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1.
Pulm Med ; 2023: 5082499, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36727045

RESUMO

Background: Digital health technologies (DHTs) have shown potential to improve health outcomes through improved medication adherence in different disease states. Cystic fibrosis (CF) requires care coordination across pharmacies, patients, and providers. DHTs can potentially support patients, providers, and pharmacists in diseases like CF, where high medication burden can negatively impact patient quality of life and outcomes. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, a CF-specific mobile application (Phlo) was distributed to adults with CF who received care at the University of Utah Cystic Fibrosis Center, used an iPhone, and filled prescriptions through the University of Utah Specialty Pharmacy services. Participants were asked to use Phlo for 90 days with an optional 90-day extension period. Participants completed four surveys at baseline and after 90 days. Changes in patient-reported outcomes, adherence, clinical outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization from baseline to 90 days were tracked. Results: Phlo allowed users to track daily regimen activities, contact their care team, receive medication delivery reminders, and share progress with their healthcare team. A web-based dashboard allowed the care team to review reported performance scores from the app. Most patients (67%) said the app improved confidence in and motivation for continuing their regimen. The most important reported benefit of Phlo was having a single location to manage their whole routine. Conclusions: Phlo is a mobile health technology designed to help patients with CF manage their treatment regimen and improve patient-provider communication.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Adulto , Humanos , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Tecnologia Digital , Estudos Prospectivos , Farmacêuticos
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617065

RESUMO

One of the main topics within research activities is the management of research data. Large amounts of data acquired by heterogeneous scientific devices, sensor systems, measuring equipment, and experimental setups have to be processed and ideally be managed by Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) data management approaches in order to preserve their intrinsic value to researchers throughout the entire data lifecycle. The symbiosis of heterogeneous measuring devices, FAIR principles, and digital twin technologies is considered to be ideally suited to realize the foundation of reliable, sustainable, and open research data management. This paper contributes a novel architectural approach for gathering and managing research data aligned with the FAIR principles. A reference implementation as well as a subsequent proof of concept is given, leveraging the utilization of digital twins to overcome common data management issues at equipment-intense research institutes. To facilitate implementation, a top-level knowledge graph has been developed to convey metadata from research devices along with the produced data. In addition, a reactive digital twin implementation of a specific measurement device was devised to facilitate reconfigurability and minimized design effort.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Dados , Metadados , Registros , Tecnologia Digital , Inteligência
3.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678173

RESUMO

Digital anthropometry (DA) has been recently developed for body composition evaluation and for postural analysis. The aims of this review are to examine the current state of DA technology, as well as to verify the methods for identifying the best technology to be used in the field of DA by evaluating the reliability and accuracy of the available technologies on the market, and lay the groundwork for future technological developments. A literature search was performed and 28 studies met the inclusion criteria. The reliability and accuracy of DA was high in most studies, especially in the assessment of patients with obesity, although they varied according to the technology used; a good correlation was found between DA and conventional anthropometry (CA) and body composition estimates. DA is less time-consuming and less expensive and could be used as a screening tool before more expensive imaging techniques or as an alternative to other less affordable techniques. At present, DA could be useful in clinical practice, but the heterogeneity of the available studies (different devices used, laser technologies, population examined, etc.) necessitates caution in the interpretation of the obtained results. Furthermore, the need to develop integrated technologies for analyzing body composition according to multi-compartmental models is increasingly evident.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Tecnologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Antropometria/métodos , Tecnologia Digital
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 19(N° 809-10): 28-34, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660833

RESUMO

Over the past ten years, a growing number of technological tools have been developed to improve women's health and well-being, grouped under the name FemTech. This growing field has the potential to improve gynecological care and covers solutions that are less invasive and more personalized to the patient's needs. Thanks to its world-renowned universities and hospitals, its high involvement in the research field and its strong biopharmaceutical sector, Romandy has demonstrated the rapid rise of start-ups dedicated to women's health, thus providing a promising landscape in the FemTech industry. Several Swiss FemTech companies yield innovative solutions related to fertility, menopause and gynecological instruments. This article aims to present the emerging Femtech companies in Romandy over the past years and their use among young women.


Au cours des 10 dernières années ont été développés un nombre croissant d'outils technologiques destinés à améliorer la santé et le bien-être des femmes, regroupés sous le nom de FemTech. Ce domaine qui ne cesse de croître a le potentiel d'améliorer la prise en charge gynécologique, de rendre les soins plus personnalisés et moins invasifs. Grâce à ses hôpitaux universitaires, ses instituts de recherche et son industrie pharmaceutique très développée, la Suisse romande compte des acteurs novateurs dans le secteur et a vu apparaître des start-up prometteuses. Plusieurs FemTech suisses proposent des solutions innovantes liées à la fertilité, à la ménopause ou aux instruments gynécologiques. Dans cet article, nous avons investigué les FemTech émergentes ces dernières années en Suisse romande et leur utilisation chez les jeunes femmes.


Assuntos
Ginecologia , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Tecnologia Digital , Saúde da Mulher , Atenção à Saúde
6.
Br J Nurs ; 32(2): 88-89, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715525

RESUMO

John Tingle Lecturer in Law, Birmingham Law School, University of Birmingham, discusses several reports addressing patient safety, ethical and legal issues in healthcare digital technologies and artificial intelligence.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Tecnologia Digital , Humanos , Medicina Estatal , Segurança do Paciente , Atenção à Saúde , Reino Unido
7.
BJS Open ; 7(1)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informed consent is an ethical and legal requirement in healthcare and supports patient autonomy to make informed choices about their own care. This review explores the impact of digital technology for informed consent in surgery. METHODS: A systematic search of EBSCOhost (MEDLINE/CINAHL), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science was performed in November 2021. All RCTs comparing outcomes of both digital and non-digital (standard) consent in surgery were included. Each included study underwent an evaluation of methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias (2.0) tool. Outcomes assessed included comprehension, level of satisfaction and anxiety, and feasibility of digital interventions in practice. RESULTS: A total of 40 studies, across 13 countries and 15 surgical specialties were included in this analysis. Digital consent interventions used active patient participation and passive patient participation in 15 and 25 studies respectively. Digital consent had a positive effect on early comprehension in 21 of 30 (70 per cent) studies and delayed comprehension in 9 of 20 (45 per cent) studies. Only 16 of 38 (42 per cent) studies assessed all four elements of informed consent: general information, risks, benefits, and alternatives. Most studies showed no difference in satisfaction or anxiety. A minority of studies reported on feasibility of digital technology in practice. CONCLUSION: Digital technologies in informed consent for surgery were found to have a positive effect on early comprehension, without any negative effect on satisfaction or anxiety. It is recommended that future studies explore the feasibility of these applications for vulnerable patient groups and busy surgical practice.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Digital , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Humanos , Participação do Paciente , Compreensão , Transtornos de Ansiedade
8.
Psicothema ; 35(1): 50-57, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of digital technology in the field of psychological and educational measurement and assessment broadens the traditional concept of pencil and paper tests. New assessment models built on the proliferation of smartphones, social networks and software developments are opening up new horizons in the field. METHOD: This study is divided into four sections, each discussing the benefits and limitations of a specific type of technology-based assessment: ambulatory assessment, social networks, gamification and forced-choice testing. RESULTS: The latest developments are clearly relevant in the field of psychological and educational measurement and assessment. Among other benefits, they bring greater ecological validity to the assessment process and eliminate the bias associated with retrospective assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Some of these new approaches point to a multidisciplinary scenario with a tradition which has yet to be created. Psychometrics must secure a place in this new world by contributing sound expertise in the measurement of psychological variables. The challenges and debates facing the field of psychology as it incorporates these new approaches are also discussed.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Digital , Software , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Psicometria , Avaliação Educacional
11.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 28(1): 338-353, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525979

RESUMO

The proliferation of digital technology within the lives of children and young people (CYP) provides arguably one of the most significant clinical and ethical paradigm shifts in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. One can argue that mental health research has taken a myopic approach to understanding the interaction between young people's technology use and their mental health. Mental health clinicians also need a better understanding of the digital lives of CYP and how technology may be supporting or harming their mental health. Within this paper, we argue that greater longitudinal research is required, particularly in vulnerable groups, and that there is an essential need for a standardised digital use assessment (DUA) tool, which assimilates CYP use of technology and their vulnerabilities/resilience to online risks. We subsequently offer a series of questions clinicians can use to explore technology use by CYP. Such an aide memoire may empower clinicians to have wider discussions around digital technology use with CYP, while also helping to develop appropriate safety and management plans.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Digital , Saúde Mental , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos
12.
Orv Hetil ; 163(49): 1943-1951, 2022 Dec 04.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463551

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Eastern and Central Europe, Hungary has the third highest incidence of melanoma after the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In order to improve the efficiency of melanoma diagnostics and screening, several technological developments have been made in recent years, one is the integrated automated total body mapping and digital dermatoscopy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this targeted literature review is to demonstrate the potential of new digital technologies developed for total body mapping in relation to melanoma screening. METHOD: Targeted literature review was performed to collect information. We searched in publicly available databases for guidelines and recommendations as well as scientific publications on screening and early detection of melanoma. RESULTS: We identified 15 international guidelines and recommendations summarizing screening and early detection of melanoma. We did not find any Hungarian guidelines on melanoma screening. We analyzed 2 clinical, 5 observational studies and 8 systematic reviews on the effectiveness of digital dermatoscopy and automated total body mapping. We found 10 studies that investigated the complementary role of machine learning algorithms in the early diagnosis of melanoma. DISCUSSION: Digital dermatoscopy and total body mapping can help identify skin malignancies or new melanoma at high-risk individuals. Due to the lack of reliable data of melanoma screening programmes on cancer mortality, population-based melanoma screening is not recommended by international guidelines. CONCLUSION: International guidelines highlight the role of automated total body mapping and sequential digital dermatoscopic imaging in screening of individuals at increased risk of melanoma. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(49): 1943-1951.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Tecnologia Digital , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Algoritmos
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(12)2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health emergency and low treatment adherence among patients is a major barrier to ending the TB epidemic. The WHO promotes digital adherence technologies (DATs) as facilitators for improving treatment adherence in resource-limited settings. However, limited research has investigated whether DATs improve outcomes for high-risk patients (ie, those with a high probability of an unsuccessful outcome), leading to concerns that DATs may cause intervention-generated inequality. METHODS: We conducted secondary analyses of data from a completed individual-level randomised controlled trial in Nairobi, Kenya during 2016-2017, which evaluated the average intervention effect of a novel DAT-based behavioural support programme. We trained a causal forest model to answer three research questions: (1) Was the effect of the intervention heterogeneous across individuals? (2) Was the intervention less effective for high-risk patients? nd (3) Can differentiated care improve programme effectiveness and equity in treatment outcomes? RESULTS: We found that individual intervention effects-the percentage point reduction in the likelihood of an unsuccessful treatment outcome-ranged from 4.2 to 12.4, with an average of 8.2. The intervention was beneficial for 76% of patients, and most beneficial for high-risk patients. Differentiated enrolment policies, targeted at high-risk patients, have the potential to (1) increase the average intervention effect of DAT services by up to 28.5% and (2) decrease the population average and standard deviation (across patients) of the probability of an unsuccessful treatment outcome by up to 8.5% and 31.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This DAT-based intervention can improve outcomes among high-risk patients, reducing inequity in the likelihood of an unsuccessful treatment outcome. In resource-limited settings where universal provision of the intervention is infeasible, targeting high-risk patients for DAT enrolment is a worthwhile strategy for programmes that involve human support sponsors, enabling them to achieve the highest possible impact for high-risk patients at a substantially improved cost-effectiveness ratio.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Digital , Tuberculose , Humanos , Quênia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Probabilidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554353

RESUMO

Digitization offers fresh impetus to the transformation and upgrading of mining enterprises, while on the other hand, the rapid development and broad application of digital technologies make the environmental governance of mining enterprises the most important themes of theoretical research and practical exploration. In this paper, A-share companies listed between 2007 and 2020 are taken as samples to study the influence of digital transformation on the environmental governance of mining enterprises, and its relative acting paths. Our main research methods are multiple linear regression analysis, the panel fixed-effect model and the intermediary effect model. The results show that digital transformation significantly improves the environmental governance of mining enterprises, which is still tenable even after going through a series of endogeneity and robustness tests. It is found via the path test that, by strengthening the supervision of the media, the digital transformation performed in mining enterprises helps improve their environmental governance level, but the comparability of the accounting data shows no significant mediation effect between digital transformation and environmental governance. The heterogeneity test found that the promotion of digital transformation in environmental governance was significant only in non-state-owned enterprises, large-scale enterprises, and mature-growth enterprises. The findings enrich studies on the economic consequences and the environmental governance influences brought by mining enterprise's transformation based on advanced technologies. This provides an important reference and is of great heuristic significance in promoting digital transformation and strengthening the environmental governance of mining enterprises.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , China , Tecnologia Digital , Heurística
16.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 268, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feedback is vital to improving trainee competencies in medical education. The challenges of the global COVID-19 pandemic related to social distancing to curb the spread of the virus ignited a rapid transition to online medical education. These changes highlight the need for digital feedback tools that enhance the efficacy and efficiency of feedback practices. This protocol is for a scoping review that aims to identify the different digital tools and applications in medical education as reported in the literature, as well as highlight gaps in the current literature and provide suggestions for future technological developments and research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A review of the relevant literature will be guided using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodological framework for scoping studies. Using the search strategy developed by the authors, an electronic search of the following databases will be conducted: PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost (academic search complete, CINAHL with full text) Scopus, Google Scholar, Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations (UCTD) via SABINET Online and World Cat Dissertations and Theses via OCLC. Studies will be identified by searching literature from January 2010 to date of review. Using a validated data extraction form developed for the scoping review, the review team will screen eligible studies and import them onto an electronic library created specifically for this purpose. Data collection for the review will be documented through a PRISMA-P flowchart, and the scoping review will use a basic descriptive content analysis to analyse and categorise the extracted data. All review steps will involve two or more reviewers. DISSEMINATION: The review will provide a comprehensive list of digital tools and applications used to enhance feedback in clinical training and inform future technological developments. The findings will be disseminated through medical education conferences and publications.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tecnologia Digital , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Retroalimentação , Metanálise como Assunto , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
17.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 6186811, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36479021

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a potentially transformative force that is likely to change the role of management and organizational practices. AI is revolutionizing corporate decision-making and changing management structures. The visible effects of AI can be observed in key competencies and corporate processes such as knowledge management, as well as consumer outcomes including service quality perceptions and satisfaction. This study aims to optimize the human resource management (HRM) process, reduce the workload of human resource managers, and improve work efficiency. Based on AI digitization technology, a salary prediction model (SPM) is designed using a backpropagation neural network (BPNN), and the Nesterov and Adaptive Moment Estimation (Nadam) algorithms are integrated to optimize the model. Next, the content information of the resumes are used to predict the hiring salary of the candidates and validate the model. Results show that compared with other optimization algorithms, the final predicted result score of the Nadam optimization algorithm is 0.75%, and the training period is 186 s, providing the best optimization effect and the fastest convergence speed. Moreover, the BPNN-based SPM optimized by Nadam has good performance in the learning process and the accuracy rate can reach 79.4%, which verifies the validity of the SPM. The outcomes of this study can provide a reference for HRM systems based on data mining technology.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Tecnologia Digital , Humanos , Recursos Humanos , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501994

RESUMO

Digital twins technology (DTT) is an application framework with breakthrough rules. With the deep integration of the virtual information world and physical space, it becomes the basis for realizing intelligent machining production lines, which is of great significance to intelligent processing in industrial manufacturing. This review aims to study the application of DTT and the Metaverse in fluid machinery in the past 5 years by summarizing the application status of pumps and fans in fluid machinery from the perspective of DTT and the Metaverse through the collection, classification, and summary of relevant literature in the past 5 years. The research found that in addition to relatively mature applications in intelligent manufacturing, DTT and Metaverse technologies play a critical role in the development of new pump products and technologies and are widely used in numerical simulation and fault detection in fluid machinery for various pumps and other fields. Among fan-type fluid machinery, twin fans can comprehensively use technologies, such as perception, calculation, modeling, and deep learning, to provide efficient smart solutions for fan operation detection, power generation visualization, production monitoring, and operation monitoring. Still, there are some limitations. For example, real-time and accuracy cannot fully meet the requirements in the mechanical environment with high-precision requirements. However, there are also some solutions that have achieved good results. For instance, it is possible to achieve significant noise reduction and better aerodynamic performance of the axial fan by improving the sawtooth parameters of the fan and rearranging the sawtooth area. However, there are few application cases of the Metaverse in fluid machinery. The cases are limited to operating real equipment from a virtual environment and require the combination of virtual reality and DTT. The application effect still needs further verification.


Assuntos
Utensílios Domésticos , Tecnologia , Comércio , Tecnologia Digital , Indústrias
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(12): e40192, 2022 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital technologies facilitate everyday life, social connectedness, aging at home, well-being, and dignified care. However, older adults are disproportionately excluded from these benefits. Equal digital opportunities, access, and meaningful engagement require an understanding of older adults' experience across different stages of the technological engagement life cycle from nonuse and initial adoption to sustained use, factors influencing their decisions, and how the experience changes over time. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to identify the extent and breadth of existing literature on older adults' perspective on digital engagement and summarize the barriers to and facilitators for technological nonuse, initial adoption, and sustained digital technology engagement. METHODS: We used the Arksey and O'Malley framework for the scoping review process. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and ACM digital library for primary studies published between 2005 and 2021. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed based on the Joanna Briggs Institute (participants, content, and context) framework. Studies that investigated the digital engagement experience as well as barriers to and facilitators of older adults' digital technology engagement were included. The characteristics of the study, types of digital technology, and digital engagement levels were analyzed descriptively. Content analysis was used to generate tentative elements using a congruent theme, and barriers and facilitators were mapped over the capability, opportunity, and motivation behavior change model (COM-B) and the theoretical domain framework. The findings were reported in accordance with the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews). RESULTS: In total, 96 publications were eligible for the final charting and synthesis. Most of the studies were published over the past 5 years, investigated the initial adoption stage of digital engagement, and focused on everyday technologies. The most cited barriers and facilitators across the engagement stages from each COM-B component were capability (eg, physical and psychological changes and lack of skill), opportunity (eg, technological features, environmental context, and resources), and motivation (eg, optimism from perceived usefulness and beliefs about capability). CONCLUSIONS: The COM-B model and theoretical domain framework provide a guide for identifying multiple and intertwined barriers and facilitators at each stage of digital engagement. There are limited studies looking into the whole spectrum of older adults' digital technology experience; in particular, studies on technological nonuse and sustained use stages are rare. Future research and practice should focus on tailored interventions accounting for the barriers to older adults' digital engagement and addressing capabilities, motivation, and opportunities; affordable, usable, and useful digital technologies, which address the changes and capability requirements of older adults and are cocreated with a value framework; and lifelong learning and empowerment to develop older adults' knowledge and skills to cope with digital technology development. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/25616.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Digital , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Idoso
20.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 43(910): 634-638; quiz 639, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516864

RESUMO

Telescopic and conical dental solutions for tooth-borne, implant-borne, and combination tooth/implant-borne removable dental prosthetics have a long and rich history. Traditionally, these restorations have been based on analog techniques. The integration of digital technologies, however, has had a profound impact on these solutions in numerous ways, helping to facilitate efficient fabrication of many technical and clinical facets of these dental prosthetics. This article examines how digital technologies impact telescopic and conical clinical case workflows and technical protocols. It discusses such aspects as intraoral scanning, photogrammetry, primary and secondary telescopes and cones, tertiary structures, and temporary restorations.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Telescópios , Fluxo de Trabalho , Tecnologia Digital , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante
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