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1.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 15-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009122

RESUMO

Body weight gain in middle age is thought to be mainly attributable to body fat gain. However, the association between the change in body weight and change in fat weight is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between the changes in body weight and fat weight in a middle-aged general population using a community-based cohort. We studied 3,193 subjects who underwent health check-ups. Fat weight was measured using a TANITA DC-270A body composition analyzer (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo). Good correlation was observed between the changes in body weight and fat weight (Pearson r = 0.88, P < 0.001). Among the study subjects, 408 (13%) were categorized in the weight loss group (weight loss ≥ 5%), 2,442 (76%) in the weight stable group, and 343 (11%) in the weight gain group (weight gain ≥ 5%). The percentage of change in fat weight in relation to the change in body weight was 65% on average in subjects with body weight loss, and 70% on average in those with body weight gain. Good correlation between changes in body weight and fat weight was observed regardless of age, gender, and baseline body mass index. A change in body weight was closely correlated with a change in fat weight among the middle-aged general population. Body weight change in the middle-age population appears to be mainly attributable to the change in fat weight.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia
2.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 233-239, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635840

RESUMO

In this study, canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cADSCs) therapeutic potential was investigated in artificially induced acute liver injury model by CCl4 in canines. The primary cADSCs cells were cultured and then intravenously administered into the canine animal model. Six cross-breed dogs were divided into three groups including blank control group, CCl4 model group, CCl4 induced cADSCs transplantation group. The results showed that after intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 solution, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Albumin (ALB) in peripheral blood of experimental canines confirmed the correct induction of acute liver injury. Moreover, the liver structure showed clear macroscopic damage. The cADSCs were homed in the liver of the administered animals. The AST, ALT and ALB in the peripheral blood rapidly decreased. H&E and PAS histological evaluation showed that both the structure of canine liver tissue and the ability to synthesize hepatic glycogen could be restored to the control level after cADSCs transplantation. Therefore, cADSCs can play a therapeutic role in the recovery of liver injury. Overall, this study demonstrates that the primary cADSCs transplantation into the acute liver injury model induced by intravenous injection can play a certain therapeutic role in the recovery of liver in canines. These results may provide a new treatment idea for acute liver disease in pets clinically.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Tetracloreto de Carbono/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais/veterinária , Masculino
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 390, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moniezia expansa (Cyclophyllidea: Anoplocephalidae) is a large species of tapeworm that occurs in sheep and cattle and inhabits the small intestine, causing diarrhea and weight declines, leading to stockbreeding losses. Interestingly, the body fat percentage of M. expansa, which lacks the ability to synthesize fatty acids, is as high as 78% (dry weight) and all of the proglottids of M. expansa exhibit a dynamic developmental process from top to bottom. The aim of this paper is to identify the molecular basis of this high body fat percentage, the dynamic expression of developmental genes and their expression regulation patterns. RESULTS: From 12 different proglottids (four sections: scolex and neck, immature, mature and gravid with three replicates), 13,874 transcripts and 680 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained. The gene expression patterns of the scolex and neck and immature proglottids were very similar, while those of the mature and gravid proglottids differed greatly. In addition, 13 lipid transport-related proteins were found in the DEGs, and the expression levels showed an increasing trend in the four proglottid types. Furthermore, it was shown that 33 homeobox genes, 9 of which were DEGs, had the highest expression in the scolex and neck section. The functional enrichment results of the DEGs were predominantly indicative of development-related processes, and there were also some signal transduction and metabolism results. The most striking result was the finding of Wnt signaling pathways, which appeared multiple times. Furthermore, the weighted gene co-expression networks were divided into 12 modules, of which the brown module was enriched with many development-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that M. expansa uses lipid transport-associated proteins to transport lipids from the host gut to obtain energy to facilitate its high fecundity. In addition, homeobox genes and Wnt signaling pathways play a core role in development and regeneration. The results promote research on the cell differentiation involved in the continuous growth and extension of body structures.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Cestoides/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Ovinos/parasitologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2183712, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467873

RESUMO

Cats are able to jump from a high-rise without any sign of injury, which is attributed in large part to their impact-resistant paw pads. The biomechanical study of paw pads may therefore contribute to improving the impact resistance of specific biomimetic materials. The present study is aimed at investigating the mechanics of the paw pads, revealing their impact-resistant biomechanism from macro- and microscopic perspectives. Histological and micro-CT scanning methods were exploited to analyze the microstructure of the pads, and mechanical testing was conducted to observe the macroscopic mechanical properties at different loading frequencies. Numerical micromodels of the ellipsoidal and cylindrical adipose compartments were developed to evaluate the mechanical functionality as compressive actions. The results show that the stiffness of the pad increases roughly in proportion to strain and mechanical properties are almost impervious to strain rate. Furthermore, the adipose compartment, which comprises adipose tissue enclosed within collagen septa, in the subcutaneous tissue presents an ellipsoid-like structure, with a decreasing area from the middle to the two ends. Additionally, the finite element results show that the ellipsoidal structure has larger displacement in the early stage of impact, which can absorb more energy and prevent instability at touchdown, while the cylindrical structure is more resistant to deformation. Moreover, the Von Mises of the ellipsoidal compartment decrease gradually from both ends to the middle, making it change to a cylindrical shape, and this may be the reason why the macroscopic stiffness increases with increasing time after contact. This preliminary investigation represents the basis for biomechanical interpretation and can accordingly provide new inspirations of shock-absorbing composite materials in engineering.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Força Compressiva/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Tela Subcutânea/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Gatos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
5.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(8): 1311-1318, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between select physiological variables and sprint triathlon performance. METHODS: Moderately trained male triathletes (N.=15) performed two graded maximal exercise tests, on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. Anaerobic capacity was evaluated, on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. Within two weeks before or after the testing, all triathletes participated in a sprint triathlon race (750 m sea swim, 20 km cycle, 5 km run). RESULTS: The results showed that significant correlations exist between VO2max during cycling (r=-0.811, P<0.05) or running (r=-0.757, P<0.05) and overall triathlon performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, with triathlon performance as the dependent variable and the physiological measures during running as the independent variables, showed that VO2max (mL.min-1.kg-1), Time_CF, CHO_rate @ VT and % body fat yielded the best prediction of performance (R2=0,912). When only the physiological variables from cycling were included into the model, the results showed that VO2max (mL.min-1), VO2max (mL.min-1.kg-1) and PFmax (rpm) explained 88% of the variation in sprint triathlon performance. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that overall race time for moderately trained triathletes, competing over the sprint distance can be accurately predicted from maximal laboratory tests.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Life Sci ; 232: 116620, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291594

RESUMO

AIMS: Cell-based biological pacemakers aim to overcome limitations and side effects of electronic pacemaker devices. We here developed and tested different approaches to achieve nodal-type differentiation using human adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (haMSC, hbMSC). MAIN METHODS: haMSC and hbMSC were differentiated using customized protocols. Quantitative RT-PCR was applied for transcriptional pacemaker-gene profiling. Protein membrane expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. Pacemaker current (If) was studied in haMSC with and without lentiviral HCN4-transduction using patch clamp recordings. Functional characteristics were evaluated by co-culturing with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). KEY FINDINGS: Culture media-based differentiation for two weeks generated cells with abundant transcription of ion channel genes (Cav1.2, NCX1), transcription factors (TBX3, TBX18, SHOX2) and connexins (Cx31.9 and Cx45) characteristic for cardiac pacemaker tissue, but lack adequate HCN transcription. haMSC-derived cells revealed transcript levels, which were closer related to sinoatrial nodal cells than hbMSC-derived cells. To substitute for the lack of If, we performed lentiviral HCN4-transduction of haMSC resulting in stable If. Co-culturing with NRVM demonstrated that differentiated haMSC expressing HCN4 showed earlier onset of spontaneous contractions and higher beating regularity, synchrony and rate compared to co-cultures with non-HCN4-transduced haMSC or HCN4-transduced, non-differentiated haMSC. Confocal imaging indicated increased membrane expression of cardiac gap junctional proteins in differentiated haMSC. SIGNIFICANCE: By differentiation haMSC, rather than hbMSC attain properties favorable for cardiac pacemaking. In combination with lentiviral HCN4-transduction, a cellular phenotype was generated that sustainably controls and stabilizes rate in co-culture with NRVM.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Canais de Potássio/fisiologia , Ratos , Nó Sinoatrial
7.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(3): 233-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257263

RESUMO

This study investigated whether body fat percentage (BF%) in Japanese female university rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and non-athletes (control) was associated with the time-of-day of energy intake. A total of 57 females (RG group, n=34; control group, n=23) completed 24-h dietary recall surveys on 3 non-consecutive days. BF% was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer after overnight fasting. Energy intake was stratified by time-of-day: morning (3:00 to 11:00), midday (11:00 to 17:00), evening (17:00 to 21:00), and nighttime (21:00 to 3:00). There was no significant difference between the groups in total energy intake, body weight, or body mass index. The RG group had significantly higher energy expenditure, a larger negative energy balance and lower BF% than the control group. The energy intake ratios (ER%) in the evening and at nighttime in the RG group were significantly lower and higher than in the control group, respectively. Total energy intake and energy balance did not show any significant association with BF% in either group. Multivariate linear regression with substitution model indicated that a substitution of ER% in the morning for ER% at nighttime was negatively associated with BF% after adjusting for confounding factors (ß=-0.240; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.455, -0.025) in the control group. In the RG group, a substitution of ER% in the evening for ER% at nighttime was negatively associated with BF% (ß=-0.117; 95%CI: -0.214, -0.019). These results suggest that the timing of energy intake throughout the day is associated with BF% in Japanese university RG and non-athlete female students.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 393-398, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077967

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia is one of the most common orthopedic abnormalities in dogs, with an incidence of up to 40% in some breeds. Tissue therapy of cartilage has received great attention, with use of mesenchymal stromal cells and different types of biomaterials. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of platelet lysate (PL) on the proliferation and differentiation of canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs), in liquid culture or hydrogels. PL was prepared from blood collected from healthy dogs and submitted to freezing-thawing cycles, and hydrogel was formed with canine thrombin. The effect of PL on the proliferation and differentiation of canine ASCs was evaluated in liquid and hydrogel systems, with microscopy, quantification of dsDNA, histology and quantification of glycosaminoglycans. The addition of 5% or 10% PL to the culture medium induced a greater proliferation rate than the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. The cultivation of ASCs in PL gel, with normal or chondrogenic medium, resulted in maintenance of proliferation level similar to the conventional 2D cultivation, and induction of chondrogenic differentiation, especially in the presence of the chondrogenesis induction medium.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Condrogênese/fisiologia , Liases/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Plaquetas/enzimologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Liases/administração & dosagem , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia
9.
Ter Arkh ; 91(4): 130-135, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094487

RESUMO

Obesity is closely associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue (AT) is identified as a complex endocrine organ, with a wide range of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. Various terms, including paracardiac, epicardial and pericardial, are used to describe the fatty deposits surrounding the heart. Among all the fat depots, perivascular AT (PVAT) is of great biological significance for the cardiovascular system due to its anatomical proximity to the vessels. Recent studies have shown the presence of a complex, bidirectional paracrine and vasocardial signaling system between the vascular wall and PVAT. In the review, we will discuss the biological role of PVAT in both the physiological state and cardiovascular pathology, emphasizing its dual proatherogenic and antiatherogenic role. Let us consider PVAT as a target for various therapeutic agents in cardiovascular diseases. We will also analyze data on the role of non-invasive techniques as a diagnostic tool for assessing coronary artery inflammation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Obesidade/patologia , Pericárdio
10.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(5): 522-529, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132862

RESUMO

1. Reducing excessive chicken body fat deposition is a main goal of the poultry industry. Preadipocytes are important in adipose tissue growth and development. 2. To discover proteins related to chicken fat deposition, two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in preadipocytes derived from Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF). 3. A total of 46 differentially expressed protein spots were found in the preadipocytes between fat and lean broilers. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis showed the protein spots corresponded to 33 different proteins. The proteins were mainly related to biological oxidation, cell proliferation, cytoskeleton, lipid metabolism, molecular chaperone, protein synthesis and signal transduction. 4. From the perspective of protein expression, these results lay a foundation for further study of the genetic mechanism of broiler adipose tissue growth and development.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adiposidade/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/análise , Galinhas/genética , Proteoma/análise , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional
11.
Eur J Radiol ; 114: 160-166, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005168

RESUMO

Changes in muscle-fat-composition affect physical performance and muscular function, like strength and power. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether changes in soft tissue composition of the thigh and changes in muscle size and composition resulting from physical training were detectable with Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A young and healthy subject population (n = 21, 29 ± 5 years) was split into a strength training (G_t, 11 subjects) and a control group (G_c, 10 subjects). The physical training intervention lasted over 13 weeks. Before and after this intervention a muscle performance exam and an MRI exam were conducted on all subjects. To evaluate muscle performance and the training effect, the jump height was measured using a mechanograph. Fascia, pure muscle and subcutaneous fat areas and proton density water fraction (PDWF) and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) of the left thigh were measured with a 6-point Dixon prototype MRI sequence. Muscle area changed by +7.1 ± 3.3% (p < 0.05) and +2.5 ± 5.6% (p > 0.05), and PDFF by -16.3 ± 10.4% (p < 0.05) and +5.4 ± 6.9% (p > 0.05) in G_t and G_c, respectively. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlation coefficients R between PDFF and muscle performance were moderate (R = -0.43 and R = -0.51, respectively). The correlation was also moderate for muscle performance and a combined muscle fat per area ratio (R = -0.40 and R = -0.55, respectively). Dixon MRI is capable to measure training-related changes in muscle area and muscular fat. Both parameters correlate to muscle function. Muscle area per se does not always mirror functional parameters. Due to the complex interaction of muscle volume, muscle structure, and inter- and intramuscular coordination during muscle performance, multivariate muscle parameter models should be investigated in the future. Future studies will have to show if structural parameters mirror and explain functional muscle data both in the context of physical training and pathologies like sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
12.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 55(5): 387-394, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993556

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the expression of osteoblast and chondrocyte-related genes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from rabbit adipose tissue, under mechanical vibration. The cells were placed securely on a vibrator's platform and subjected to 300 Hz of sinusoidal vibration, with a maximum amplitude of 10 µm, for 45 min per day, and for 14 consequent days, in the absence of biochemical reagents. The negative control group was placed in the conventional culture medium with no mechanical loading. The expression of osteoblast and chondrocyte-related genes was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). In addition, F-actin fiber structure and alignment with the help of actin filament fluorescence staining were evaluated, and the level of metabolic activity of MSCs was determined by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The real-time PCR study showed a significant increase of bone gene expression in differentiated cells, compared with MSCs (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the level of chondrocyte gene expression was not remarkable. Applying mechanical vibration enhanced F-actin fiber structure and made them aligned in a specific direction. It was also found that during the differentiation process, the metabolic activity of the cells increased (P < 0.05). The results of this work are in agreement with the well-accepted fact that the MSCs, in the absence of growth factors, are sensitive to low-amplitude, high-frequency vibration. Outcomes of this work can be applied in cell therapy and tissue engineering, when regulation of stem cells is required.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Actinas/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Condrócitos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Coelhos , Engenharia Tecidual
13.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 25, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975214

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated pathogen from clinical bovine mastitis samples and a difficult pathogen to combat. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells equipped with a variety of factors that inhibit bacterial growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial potential against S. aureus of conditioned medium (CM) from MSC derived from fetal bovine bone marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (AT-MSC). BM-MSC, AT-MSC and fetal fibroblasts (FB) cultures were activated by infection with S. aureus. Bacterial growth was evaluated in presence of CM, concentrated CM (CCM), activated CM (ACM) and concentrated ACM (CACM) from BM-MSC, AT-MSC and FB. Gene expression of ß-defensin 4A (bBD-4A), NK-lysine 1 (NK1), cathelicidin 2 (CATHL2), hepcidin (HEP) and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and protein expression of bBD-4A were determined in activated and non-activated cells. The majority of BM-MSC and AT-MSC expressed CD73, Oct4 and Nanog, and were negative for CD34. Growth of S. aureus decreased when it was exposed to CM from BM-MSC, AT-MSC and FB. Moreover, growth of S. aureus in CCM, ACM and CACM was lower compared to controls of CM from BM-MSC and AT-MSC. Activated AT-MSC increased mRNA levels of bBD4A and NK1, and protein levels of bBD4A in CM. Thus, CM from fetal bovine BM-MSC and AT-MSC has the capacity to reduce in average ~30% of S. aureus relative growth under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antibacterial effect of fetal bovine MSC may be mediated by bBD4A and NK1 activity.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Mastite Bovina/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Feto , Técnicas In Vitro , Infecções Estafilocócicas/fisiopatologia
14.
J Vis Exp ; (145)2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933060

RESUMO

Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) has become a regenerative tool for various diseases; however, legislation strictly regulates the clinical application of cell products using collagenase. Here, we present a protocol to generate an injectable mixture of SVF cells and native extracellular matrix from adipose tissue by a purely mechanical process. Lipoaspirates are put into a centrifuge and spun at 1,200 x g for 3 min. The middle layer is collected and separated into two layers (high-density fat at the bottom and low-density fat on the top). The upper layer is directly emulsified by intersyringe shifting, at a rate of 20 mL/s for 6x to 8x. The emulsified fat is centrifuged at 2,000 x g for 3 min, and the sticky substance under the oil layer is collected and defined as the extracellular matrix (ECM)/SVF-gel. The oil on the top layer is collected. Approximately 5 mL of oil is added to 15 mL of high-density fat and emulsified by intersyringe shifting, at a rate of 20 mL/s for 6x to 8x. The emulsified fat is centrifuged at 2,000 x g for 3 min, and the sticky substance is also ECM/SVF-gel. After the transplantation of the ECM/SVF-gel into nude mice, the graft is harvested and assessed by histologic examination. The result shows that this product has the potential to regenerate into normal adipose tissue. This procedure is a simple, effective mechanical dissociation procedure to condense the SVF cells embedded in their natural supportive ECM for regenerative purposes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Medicina Regenerativa , Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Animais , Centrifugação , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Células Estromais/fisiologia
15.
J Physiol Sci ; 69(4): 599-612, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953307

RESUMO

Water intake is recommended for weight loss, but the relationship between water intake and energy metabolism is not clear. We hypothesized that long-term water insufficiency would influence energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism while modulating gut microbiota. Female rats were provided with high-fat diets with different amounts of water and food intake for 6 weeks as follows: water provided for 1 h per day with food ad libitum (WRFA), water supply ad libitum plus pair feeding of with water restricted rats(WAFR), water restriction with ad libitum food for 3 weeks and water and food intake ad libitum for 3 weeks (WR-WA) and ad libitum supply of water and food (WAFA). Water intake in WRFA was about one-third of WAFR and WAFA, whereas food intake was lowered by 30% in WRFA and WAFR than WAFA. Body fat decreased in WRFA and WAFR, but WAFR decreased fat mass more than WRFA. Energy expenditure was lower in WRFA than WAFA and carbohydrate utilization was much higher in WRFA than the other groups. The peak serum glucose concentrations were lower in WAFA than the other groups and WRFA lowered serum insulin levels more than WAFA during OGTT. WRFA shrank the glomerulus with increased apoptotic cells and damaged renal tubules compared to the WAFA and WAFR. WR-WA also exhibited greater glomerular shrinkage and apoptosis that WAFA, but not as much WRFA, indicating that the kidneys were healing after water restriction damage. WRFA exacerbated dyslipidemia compared to the WAFA and WAFR groups. The gut microbiome was similarly modulated in WRFA and WAFR, compared to WAFA, but it was mainly affected by food intake, not water restriction in the host. WRFA and WAFR increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes compared WAFA. In conclusion, chronic insufficient water intake induced renal damage, decreased energy expenditure, and exacerbated dyslipidemia in rats with reduced food intake. However, the reduction of food intake improved gut microbiome regardless of insufficient water intake and only minor effects on the microbiome were observed due to water restriction.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Água/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934655

RESUMO

A low fat mass is associated with a good running performance. This study explores whether modifications in body composition predicted changes in running speed. We included people who underwent several measurements of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis between 1999 and 2016, at the "Course de l'Escalade", taking place yearly in Geneva. Body composition was reported as a fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI). Running distances (men: 7.2 km; women: 4.8 km) and running times were used to calculate speed in km/h. We performed multivariate linear mixed regression models to determine whether modifications of body mass index, FFMI, FMI or the combination of FFMI and FMI predicted changes in running speed. The study population included 377 women (1419 observations) and 509 men (2161 observations). Changes in running speed were best predicted by the combination of FFMI and FMI. Running speed improved with a reduction of FMI in both sexes (women: ß -0.31; 95% CI -0.35 to -0.27, p < 0.001. men: ß -0.43; 95% CI -0.48 to -0.39, p < 0.001) and a reduction of FFMI in men (ß -0.20; 95% CI -0.26 to -0.15, p < 0.001). Adjusted for body composition, the decline in running performance occurred from 50 years onward, but appeared earlier with a body mass, FFMI or FMI above the median value at baseline. Changes of running speed are determined mostly by changes in FMI. The decline in running performance occurs from 50 years onward but appears earlier in people with a high body mass index, FFMI or FMI at baseline.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826550

RESUMO

Overdevelopment of adipose tissue in cultured fish is one of the biggest issues plaguing current aquaculture industry, leading to unhealthy status of fishes and production losses. Diet supplemented with 0.30% arachidonic acid (ARA) has been found to reduce adipogenesis and inflammation in grass carp, but the potential mechanism is not comprehensively understood. To fully reveal the effects of dietary ARA on the mRNA profiles of adipose tissue, transcriptome techniques were applied in this study. A 10-weeks feeding experiment was performed using two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets, namely ARA-free (control) and 0.30% ARA (ARA group). Results showed increased ARA content and decreased intraperitoneal fat index and adipocyte size in the adipose tissue of fish fed ARA (P < 0.05). A total of 611 and 973 genes of the adipose tissue were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in fish fed ARA (P < 0.05). Dietary ARA upregulated LOX pathway but downregulated CYP450 pathway annotated genes expression. A total of 65 cell development annotated genes including 30 adipocyte proliferation, 21 adipocyte differentiation, and 14 cell apoptosis annotated genes were down-regulated in the ARA group. In addition, 19 lipid catabolism annotated genes were increased. The mRNA expression levels of 5 chemokines, 10 cytokines, 26 cytokine and chemokine receptors, 15 cell adhesion, 6 oxidative stress, and 6 angiogenesis annotated genes were all down-regulated in fish fed ARA. Finally, dietary ARA also decreased the expression of transcripts annotated with glucose transportation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Overall, our results demonstrate that dietary ARA has a fat reducing role, and tends to retard adipocyte development and attenuate chronic inflammation based on these adipose transcript expression results in grass carp.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Aquicultura , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Carpas/fisiologia , Alimento Funcional , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carpas/genética , Alimento Funcional/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/veterinária , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214029, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893355

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the agreement in percent body fat estimates among 7 laboratory and field assessments against dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry using equivalence testing. Participants were 437 college students (mean age = 19.2±0.6 years). Dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry was used as the criterion with hydrostatic weighing, skinfold thickness, air displacement plethysmography, near infrared reactance, and three methods of bioelectrical impedance analysis examined as surrogate assessments. Relative agreement was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients. Group level agreement was examined using equivalence testing. Individual-level agreement was assessed using Mean Absolute Percent Error and Bland-Altman Plots. Single measure intraclass correlation coefficient scores ranged from 0.71-0.80. Hydrostatic weighing, skinfold thickness, air displacement plethysmography, and 4-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis showed statistical equivalence with the criterion using a 10% Equivalence Interval with absolute mean differences ranging from 1.0%-4.9% body fat. Mean Absolute Percent Error ranged from 11.7% using skinfold thickness to 21.9% using Omron (hand-held) bioelectrical impedance analysis. Limits of Agreement were heteroscedastic across the range of mean scores compared to dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry, with greater mean differences observed at higher levels of percent body fat. Hydrostatic weighing, skinfold thickness, air displacement plethysmography, and 4-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis showed strong evidence for statistical equivalence with dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry in a sample of college students.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pletismografia/métodos , Pregas Cutâneas , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Pathol ; 189(4): 924-939, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878136

RESUMO

Obese adipose tissue expansion is an inflammatory process that results in dysregulated lipolysis, increased circulating lipids, ectopic lipid deposition, and systemic insulin resistance. Lymphatic vessels provide a route of fluid, macromolecule, and immune cell clearance, and lymphangiogenesis increases this capability. Indeed, inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis is critical in resolving acute and chronic inflammation, but it is largely absent in obese adipose tissue. Enhancing adipose tissue lymphangiogenesis could, therefore, improve metabolism in obesity. To test this hypothesis, transgenic mice with doxycycline-inducible expression of murine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D under a tightly controlled Tet-On promoter were crossed with adipocyte-specific adiponectin-reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator mice (Adipo-VD) to stimulate adipose tissue-specific lymphangiogenesis during 16-week high-fat diet-induced obesity. Adipose VEGF-D overexpression induced de novo lymphangiogenesis in murine adipose tissue, and obese Adipo-VD mice exhibited enhanced glucose clearance, lower insulin levels, and reduced liver triglycerides. On ß-3 adrenergic stimulation, Adipo-VD mice exhibited more rapid and increased glycerol flux from adipose tissue, suggesting that the lymphatics are a potential route of glycerol clearance. Resident macrophage crown-like structures were scarce and total F4/80+ macrophages were reduced in obese Adipo-VD s.c. adipose tissue with evidence of increased immune trafficking from the tissue. Augmenting VEGF-D signaling and lymphangiogenesis specifically in adipose tissue, therefore, reduces obesity-associated immune accumulation and improves metabolic responsiveness.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Linfangiogênese , Vasos Linfáticos/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fator D de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina , Lipólise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia
20.
Arkh Patol ; 81(1): 52-56, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830106

RESUMO

The paper gives the current data available in the literature on the relationship and pathogenetic mechanisms of influence of adipose tissue on colorectal carcinogenesis. It considers the aspects of changes in adipose tissue and microenvironment of the tumor itself, including those under the influence of biologically active substances secreted by adipocytes; differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat and their importance in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as the role of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Understanding these mechanisms for adipose tissue influence on CRC will assist not only in preventing this disease, but also in searching for new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adipócitos , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal
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