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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946525

RESUMO

Agro-waste reduction and reuse are among the current main social challenges. In this perspective, the present research was aimed at the complete valorisation of Garganega grape pomace by recovering bioactive phenol extracts and by testing the solid fibre extract residues in composite formulation for packaging applications. The pomace was derived from white wine production, therefore, respect to red pomace, it was promptly removed from must after pressing, and its exploitation can be particularly interesting and valuable as still rich in active compounds. Phenol extracts were obtained both via solvent-based and pressurised liquid extractions and their phytochemical compositions were compared in terms of total amount of phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and reducing sugars. Antioxidant activity and detailed phenol profiles were also achieved. The highest phenol yield was obtained via solvent-based extraction with 75% acetone (v/v), solid/liquid ratio 1:5, 2h incubation at 50°C (77.9 gGAeq/kgDW). The fibrous solid residue of the extraction was characterized via thermogravimetric analysis and used for composite preparation by melt mixing with the renewable and biodegradable PHBV polymer through a green approach (solvent-less process). The composites resulted thermally stable at high temperatures, showing initial degradation processes only at temperatures higher than 250°C. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses were carried out to study melting and crystallization phenomena, while mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests. The materials finally showed properties similar to those of the matrix. The bio-composites can be considered as an alternative to plain PHBV, since they are less expensive and eco-friendlier thanks to a reduced polymeric content, and they could represent a suitable way for full agro-waste exploitation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Resíduos Industriais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vitis/química , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/química , Vinho
2.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 224, ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103542

RESUMO

El consumo de proteína y especialmente aminoácidos esenciales juega un papel fundamental en la dieta, ya que suple las necesidades de nitrógeno del organismo y favorece el mantenimiento de estructuras corporales. En los últimos años, la nutrición y la tecnología de los alimentos están experimentando una profunda transformación debido al desarrollo del concepto de alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos. Tanto las proteínas funcionales como los péptidos bioactivos están cobrando gran importancia ya que, además de su papel nutricional por ser fuente de aminoácidos, son capaces de ejercer diferentes efectos biológicos específicos sobre el sistema inmune, el sistema cardiovascular o el tracto gastrointestinal. Los aminoácidos de cadena ramificada (BCAAs denominación por las siglas en inglés) como lo son la Leucina, Isoleucina y Valina son considerados útiles para el tratamiento y predicción de algunas enfermedades, el presente artículo de revisión, se recopila información acerca de los aminoácidos de cadena ramificada y su uso positivo en el tratamiento de diferentes patologías como enfermedades neurológicas, hepáticas, cardiometabólicas, cáncer, además de su uso en deportistas. Se tuvieron en cuenta los siguientes criterios de inclusión: 1. La búsqueda se realizó en reconocidas bases de datos, 2. Se incluyeron artículos desde el 2006 a la fecha, 3. Se realizó la búsqueda con palabras como aminoácidos de cadena ramificada y efecto en diferentes patologías, con la inclusión de artículos donde se menciona el consumo humano de los mismos, se excluyeron artículos donde los aminoácidos no intervengan de manera positiva en su consumo y tratamiento de enfermedades(AU)


The consumption of protein and especially essential amino acids play a fundamental role in the diet, in order to meet the body's nitrogen needs and the maintenance of body structures. In recent years nutrition and food technology are undergoing a profound transformation due to the development of the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals. Both functional proteins and bioactive peptides are becoming very important since, in addition to their nutritional role as a source of amino acids, they are capable of exerting different specific biological effects on the immune system, the cardiovascular system or the gastrointestinal tract. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), such as Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine, are considered useful for the treatment and prediction of some diseases. This review article collects information about branched-chain amino acids. and it's positive use in the treatment of different pathologies such as neurological, liver, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, in addition to it's use in athletes. The following inclusion criteria were taken into account: 1. The search was carried out in recognized databases, 2. Articles were included from 2006 to date, 3. The search was carried out with words such as branched-chain amino acids and effect in different pathologies, with the inclusion of articles where their human consumption is mentioned, articles were excluded where amino acids do not intervene positively in their consumption and treatment of diseases(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Proteínas , Dieta , Composição de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo
3.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745187

RESUMO

Proof-of-principle for large-scale engineering of edible muscle tissue, in vitro, was established with the product's introduction in 2013. Subsequent research and commentary on the potential for cell-based meat to be a viable food option and potential alternative to conventional meat have been significant. While some of this has focused on the biology and engineering required to optimize the manufacturing process, a majority of debate has focused on cultural, environmental, and regulatory considerations. Animal scientists and others with expertise in muscle and cell biology, physiology, and meat science have contributed to the knowledge base that has made cell-based meat possible and will continue to have a role in the future of the new product. Importantly, the successful introduction of cell-based meat that looks and tastes like conventional meat at a comparable price has the potential to displace and/or complement conventional meat in the marketplace.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Carne/provisão & distribução , Animais , Cultura , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841240

RESUMO

Roasting is the most common method of processing coffee. During roasting, aromatic compounds are generated due to various reactions, which are important for developing color, flavor and aroma. Acrylamide is an undesirable carcinogenic substance that is metabolically activated and formed during the coffee roasting process. Coffea arabica was first found in Ethiopia, and Ethiopia can produce a large volume of coffee. The major coffee-producing areas in Ethiopia are Hararghe, Sidama, Gimbi/Nekemte, Yergachefe and Limu. The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the acrylamide contents of brewed and roasted coffee collected from street coffee sellers and industrial processors found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and optimize the roasting conditions for Sidama coffee. The acrylamide contents were determined by HPLC using a DAD at 210 nm, the antioxidant property were examined using a UV-spectrophotometer, and moisture and nutrient composition of coffee was determined using the method described by the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). The roasting temperature and time were optimized based on the acrylamide content, nutritional composition and antioxidant property of the coffee using central composite design. The roasting temperature and time significantly affected (p<0.05) the acrylamide level, nutritional composition and antioxidant property of the coffee. The acrylamide contents of street and industrial processed powdered coffee were 346 ±19 to 701±38µg/kg and 442±14 to 906±7µg/kg, respectively. Brewed coffee from street vendors and industrial processing had acrylamide contents of 25±2 to 49±1µg/L and 63±2 to 89±4µg/L, respectively. The EC50 values for scavenging radicals for the optimized coffee ranged from 171±0 to 111±4 µg/L. The optimal roasting temperature and time were 190°C and 6 minutes, at this temperature and time the acrylamide content decreased, and the antioxidant and nutritional compositions of the coffee improved.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Coffea/química , Café/química , Nutrientes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Sementes/química
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745186

RESUMO

Cultured meat grown in vitro from animal cells has the potential to address many of the ethical, environmental, and public health issues associated with conventional meat production. However, as well as overcoming technical challenges to producing cultured meat, producers and advocates of the technology must consider a range of social issues, including consumer appeal and acceptance, media coverage, religious status, regulation, and potential economic impacts. Whilst much has been written on the prospects for consumer appeal and acceptance of cultured meat, less consideration has been given to the other aspects of the social world that will interact with this new technology. Here, each of these issues is considered in turn, forming a view of cultured meat as a technology with a diverse set of societal considerations and far-reaching social implications. It is argued that the potential gains from a transition to cultured meat are vast, but that cultural phenomena and institutions must be navigated carefully for this nascent industry to meet its potential.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Carne/provisão & distribução , Animais , Cultura , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
6.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 27(S Pt 1): e1-e4, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668134

RESUMO

The entire globe is facing a dangerous pandemic due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The medical and scientific community is trying to figure out and adopt effective strategies that can lead to (i) preventing virus expansion; (ii) identifying medications for the management of critical care and reducing rates of mortality; and (iii) finally discovering the highly anticipated vaccine. Nutritional interventions have attained considerable scientific evidence in disease prevention and treatment. The main question, "What is the role of nutrition and food science in this scenario?" requires urgent answer as many theories suggesting that specific food or dietary supplements can fight coronavirus infection have received extensive coverage in most popular social media platforms. In this editorial, we focus on some frequent statements on the role of nutrition and food science in the battle against COVID-19, distinguishing between myths and facts. We highlight that social distancing and hygiene precautions are the best practices for reducing the risk of COVID-19 transmission. We further underline the importance of nutrition in its wholistic concept, pointing out the risk of unproven dietary options that could lead individuals to weaken effective precautionary measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia de Alimentos/organização & administração , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Papel (figurativo) , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127486, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663756

RESUMO

Activated complex theory (ACT), apart from Van 't Hoff equation, has long been applying as an alternative tool to connect the kinetics (reaction rate constant, k) and thermodynamics parameters (including standard enthalpy of activation, △H++; standard entropy of activation, △S++; standard Gibbs free energy of activation, △G++). The study mainly focuses on ACT application in food systems, especially oil and fruit juice processing. Considering there are several improper calculations or mistakes often found in papers published recently in 2014-2019, three considerations are presented when applying the ACT, including 1) Understand that the reaction should be a single chemical elementary step; 2) Ensure that the units used should be consistent; 3) Effectively analyze the kinetics and thermodynamic parameters by choosing proper temperatures. This study is expected to further improve the understanding and correct application of this well-known theory in future work.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Entropia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Cinética , Óleos/química , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(7): 685-692, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522944

RESUMO

Although cold-pressed sesame oil (CPSO) possesses high nutritional value, its application in the food industry is limited due to its poor oxidative stability. The aim of this study was to enhance the oxidative stability of CPSO by complex coacervation microcapsule technology with gelatin and gum Arabic as wall materials. The characterization of CPSO microcapsules were evaluated by a particle image analyzer, a laser particle size distribution analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The encapsulation efficiency (EE) reached 90.25%. The average particle size of the microcapsules was approximately 117.1 µm and many oil droplets were encapsulated by complex coacervation to form a multinuclear spherical microcapsule. The FTIR study confirmed that the process of complex coacervation was formed between gelatin and gum Arabic by electrostatic interactions. The TGA study suggested that the microcapsules had good heat resistance. The fatty acid composition, the content of sesamin, sesamolin and vitamin E in CPSO were determined before and after microencapsulation. It showed that the microencapsulation process had almost no effect on the fatty acid composition, sesamin and sesamolin, only Vitamin E was slightly lost during the microencapsulation process. The accelerated storage test showed that microencapsulation significantly increased the oxidative stability of CPSO.


Assuntos
Cápsulas , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Gergelim/análise , Óleo de Gergelim/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Dioxóis/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Gelatina , Goma Arábica , Lignanas/análise , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Eletricidade Estática , Vitamina E
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234940, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574219

RESUMO

In the human food industry, the wheat-free market sales have increased over the years due to awareness of wheat gluten allergy and celiac disease. Sorghum is a gluten-free grain with great potential to address shortcomings in this market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the milling process and flour quality of one white and one red sorghum varieties and evaluate extrusion as a potential process to produce sorghum crisps. The white and red sorghum grains were milled into flour in three production cycles. Flour quality was evaluated by determination of nutritional composition, pasting, and thermal profile. Extrusion processing of white and red sorghum flour was performed, and macrostructure of final product was evaluated. The white and red sorghum used in this study yielded similar flour content (P > 0.05). Chemical analyses revealed a higher protein and lower starch content for white sorghum than red sorghum flour (P < 0.05); however, their pasting properties did not differ. Initial and peak gelatinization temperatures were higher (P < 0.05) for red sorghum compared to white sorghum flour. Regarding particle size, white sorghum flour presented lower d10 and d50 compared to the red sorghum flour (P < 0.05). However, these differences did not impact the extrusion conditions, and white and red sorghum crisps had similar macrostructure characteristics. In conclusion, although differences in nutritional, thermal, and particle size properties were observed between the sorghum flours used in this study, changes in extrusion parameters were not needed in order to produce sorghum crisps with similar characteristics.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha , Alimentos Especializados , Sorghum , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Lanches
11.
Arch Razi Inst ; 75(1): 131-136, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292011

RESUMO

This review paper aimed to provides precious information about the function and use of different enzymes in dairy food applications. An enzyme is called a protein and catalyzes a specific reaction. Every enzyme is intended to initiate a particular reaction with a specific outcome. Moreover, numerous enzymes are present in the human body. Dairy food applications include the use of different enzymes, such as protease, to lessen the allergic properties of bovine milk products and lipase to improve the flavor of the cheese. Caseins, which are acid-soluble, are free from a flavor and can be suitable for addition to beverages and acidy foods by the limitation of proteolysis. The hydrolysates of casein are better to use in foods based on milk proteins for newborn children with allergy to bovine milk. Lipolysis makes a significant role in the flavor of Swiss cheese. The peppery flavor of Blue cheese is produced by short-chain unsaturated fats and methyl ketones. Many minor enzymes with limited application in dairy processes are sulphydryl oxidase, lactoperoxidase, glucose oxidase, catalase, lysozyme, and superoxide dismutase. Both catalase and glucose oxidase are utilized in food preservation processes. The scope minor enzymes in milk products needed for better production of dairy products and for the future of dairy technology. The worldwide market for the production of microbial enzymes used in dairy products processing is impressively increasing; however, there are a limited number of enzyme-producing industries in the market. The production of proteinase, lactase, lipase, and microbial rennet is increasing in the laboratory and small scales. In near future, the need for these enzymes will be undoubtedly significantly increasing essentially due to the requirement of significant nutritional valuable dairy products in the country to overcome malnutrition and obesity and shift toward low-fat and healthy foods.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Enzimas/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Alimentos
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 862-869, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237090

RESUMO

The increase in the use of bioactive compounds from purple corn in the food and pharmaceutical industries has led to the investigation of nonconventional extraction technologies that allow one to obtain more of these compounds. In this context, nonconventional techniques, known as emerging technologies, use more efficient processes that are safe for the environment, in addition to obtaining products with better functional characteristics as compared to those obtained by conventional technologies. This review aims to provide information on different nonconventional techniques used in the extraction of bioactive compounds from purple corn.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Zea mays/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298291

RESUMO

Cultured meat, in particular beef, is an emerging food technology potentially challenged by issues of consumer acceptance. To understand drivers of consumer acceptance as well as sensory perception of cultured meat, we investigated the effect of information content on participants' acceptance of cultured meat in a tasting context. Hundred ninety-three citizens from the Netherlands participated, divided across three age and sex-matched groups which each received information on either societal benefits, personal benefits or information on the quality and taste of cultured meat. They filled out a questionnaire and tasted two pieces of hamburger, labeled 'conventional' or 'cultured', although both pieces were in fact conventional. Sensory analysis of both hamburgers was performed. We observed that provision of information and the tasting experience increased acceptance of cultured meat and that information on personal benefits of cultured meat increased acceptance more than information on quality and taste but not than societal benefits of cultured meat. Previous awareness of cultured meat was the best predictor of its acceptance. In contrast to previous studies, sex and social economic status were not associated with different acceptance rates. Surprisingly, 58% of the respondents were willing to pay a premium for cultured meat of, on average, 37% above the price of regular meat. All participants tasted the 'cultured' hamburger and evaluated its taste to be better than the conventional one in spite of the absence of an objective difference. This is the first acceptance study of cultured meat where participants were offered to eat and evaluate meat that was labeled 'cultured'. We conclude that having positive information importantly improves acceptance and willingness to taste and that the specific content of the information is of subordinate importance. Awareness of cultured meat is the best predictor of acceptance.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Paladar , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6003-6014, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307154

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to use high-pressure-jet (HPJ) processing to produce functional properties in a low-fat (4.5% fat) ice cream mix similar to those seen when emulsifiers are used. Ice cream mix or serum (nonfat portion of the ice cream mix) were subjected to 200 or 400 MPa HPJ processing and compared with a non-HPJ-treated control. A similar non-HPJ-treated formulation but containing polysorbate 80 (0.075% wt/wt) was also used as a control. The mix samples were characterized in terms of their particle size, density, flow properties, stability, crystallization kinetics, and fat-protein interactions. The sample from the mix subjected to 400 MPa HPJ processing (HPJ-M-400) had increased consistency coefficient (5°C; 228 ± 102.7 mPa·s) and particle size (D[4,3]; 16.0 ± 2.5 µm) compared with the non-HPJ-treated control sample, with viscosity and particle size (volume-moment mean diameter, D[4,3]) values of 7.5 ± 0.4 mPa·s and 0.50 ± 0.1 µm, respectively. These differences were attributed to an increase in casein-fat interactions and casein-casein interactions caused by the 400 MPa HPJ treatment, which were observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy and inferred from an increase in protein and fat concentrations in the sediment after ultracentrifugation. Interestingly, the density of HPJ-M-400 was also lower (0.79 ± 0.17 g/mL) than that of the control (1.04 ± 0.00 g/mL) because bubbles were trapped within these complexes. The large casein-fat complexes formed in the HPJ-M-400 sample also appeared to act as steric barriers that slowed ice crystal growth during quiescent freezing. The alterations in physiochemical properties and apparent ice crystal growth induced by the 400 MPa treatment of low-fat ice cream mix have many potential applications, including clean-label confections.


Assuntos
Gorduras/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sorvetes/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Caseínas/química , Cristalização , Emulsificantes , Emulsões , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Congelamento , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Tamanho da Partícula , Pasteurização , Reologia , Viscosidade
15.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(3): 196-198, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197682

RESUMO

An interdisciplinary project regarding the effect of ascorbic acid on bread dough's physico-chemical properties was proposed to bachelor students in chemistry and food sciences. Such an approach was proposed to develop both scientific and soft skills, in order to prepare students for their future working environment. Together, students deepened their knowledge regarding food science and chemistry. They were then able to plan and design experiments demonstrating the impact of gluten network formation and ascorbic acid influence onto bread dough and finished product characteristics. This way of teaching was very appreciated by students, nevertheless it highlighted the fact that the professors' investment was considerably high, and that good organization, alignment and preparation prior to the start of this project is key.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos , Pão , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Estudantes
17.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107832, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004854

RESUMO

Despite food technology advancements, food safety policies and alert systems, foodborne diseases are still a relevant concern for consumers and public health authorities, with great impacts on the economy and the society. Evaluating the cost of foodborne diseases may support the design and the implementation of policy interventions. This paper proposes a simple method for cost identification of foodborne diseases, accessible to researchers and practitioners who are not specialist in economics. The method is based on the assumption that epidemiological and economic models can be integrated to understand how the burden of disease determines costs in a wider socio-economic perspective. Systems thinking and interdisciplinary approach are the pivotal conceptual tools of the method. Systems thinking allows for the understanding of the complex relationships working among the elementary units of a system (e.g. wildlife, bred animals, consumers, environment, agro-food industry) in the occurrence of a health problem such foodborne diseases. Complex systemic relationships usually cross the traditional boundaries of scientific knowledge (human medicine, veterinary science, economics) and sectoral institutional responsibilities (e.g. ministry of health, ministry of agriculture). For these reasons more scientific disciplines, institutional competences and social bodies need to work together to face complex health problems, in an interdisciplinary framework. The first step of the proposed method is the identification of the potential cost of the disease. To this aim, the authors first focus on the links between epidemiological and economic models, based on the fact that foodborne diseases, likewise other diseases, hit people's and animals' aptitude to produce utility and goods for the society (e.g. wellbeing, revenue, safe food). These utility losses are real economic costs. Then they show how simple economic models, such as the food supply chain, can help understand the way costs spread across the economic sectors and the society. It should be underlined that the authors adopt already existing and well rooted scientific tools, focusing in particular that their integration in an interdisciplinary framework can effectively contribute to increase the understanding of complex health problems in a viable way.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/economia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/economia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/tendências , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Saúde Única/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sistemas
18.
Food Funct ; 11(2): 1702-1720, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039430

RESUMO

The link between food and human health is increasingly a topic of interest. One avenue of study has been to assess food disintegration and interactions within the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro digestion models have been widely used to overcome the constrictions associated with in vivo methodology. The COST Action INFOGEST developed an international, harmonised protocol for static simulation of digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract of adults. This protocol is widely used; however, it is restricted to providing end-point assessment without considering the possible structural changes. On the other hand, there are dynamic models that provide more physiologically relevant data but are expensive and difficult to access. There is a gap between these models. The method outlined in this article provides an intermediate model; it builds upon the harmonised static model and now includes crucial kinetic aspects associated with the gastric phase of digestion, including gradual acidification, fluid and enzyme secretion and emptying. This paper provides guidance and standardised recommendations of a physiologically relevant semi-dynamic in vitro simulation of upper gastrointestinal tract digestion, with particular focus on the gastric phase. Adaptations of this model have already been used to provide kinetic data on nutrient digestion and structural changes during the gastric phase that impact on nutrient absorption. Moreover, it provides a simple tool that can be used in a wide range of laboratories.


Assuntos
Digestão/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Consenso , Desenho de Equipamento , Tecnologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Suco Gástrico/fisiologia , Humanos , Cinética
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2738, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066762

RESUMO

In most yeast-driven biotechnological applications, biomass is separated from the aqueous phase after fermentation or production has finished. During winemaking, yeasts are removed after fermentation by racking, filtration, or centrifugation, which add costs to the overall process and may reduce product yield. Theoretically, clarification and filtration can be aided through use of yeast strains that form flocs due to cell-cell binding, a process known as flocculation. However, because early flocculation can cause stuck/sluggish fermentations, this phenotype is not common amongst commercially available wine yeasts. In this study we sought to identify wine strains that exhibit late-fermentation flocculant behaviour using two complementary approaches; a high-throughput sedimentation rate assay of individual strains and a competitive sedimentation assay using a barcoded yeast collection. Amongst 103 wine strains, several exhibited strong sedimentation at the end of the wine fermentation process under various environmental conditions. Two of these strains, AWRI1688 and AWRI1759, were further characterised during red winemaking trials. Shiraz wines produced with both strains displayed improved filtration-related properties. AWRI1759 produced wines with greater filterability, whereas AWRI1688 enabled the recovery of larger wine volumes after racking. Thus, this study demonstrates the effective use of sedimentation screening assays to identify wine yeasts with practical winemaking applications.


Assuntos
DNA Fúngico/genética , Filtração/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Vinho/análise , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Filtração/instrumentação , Floculação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(6): 2782-2790, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soy sauce is a well-known condiment worldwide. However, the high salt content in soy sauce contributes to the high intake of sodium salt, which usually results in high blood pressure. High salt soy sauce usually has the better quality (aroma and taste) than low salt. Tetragenococcus halophilus and Candida versatilis are important starters for soy sauce fermentation. It is of urgent need to explore what the effect of these two strains on the aroma- and taste-attributes of soy sauce to achieve high quality fermentation with low salt. RESULTS: In this study, aroma-active and taste compounds in soy sauce were reviewed and listed. Then, soy sauce fermentation inoculated with different combinations of T. halophilus (at different inoculated time) and C. versatilis were completed. Aroma-active and taste compounds in different samples were quantified. Multivariate analysis was used to analyze these data. The aroma-active compounds which were highly related to the inoculation of T. halophilus and C. versatilis were found. Meanwhile, the addition time of T. halophilus could also be highly related to the production of aroma-active compounds. More importantly, T. halophilus was highly correlated with the production of umami-taste compounds in soy sauce, including aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and N -succinyl-glutamic acid. CONCLUSION: These results will provide a better understanding of the effects of T. halophilus and C. versatilis on the formation of significant aroma-active and umami-taste constituents in soy sauce. Furthermore, it will be helpful to realize fermentative control of soy sauce with high quality at low salt. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Condimentos/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
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