growing body of research on adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (Ad-EVs). However, there is still a lack of standardized methodological approaches, especially regarding primary adipocytes. In this review, we will provide an outline of crucial aspects when working on adipose-derived material, with a special focus on primary adipocytes. In parallel, we will point out current methodological challenges in the EV field and how they impact the transcriptomic, proteomic and functional evaluations of Ad-EVs.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Comorbidade , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células-Tronco/citologia , Transcriptoma
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248039, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788855

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) related morbidity, mortality and death. Exercise capacity in persons with type 2 diabetes has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular events. In this study, we used the data from the prospective randomized LOOK AHEAD study and used machine learning algorithms to help predict exercise capacity (measured in Mets) from the baseline data that included cardiovascular history, medications, blood pressure, demographic information, anthropometric and Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) measured body composition metrics. We excluded variables with high collinearity and included DXA obtained Subtotal (total minus head) fat percentage and Subtotal lean mass (gms). Thereafter, we used different machine learning methods to predict maximum exercise capacity. The different machine learning models showed a strong predictive performance for both females and males. Our study shows that using baseline data from a large prospective cohort, we can predict maximum exercise capacity in persons with diabetes mellitus. We show that subtotal fat percentage is the most important feature for predicting the exercise capacity for males and females after accounting for other important variables. Until now, BMI and waist circumference were commonly used surrogates for adiposity and there was a relative under-appreciation of body composition metrics for understanding the pathophysiology of CVD. The recognition of body fat percentage as an important marker in determining CVD risk has prognostic implications with respect to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529214

RESUMO

Tail adipose as one of the important functional tissues can enhance hazardous environments tolerance for sheep. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the underlying development mechanisms of this trait. A quantitative analysis of protein abundance in ovine tail/rump adipose tissue was performed between Chinese local fat- (Kazakh, Hu and Lanzhou) and thin-tailed (Alpine Merino, Tibetan) sheep in the present study by using lable-free approach. Results showed that 3400 proteins were identified in the five breeds, and 804 were differentially expressed proteins, including 638 up regulated proteins and 83 down regulated proteins in the tail adipose tissues between fat- and thin-tailed sheep, and 8 clusters were distinguished for all the DEPs' expression patterns. The differentially expressed proteins are mainly associated with metabolism pathways and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, the proteomics results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot. Our research has also suggested that the up-regulated proteins ACSL1, HSD17ß4, FABP4 in the tail adipose tissue might contribute to tail fat deposition by facilitating the proliferation of adipocytes and fat accumulation in tail/rump of sheep. Particularly, FABP4 highly expressed in the fat-tail will play an important role for tail fat deposition. Our study might provide a novel view to understanding fat accumulation in special parts of the body in sheep and other animals.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , China , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Proteína Multifuncional do Peroxissomo-2/genética , Proteína Multifuncional do Peroxissomo-2/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteômica/métodos , Ovinos , Cauda , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 100993, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610891

RESUMO

Broiler growth performance can be influenced by maternal BW, maternal age, and sex. The present study evaluated broiler growth and efficiency in response to increased maternal BW (relaxed level of maternal feed restriction). It was hypothesized that BW and fatness would increase, and efficiency would be reduced as maternal BW increased. Ten BW trajectories were applied to precision-fed Ross 708 female broiler breeders (n = 30) from 2 to 42 wk of age. Trajectories varied in prepubertal and pubertal growth phases from 2.5 to 22.5% above the recommended BW target. Additional unrestricted breeders (n = 6) were not limited to a maximum BW (fed ad libitum). Two 35 d experiments were conducted with precision-fed broilers from these breeders at 35 and 42 wk of age. Two analyses (full and restricted analysis scopes) were performed to evaluate broiler BW, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and carcass traits with maternal BW at photostimulation (22 wk of age) as a continuous effect, and maternal age and sex as discrete effects. The full scope included broilers from all hens (feed restricted and unrestricted). The restricted scope excluded broilers from unrestricted hens. Differences were reported at P ≤ 0.05. For every kilogram increase in maternal BW, cumulative FCR increased by 0.235 and 0.471 g:g for broilers from all and feed restricted hens, respectively. Proportional gut weight of broilers from feed restricted hens decreased by 0.8244% per kilogram increase in maternal BW. Males were heavier than females on day 28 and 35, and broilers from 42-wk-old breeders were heavier than broilers from 35-wk-old breeders on day 0 and 35. Males from all hens were more feed efficient (1.318 g:g) than females (1.335 g:g) from day 29 to 35. Females from all and feed restricted hens had a greater proportional fat pad and breast muscle weight than males, and proportional breast muscle yield of broilers from 42-wk-old breeders was on average 1.04 times greater than that of broilers from 35-wk-old breeders. Maternal BW did not affect offspring BW, reduced cumulative FCR, and reduced gut weight in the restricted analysis scope.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Metabolismo Energético , Métodos de Alimentação , Crescimento , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Crescimento/fisiologia , Masculino
13.
Endocrinology ; 162(3)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453099

RESUMO

The term energy metabolism comprises the entirety of chemical processes associated with uptake, conversion, storage, and breakdown of nutrients. All these must be tightly regulated in time and space to ensure metabolic homeostasis in an environment characterized by cycles such as the succession of day and night. Most organisms evolved endogenous circadian clocks to achieve this goal. In mammals, a ubiquitous network of cellular clocks is coordinated by a pacemaker residing in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Adipocytes harbor their own circadian clocks, and large aspects of adipose physiology are regulated in a circadian manner through transcriptional regulation of clock-controlled genes. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy in the form of triglycerides at times of high energy levels that then serve as fuel in times of need. It also functions as an endocrine organ, releasing factors in a circadian manner to regulate food intake and energy turnover in other tissues. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat through nonshivering thermogenesis, a process also controlled by the circadian clock. We here review how WAT and BAT contribute to the circadian regulation of energy metabolism. We describe how adipose rhythms are regulated by the interplay of systemic signals and local clocks and summarize how adipose-originating circadian factors feed-back on metabolic homeostasis. The role of adipose tissue in the circadian control of metabolism becomes increasingly clear as circadian disruption leads to alterations in adipose tissue regulation, promoting obesity and its sequelae. Stabilizing adipose tissue rhythms, in turn, may help to combat disrupted energy homeostasis and obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Adipocinas/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Citocinas/fisiologia , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Termogênese/fisiologia
14.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 320(5): C822-C841, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439778

RESUMO

Adipocytes are specialized cells with pleiotropic roles in physiology and pathology. Several types of fat cells with distinct metabolic properties coexist in various anatomically defined fat depots in mammals. White, beige, and brown adipocytes differ in their handling of lipids and thermogenic capacity, promoting differences in size and morphology. Moreover, adipocytes release lipids and proteins with paracrine and endocrine functions. The intrinsic properties of adipocytes pose specific challenges in culture. Mature adipocytes float in suspension culture due to high triacylglycerol content and are fragile. Moreover, a fully differentiated state, notably acquirement of the unilocular lipid droplet of white adipocyte, has so far not been reached in two-dimensional culture. Cultures of mouse and human-differentiated preadipocyte cell lines and primary cells have been established to mimic white, beige, and brown adipocytes. Here, we survey various models of differentiated preadipocyte cells and primary mature adipocyte survival describing main characteristics, culture conditions, advantages, and limitations. An important development is the advent of three-dimensional culture, notably of adipose spheroids that recapitulate in vivo adipocyte function and morphology in fat depots. Challenges for the future include isolation and culture of adipose-derived stem cells from different anatomic location in animal models and humans differing in sex, age, fat mass, and pathophysiological conditions. Further understanding of fat cell physiology and dysfunction will be achieved through genetic manipulation, notably CRISPR-mediated gene editing. Capturing adipocyte heterogeneity at the single-cell level within a single fat depot will be key to understanding diversities in cardiometabolic parameters among lean and obese individuals.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Fenótipo , Especificidade da Espécie , Esferoides Celulares , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1567, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452392

RESUMO

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contributes to the pathophysiological process of coronary artery disease (CAD). The expression profiles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in EAT of patients with CAD have not been well characterized. We conducted high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze the expression profiles of lncRNA in EAT of patients with CAD compared to patients without CAD. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were executed to investigate the principal functions of the significantly dysregulated mRNAs. We confirmed a dysregulated intergenic lncRNA (lincRNA) (LINC00968) by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Subsequently, we constructed a ceRNA network associated with LINC00968, which included 49 mRNAs. Compared with the control group, lncRNAs and genes of EAT in CAD were characterized as metabolic active and pro-inflammatory profiles. The sequencing analysis detected 2539 known and 1719 novel lncRNAs. Then, we depicted both lncRNA and gene signatures of EAT in CAD, featuring dysregulation of genes involved in metabolism, nuclear receptor transcriptional activity, antigen presentation, chemokine signaling, and inflammation. Finally, we identified a ceRNA network as candidate modulator in EAT and its potential role in CAD. We showed the expression profiles of specific EAT lncRNA and mRNA in CAD, and a selected non-coding associated ceRNA regulatory network, which taken together, may contribute to a better understanding of CAD mechanism and provide potential therapeutic targets.Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, No. ChiCTR1900024782.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Idoso , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/análise , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , China , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Pericárdio/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(3): 658-667, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804903

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement between a field-based three-compartment (3CFIELD) model and a laboratory-based three-compartment (3CLAB) model for tracking body composition changes over time. METHODS: Resistance-trained males completed a supervised nutrition and resistance training intervention. Before and after the intervention, assessments were performed via air displacement plethysmography (ADP), bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), portable ultrasonography (US), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). ADP body density and BIS body water were used within the reference 3CLAB model, whereas US-derived body density and BIA body water were used within the 3CFIELD model. Two-compartment model body composition estimates provided by US and BIA were also examined. Changes in fat-free mass and fat mass were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA, equivalence testing, Bland-Altman analysis, linear regression, and related validity analyses. RESULTS: Significant increases in fat-free mass (3CLAB, 4.0 ± 4.5 kg; 3CFIELD, 3.9 ± 4.2 kg; US, 3.2 ± 4.3 kg; BIA, 3.9 ± 4.2 kg) and fat mass (3CLAB, 1.3 ± 2.2 kg; 3CFIELD, 1.4 ± 2.2 kg; US, 2.1 ± 2.6 kg; BIA, 1.4 ± 2.9 kg) were detected by all methods. However, only the 3CFIELD model demonstrated equivalence with the 3CLAB model. In addition, the 3CFIELD model exhibited superior performance to US and BIA individually, as indicated by the total error (3CFIELD, 1.0 kg; US, 1.8 kg; BIA, 1.6 kg), 95% limits of agreement (3CFIELD, ±2.1 kg; US, ±3.3 kg; BIA, ±3.1 kg), correlation coefficients (3CFIELD, 0.79-0.82; US, 0.49-0.55; BIA, 0.61-0.72), and additional metrics. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the potential usefulness of a 3CFIELD model incorporating US and BIA data for tracking body composition changes over time, as well as its superiority to US or BIA individually. As such, this accessible multicompartment model may be suitable for implementation in field or limited-resource settings.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Água Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Pletismografia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(2): 189-197, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Muscle depletion in patients undergoing liver transplantation affects the recipients' prognosis and therefore cannot be overlooked. We aimed to evaluate whether changes in muscle and fat mass during the preoperative period are associated with prognosis after deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 72 patients who underwent DDLT and serial computed tomography (CT) scans. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated using the muscle and fat area in CT performed 1 year prior to surgery (1 yr Pre-LT), just before surgery (Pre-LT), and after transplantation (Post-LT). Simple aspects of serial changes in muscle and fat mass were analyzed during three measurement time points. The rate of preoperative changes in body composition parameters were calculated (preoperative ΔSMI [%] = [SMI at Pre-LT - SMI at 1 yr Pre-LT] / SMI at Pre-LT × 100; preoperative ΔFMI [%] = [FMI at Pre-LT - FMI at 1 yr Pre-LT] / FMI at Pre-LT × 100) and assessed for correlation with patient survival. RESULTS: SMI significantly decreased during the preoperative period (mean preoperative ΔSMI, -13.04%, p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, preoperative ΔSMI (p = 0.016) and model for end-stage liver disease score (p = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. The mean survival time for patients with a threshold decrease in the preoperative ΔSMI (≤ -30%) was significantly shorter than for other patients (p = 0.007). Preoperative ΔFMI was not a prognostic factor but FMI increased during the postoperative period (p = 0.009) in all patients. CONCLUSION: A large reduction in preoperative SMI was significantly associated with reduced survival after DDLT. Therefore, changes in muscle mass during the preoperative period can be considered as a prognostic factor for survival after DDLT.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/patologia , Transplante de Fígado , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(4): 221-232, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057185

RESUMO

γδ T cells are a unique T cell subpopulation that are rare in secondary lymphoid organs but enriched in many peripheral tissues, such as the skin, intestines and lungs. By rapidly producing large amounts of cytokines, γδ T cells make key contributions to immune responses in these tissues. In addition to their immune surveillance activities, recent reports have unravelled exciting new roles for γδ T cells in steady-state tissue physiology, with functions ranging from the regulation of thermogenesis in adipose tissue to the control of neuronal synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Here, we review the roles of γδ T cells in tissue homeostasis and in surveillance of infection, aiming to illustrate their major impact on tissue integrity, tissue repair and immune protection.


Assuntos
Vigilância Imunológica/fisiologia , Infecções/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/fisiologia , Membrana Mucosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Butirofilinas/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/fisiologia , Gengiva/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/fisiologia
19.
Phytother Res ; 35(1): 297-310, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776627

RESUMO

Celastrol, a natural triterpene, has been shown to treat obesity and its related metabolic disorders. In this study, we first assessed the relationship between the antiobesity effects of celastrol and its antiinflammatory activities. Our results showed that celastrol can reduce weight gain, ameliorate glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia without affecting food intake in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. A CLAMS was used to clarify the improvement of metabolic profiles was attribute to increased adipose thermogenesis after celastrol treatment. Further studies found that celastrol decreased the infiltration of macrophage as well as its inflammatory products (IL-1ß, IL-18, MCP-1α, and TNF-α) in liver and adipose tissues, which also displayed an obvious inhibition of TLR3/NLRP3 inflammasome molecules. This study demonstrated that celastrol could be a potential drug for treating metabolic disorders, the underlying mechanism is related to ameliorating metabolic inflammation, thus increasing body energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Intolerância à Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; 232(1): e13610, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351229

RESUMO

AIM: The worldwide increase in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents a major health challenge. Chronically altered lipids induced by obesity further promote the development of T2D, and the accumulation of toxic lipid metabolites in serum and peripheral organs may contribute to the diabetic phenotype. METHODS: To better understand the complex metabolic pattern of lean and obese T2D and non-T2D individuals, we analysed the lipid profile of human serum, skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue of two cohorts by systematic mass spectrometry-based lipid analysis. RESULTS: Lipid homeostasis was strongly altered in a disease- and tissue-specific manner, allowing us to define T2D signatures associated with obesity from those that were obesity independent. Lipid changes encompassed lyso-, diacyl- and ether-phospholipids. Moreover, strong changes in sphingolipids included cytotoxic 1-deoxyceramide accumulation in a disease-specific manner in serum and visceral adipose tissue. The high amounts of non-canonical 1-deoxyceramide present in human adipose tissue most likely come from cell-autonomous synthesis because 1-deoxyceramide production increased upon differentiation to adipocytes in mouse cell culture experiments. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the observed lipidome changes in obesity and T2D will facilitate the identification of T2D patient subgroups and represent an important step towards personalized medicine in diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Esfingolipídeos , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Éter , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos , Obesidade
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