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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 11, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879822

RESUMO

Because of their protein cross-linking properties, transglutaminases are widely used in several industrial processes, including the food and pharmaceutical industries. Transglutaminases obtained from animal tissues and organs, the first sources of this enzyme, are being replaced by microbial sources, which are cheaper and easier to produce and purify. Since the discovery of microbial transglutaminase (mTGase), the enzyme has been produced for industrial applications by traditional fermentation process using the bacterium Streptomyces mobaraensis. Several studies have been carried out in this field to increase the enzyme industrial productivity. Researches on gene expression encoding transglutaminase biosynthesis were performed in Streptomyces lividans, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Pichia pastoris. In the first part of this review, we presented an overview of the literature on the origins, types, mediated reactions, and general characterizations of these important enzymes, as well as the studies on recombinant microbial transglutaminases. In this second part, we focus on the application versatility of mTGase in three broad areas: food, pharmacological, and biotechnological industries. The use of mTGase is presented for several food groups, showing possibilities of applications and challenges to further improve the quality of the end-products. Some applications in the textile and leather industries are also reviewed, as well as special applications in the PEGylation reaction, in the production of antibody drug conjugates, and in regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Indústria Alimentícia , Têxteis , Transglutaminases , Animais , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação , Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Pichia/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Transglutaminases/biossíntese , Transglutaminases/genética , Yarrowia/genética
3.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2729-2735, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550403

RESUMO

The impetus for this study is the limited amount of information on performance characteristics of food science-encompassing online bibliographic databases. Database usage is an important element in modern research because a comprehensive understanding of current knowledge is essential for effective, unbiased hypothesis formulation and testing. Six databases commonly recommended by academic libraries for information retrieval in the food sciences (Academic Search Premier [ASP], Agricultural Online Access [AGRICOLA], CAB Direct, Food Science and Technology Abstracts [FSTA], PubMed, and Web of Science [WoS]) were compared in a case study based on the research topic "in vitro bile acid binding properties of dietary lignin." A complex string of search terms was used for citation retrieval, and predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to determine the relevancy of retrieved articles. Searching WoS and CAB Direct returned the greatest number of relevant articles, followed closely by FSTA, PubMed, and AGRICOLA. FSTA and AGRICOLA returned the highest ratios of relevant-to-irrelevant articles, followed closely by CAB Direct. None of the databases, when used alone, recovered all of the relevant articles identified in the study; WoS indexed the highest percentage of relevant articles identified (WoS = 10; total = 19). WoS also had the highest number of relevant articles that were unique to any one database. The thoroughness of searching the complete group of databases was tested by comparison of retrieved citations with those found in relevant review articles, revealing the need for testing overall inclusivity. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Comprehensive online information retrieval is the most efficient means of accessing current knowledge. Awareness of current knowledge is essential for effective, unbiased decision making in private sector and academic/government-based research endeavors. Thus, online database usage is an essential element of modern food science research. This paper provides tangible examples of the performance characteristics of online bibliographic databases commonly recommended for information retrieval in the food sciences. The paper is written so as to aid the reader in making decisions with respect to database usage for the recovery of topic-relevant peer-reviewed articles germane to their area of research.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Tecnologia de Alimentos/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Setor Privado
4.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426303

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to compare the composition and physicochemical properties (SEM, XRD, solubility, swelling power, paste clarity, retrogradation, freeze-thaw stability, thermal property, and pasting property) of three Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) starches (CYYS-1, CYYS-2, and CYYS-3) in Yunlong town, Haikou, Hainan Province, China. Our results show that all the CYYS gave a typical C-type X-ray diffraction pattern. The swelling power of CYYS varied from 10.79% to 30.34%, whereas solubility index was in the range of 7.84-4.55%. The freeze-thaw stability of each CYYS showed a contrary tendency with its amylose content. In addition, CYYS-3 showed the highest To (81.1 °C), Tp (84.8 °C), Tc (91.2 °C), and ΔH (14.1 J/g). The pasting temperature of CYYS-1 increased significantly with sucrose addition. NaCl could inhibit the swelling power of CYYS. There were significant decreases in pasting temperature and pasting time of CYYS when pH decreased.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Amido/química , Sacarose/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Solubilidade , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Amido/ultraestrutura , Molhabilidade
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108277, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404779

RESUMO

This work was carried out to pursue a double objective: to improve the hygienic safety of cheeses produced from raw ewes' milk; and to produce a new typology of raw ewes' milk through the application of "Grana" technology for which the name "Gran Ovino" was chosen. With this in mind, raw milk from an individual farm was transformed under controlled conditions at a dairy pilot plant. The production technology included the partial skimming of the evening and morning milk mixture by cream surfacing and the addition of a natural whey starter cultures (NWSC) prepared with four selected Streptococcus thermophilus strains (PON6, PON244, PON261 e PON413). Ten microbial groups were investigated by plate counts from raw milk until ripened cheeses. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were in the range 104-105 CFU/ml before NWSC addition. After curdling, this group increased by 3 log cycles and was counted at 106 CFU/g after curd cooking. A rapid pH drop (to 6.05) was registered after almost 3 h from NWSC addition. The levels of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were at about 103 CFU/ml in raw milk and decreased after curd cooking to 1 log cycle. A similar behavior was shown by the other undesired microbial groups and a complete disappearance of staphylococci was registered. The microbiological counts of 9-month ripened cheeses showed the dominance of LAB and undetectable levels of the undesired bacteria. MiSeq Illumina was applied to better investigate the bacterial composition of ripened cheeses and this technique evidenced that the majority of OTUs belonged to Lactobacillus and Streptococcus genera. The final cheeses were characterized by 67.65% dry matter of which 41.85% of fats and 47.02% of proteins. The main cheese fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and myristic acids and the saturated fatty acids/unsaturated fatty acids ratio was 2.17. Forty-one volatile compounds, including acids, esters, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols and one terpene were emitted from the cheese. Sensory evaluation showed a general appreciation for the new cheese product by judges.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Queijo/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus thermophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 40(7): 488-497, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392747

RESUMO

Changes in impedance at 2 kHz, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and muscle contraction were evaluated in yellowtail during 0 (ice), 5, 10, 15, and 20°C storage. Histological changes during ice storage were also measured. At any temperature, although impedance increased with both rigor mortis and ATP consumption during early storage, it began to decrease rapidly when ATP was almost depleted. Moreover, temporarily increasing impedance had a strong relationship with ATP content; decreasing impedance had a significant correlation with storage temperature after ATP depletion. Furthermore, impedance increased with narrowing of intercellular spaces when sarcolemma was intact and decreased with expansion of intercellular spaces when sarcolemma was leaky. Meanwhile, changes of sarcolemma and intercellular spaces were accompanied by ATP change. Thus, ATP is one significant physiological factor for impedance change, and temperature greatly influenced impedance after depletion of ATP. Results suggest that impedance analysis can be used as a convenient and nondestructive method to diagnose condition of tissue at different storage temperatures. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019;40:488-497. © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Impedância Elétrica , Peixes , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Músculos/metabolismo , Animais , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 130: 107200, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382227

RESUMO

In this study, a microbial electrochemical system (MES) was employed to investigate the effect of isoelectric point (IEP) on cheese whey wastewater treatment. The experiments were carried out in a bioreactor equipped with a semicircular carbon cloth and stainless steel electrodes as anode and cathode, respectively. The effects of IEP, whey protein concentration, electrical current, and time were studied. The IEP of the whey protein was determined at pH 5.9. The optimum electrical current was obtained at 6 mA for synthetic cheese whey wastewater. The results of rotary exponential doping showed that the third structure of proteins chenges to the second structure at the IEP. The highest protein removal (98%) was obtained at pH 6. The results showed that 76%, 83%, and 98% protein removal were achieved at 2, 4, and 8 h, respectively.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/isolamento & purificação , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Queijo/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Ponto Isoelétrico
9.
Rio de Janeiro; OPAS; 2019-08-23.
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr3-51502

RESUMO

[Apresentação] A tecnologia de alimentos vem mostrando-se uma importante ferramenta na segurança e disponibilidade de alimentos desde a descoberta e comprovação da existência de bactérias na produção de cervejas e vinhos no século XIX por Louis Pasteur, até os dias atuais. Essa ferramenta pode ser empregada tanto em processos simples, como em um tratamento térmico de cozimento, realizado na cozinha de uma casa, durante o preparo, quanto em processos industriais mais complexos como a nanotecnologia aplicada à produção de alimentos. Os atuais sistemas de auditorias baseadas em risco, na área de segurança de alimentos, requerem conhecimento mais avançado de auditores e de inspetores, especialmente no que se refere às tecnologias aplicadas na sua produção e seus impactos no controle de perigos relacionados aos mesmos. São muitas as tecnologias disponíveis para produção de alimentos, com objetivos e resultados muito variados. O objetivo desta publicação é apresentar as principais tecnologias existentes e como elas impactam na segurança dos alimentos. O primeiro capítulo aborda a conservação e os princípios e fatores que determinam a eficiência dos processos. No segundo capítulo, são tratadas as tecnologias convencionais de processamento de alimentos e seu impacto na segurança do produto final. No terceiro capítulo, são apresentadas as tecnologias mais modernas que começam a ser aplicadas em processamento de alimentos. Finalmente, o quarto capítulo trata da combinação de tecnologias aplicadas em processos de produção de alimentos.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos
10.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4877-4887, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334505

RESUMO

Catechin, a natural antiglycative agent, was incorporated into fermented vinegar, and has high potential to lower the risk of diabetes. In this study, vinegar containing 5% catechin as a substrate for acetous fermentation significantly inhibited the formation of total fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), as well as Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML)/Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), especially when added during acetic fermentation. Further study proved that catechin could not only significantly suppress the increase of blood glucose levels, but also inhibit α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ß-glucosidase strongly with IC50 values of 0.533 mg mL-1, 0.307 mg mL-1 and 0.413 mg mL-1, respectively. Moreover, 32 volatile compounds were finally identified by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSPM-GC-MS) and electronic nose. The flavor of the catechin-vinegars, which possess relatively high ester and low acid contents, was superior to that of traditional vinegar. Therefore, it was helpful to use catechin as a functional food ingredient in vinegar to prevent AGE-associated diseases and alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia, through limiting the digestion of starch and inhibiting the uptake of glucose. Meanwhile, the pleasant flavor and safety of catechin-vinegar were better than traditional vinegar, which represents prominent value to attract consumers.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/análise , Catequina/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
11.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(5): 1005-1024, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311295

RESUMO

Anti-oxidant refers to such a kind of endogenous or exogenous compound that is able to retard or even prohibit in vivo or in vitro oxidation with only small amount being used. The study of anti-oxidants starts nearly 30 years ago, and the research on this topic in China almost begins simultaneously with that in the world. Gratifyingly, contributions on anti-oxidants from China researchers have rapidly increased in the recent decade as anti-oxidants have become a hot topic in biochemistry, pharmacology, food science, chemistry as well as other related disciplines. Anti-oxidants provide a specific viewpoint for clarifying pharmacological effects of Chinese medicinal herbs. For example, as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is found to be a natural anti-oxidant resource. Meanwhile, some signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), and Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) are regarded to play an important role in anti-oxidant responses. These findings provide a substantial basis for understanding the pharmacological behaviors of Chinese medicinal herbs in view of regulating the aforementioned signaling pathways. Moreover, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by supplementation of anti-oxidant becomes a popularly accepted idea in keeping health and treating diseases. Isolations of antio-xidative ingredients from medicinal herbs and foods lead to set up a large range of anti-oxidative compound libraries, and intake of anti-oxidants from foods may be the most efficient way for supplementing exogenous anti-oxidants. On the other hand, designing anti-oxidants with novel structures motivates organic and medicinal chemists to explore the structure-activity relationship, and then, to find novel structural features with anti-oxidative properties. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that China researchers will donate more endeavors to obtain more achievements on anti-oxidants in the future.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/história , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Tecnologia de Alimentos/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/história , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4381-4395, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282516

RESUMO

In this work, fucoxanthin-oleic acid-protein complexes were constructed to improve the dispersibility and intestinal absorption of fucoxanthin in water. The in vivo absorption/antioxidant capacity was evaluated using a mouse model, and the binding processes were investigated using multi-spectroscopic methods and molecular docking. Results showed that the oleic acid-protein delivery system dramatically improved the absorption of fucoxanthin mainly in its original form. When the molar ratio of oleic acid to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was 4 : 1, the plasma response level of fucoxanthin at 4 h could reach 91.25% that of the pure soybean oil delivery system (336.9 pg mL-1vs. 369.2 pmol mL-1). Furthermore, the loading capacity of BSA to fucoxanthin was increased 5 times when oleic acid acted as a protein ligand. Fucoxanthin, oleic acid and BSA can form complexes with good water dispersibility (transmittance nearly 90% and particle size 265 nm) at the molar ratio of 5 : 4 : 1. Spectral analysis and molecular docking indicated that oleic acid and fucoxanthin have different binding domains in BSA and that fucoxanthin can bind to the hydrophobic cavity of BSA in a static manner. After administration of fucoxanthin-oleic acid-BSA complexes for 15 days in mice, only fucoxanthinol accumulation was discovered in eyes and the ocular antioxidant capability increased by 71.02%. These results suggest that the oleic acid-protein delivery system may be useful in facilitating the application of fat-soluble active substances to hydrophilic food systems.


Assuntos
Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Água/química , Xantofilas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Digestão , Feminino , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Óleo de Soja , Xantofilas/sangue , Xantofilas/química , beta Caroteno/análogos & derivados
13.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 88: 167-234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151724

RESUMO

Electrospinning and electrospraying are versatile techniques for the production of nano- to micro-scale fibers and particles. Over the past 2 decades, significant progresses have been made to advance the fundamental understandings of these electrohydrodynamic processes. Researchers have investigated different polymeric and non-polymeric substrates for producing submicron electrospun/electrosprayed materials of unique morphologies and physicochemical properties. This chapter provides an overview on the basic principles of electrospinning and electrospraying, highlighting the effects of key processing and solution parameters. Electrohydrodynamic phenomena of edible substrates, including polysaccharides (xanthan, alginate, starch, cyclodextrin, pullulan, dextran, modified celluloses, and chitosan), proteins (zein, what gluten, whey protein, soy protein, gelatin, etc.), and phospholipids are reviewed. Selected examples are presented on how ultrafine fibers and particles derived from these substrates are being exploited for food and nutraceutical applications. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of the electrostatic methods are discussed.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Nanofibras/provisão & distribução , Nanopartículas/provisão & distribução , Nanofibras/química , Nanopartículas/química , Eletricidade Estática
14.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15 Suppl 3: e12791, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148399

RESUMO

Good nutrition during a child's early years lays a strong foundation of health for the rest of its life. Yet in India, there is widespread prevalence of undernourishment among children below 5 years of age. Within the Indian context, small millets have great potential as a healthy food to address this challenge by the virtue of their nutritional qualities. However, there are many problems with the current processing technology for small millets, whereas the use of value-added products was minimal. To address this, an assessment of existing small millet processing machinery was undertaken, and a double chamber centrifugal dehuller was developed, which had higher recovery of dehulled unpolished millets and met requirements at the village and enterprise levels. To demonstrate the health benefits of consuming value-added small millets, a study of supplementation of multi-millet health mix on the nutritional status of primary schoolchildren was conducted in Thondamuthur Block of Coimbatore District, India. Multi-millet health mix was formulated from kodo millet, little millet, foxtail millet, finger millet, and wheat with the inclusion of pulses. It contained 65.45-g carbohydrate, 11.46-g protein, 4.94-g fat, 4.94-g fibre, 4.07-mg iron, 112-mg calcium, 268.52-mg phosphorus, and 349 calories of energy per 100 g. The study indicated that there was a significant increase in height, weight, and haemoglobin level of the schoolchildren who regularly consumed the formulated multi-millet health mix. The improved huller and value-added food product developed can be feasible options for improving nutrition security and livelihoods through increased use of small millets.


Assuntos
Centrifugação/instrumentação , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Milhetes , Valor Nutritivo , Panicum , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grão Comestível , Tecnologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional
15.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15 Suppl 3: e12773, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148400

RESUMO

Micronutrient deficiencies (including iodine and iron deficiency) is a global health problem affecting one third of the world's population. Salt is an ideal carrier for food fortification as it is universally consumed at equal rates, independently of economic status, and it is industrially processed. Addressing iron and iodine deficiencies together is a challenge, due to interaction between iodine and iron, negating the effect of added iodine. This paper explains the development of an improved microencapsulation-based technology to produce iron premix, which, when added to iodized salt, is stable and organoleptically indistinguishable. Ferrous fumarate was extruded, followed by cutting, sieving to achieve a size of 300-710 µm (salt grain size). Agglomerated extrudates were microencapsulated (5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and 5% soy stearin) to form iron premix. Microencapsulation ensures that the added micronutrients are stable without interaction or degradation. Double Fortified Salt is formed by blending iron premix with iodized salt (1:200 ratio). This technology was transferred to India for industrial scale-up. The public distribution system was utilized to establish and monitor an efficient distribution network for DFS in a transparent manner. The scale-up process was initially demonstrated in the state of Uttar Pradesh, following its success two more Indian states have started distribution of DFS. At present, the DFS with iron and iodine is reaching 60 million people in India. This important health intervention technology through food fortification has the potential to be scaled globally to ensure a world free from iron deficiency anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Fortificados , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Compostos Ferrosos/síntese química , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/síntese química , Oligoelementos/síntese química
16.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15 Suppl 3: e12812, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148402

RESUMO

The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund programme supported research and scaling up of nutrition- and gender-sensitive agriculture innovations from 2009 to 2018. Women and girls were identified as agents of change and were targeted as the main programme beneficiaries. Projects were implemented in 25 countries through multistakeholder partnerships among universities, research institutions, public and private sectors, and civil society groups, reaching over 78 million people, mainly women and children. Approaches specific to nutrition included growing more nutritious crops, improving dietary diversity, value added processing, food fortification, and nutrition education. Scale-up for impact was achieved through a number of pathways that started with evidence through rigorous research, followed by a combination of elements such as understanding local and regional contexts to identify specific bottlenecks and opportunities for the deployment and adoption of successful innovations, selecting politically effective or influential partners to lead the scaling up process, and investing in long-term local capacity and leadership building. Overall, the knowledge generated in the programme indicate that well-designed nutrition-sensitive agriculture and food-based interventions can have meaningful impacts on pathways that will lead to better health and well-being of women and children through improving household and individual access to nutrient-rich foods. Longer intervention times are needed to demonstrate changes in health indicators such as reduced stunting. This overview paper summarises the programme and showcases examples from studies that demonstrate the impact pathway for nutrition interventions that encompass efficacy and effectiveness studies, value-added processing, cost effectiveness of interventions, and bringing a proven intervention to scale.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Congressos como Assunto , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pesquisa , Canadá , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Saúde Global , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Política Nutricional/economia , Política Nutricional/tendências
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3348-3353, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190071

RESUMO

The objective was to determine the ability to detect differences in cook loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values between chops aged for differing time periods and cooked to varying degrees of doneness with in a sous-vide style cooker. Loins from pigs (HCW = 96 kg) humanely slaughtered at the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory were separated between the 10th and 11th rib into anterior and posterior sections. The posterior section was cut into 6 separate 2.54-cm-thick chops. The middle 4 chops were randomly designated for aging of 3 d and cooked to 63 °C, aged 7 d and cooked to 63 °C, aged 14 d and cooked to 63 °C, or aged 14 d and cooked to 71 °C. Chops were cooked by placing them in a water bath with an immersion circulator set to the desired end-point temperature for 90 min. Cook loss was calculated for each chop by measuring initial and final weight, and accounting for packaging weight. Four cores measuring 1.25 cm in diameter were cut parallel to the muscle fibers from each chop and analyzed for WBSF. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA. Least squares means were separated using the probability of difference option in the MIXED procedure of SAS. Among chops cooked to 63 °C, chops aged 3 d has less (P < 0.01) cook loss than those aged 7 d, and chops aged 7 d had less (P < 0.01) cook loss than those aged 14 d. Among chops aged for 14 d, chops cooked to 71 °C had greater (P < 0.001) cook loss than chops cooked to 63 °C. Differences in tenderness were also detected between aging periods. Among chops cooked to 63 °C, chops aged 3 d required more (P = 0.02) force to shear than those aged 7 d, but chops aged 7 d did not differ (P = 0.15) from those aged 14 d. Chops aged 14 d and cooked to 71 °C required (P < 0.0001) more force than those aged 14 d and cooked to 63 °C. Overall, these data indicate that sous-vide is an acceptable cooking method for use in experiments as expected differences in cook loss and WBSF were detected in chops aged to differing time points or cooked to differed degrees of doneness.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha/normas , Animais , Culinária , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Suínos , Paladar , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 57: 12-21, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208607

RESUMO

High-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) can be used as a mild-preservation technology in dairy products, due to its ability to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms and enzymes. In addition, it can result in physical and chemical alterations in the products and has impact on the probiotic viability and metabolic activity. This review provides an overview of the effects of HIUS on dairy products manufactured with probiotics and prebiotics. Furthermore, it presents perspectives of HIUS application on paraprobiotics and postbiotics products. HIUS has been proven to be a potential technology and its application to fermented dairy products can result in shorter processing time, increased probiotic viability, and products with low lactose content, higher oligosaccharides concentration, less undesirable taste (lower propionic and acetic acids content) and reduced ingredients (no need of prebiotic addition or ß-galactosidase inclusion). In cheeses, HIUS can reduce the ripening time and accelerate proteolysis, resulting in products with better sensory, textural and nutritional (bioactive peptides) characteristics. Furthermore, it can change the prebiotic structure, facilitating the access for the probiotics. The impact of the HIUS is highly dependent on the process parameters (frequency, power, processing time, pulse mode and duration), type of probiotic culture and food composition. Therefore, HIUS process parameters must be precisely quantified and controlled. The HIUS can also be applied to the inactivation of probiotic cultures and development of paraprobiotic products or to the improvement in the production of soluble factors (postbiotics) with health effects. Further researches should be conducted to evaluate the efficiency of this methodology in the cases of paraprobiotic and postbiotic products.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Alimento Funcional
19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 778-793, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211891

RESUMO

AIMS: Yeast and bacterial communities inhabit a sourdough starter to make artisanal bread. This study shows whether the interactions of micro-organisms derived from Australian sourdough starters provide some of the positive flavour, and aroma properties to bread by using defined sourdough cultures as the sole leaven in bread production. METHODS AND RESULTS: An investigation of Australian sourdough starters found that they contained Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kazachstania exigua yeasts. When these yeasts were inoculated alone to ferment wheat flour in an extended fermentation, the bread had a heterogeneous crumb structure, a deeper colour and a distinctive chemical aroma profile than those made with commercial baker's yeast. When bread was made combining these yeasts individually and in combinations with lactic acid bacteria also isolated from these sourdough starters, including Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, L. rossiae, L. casei, the bread aroma profiles and crumb structure were more distinctive, with compounds associated with sour aromas produced, and preferred by sensory panels. CONCLUSIONS: The use of defined mixed cultures as the leaven in bread making, by exploiting the microbial diversity of artisanal Australian starters, can produce bread with distinctive and attractive aromas. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Understanding and identifying the community ecosystems found in sourdough cultures and using them as the sole leaven in bread production provide novel insights into microbial interactions and how they affect food quality by removing the effects of commercial yeast strains.


Assuntos
Pão/microbiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Austrália , Fermentação , Farinha/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Odorantes , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Fermento Seco
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 132, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a critical need to develop appropriate on-farm euthanasia methods for poultry species. Euthanasia methods should affect the brain first causing insensibility, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest. Neck or cervical dislocation methods, either manual (CD) or mechanical (MCD), are reported to cause a prolonged time to loss of sensibility and death with inconsistent results upon application, especially MCD methods. However, there is limited information on cervical dislocation in turkeys. The overall objective of this study was to assess the welfare implications of CD and a newly developed MCD device for euthanasia of cull turkeys in comparison with intravenous (IV) pentobarbital sodium (1 mL/4.5 kg), the gold standard euthanasia method. Time to death using electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioural responses were monitored in eight and eighteen week-old turkeys for five minutes after each euthanasia method application. Spectral analyses of EEG responses and onset of isoelectric EEGs were compared to baseline EEG recordings of birds under anesthesia and behavioural responses were studied among euthanasia treatments. A significant decrease in brain activity frequencies analysis and isoelectric EEG were recorded as time of brain death. RESULTS: All turkeys euthanized with IV pentobarbital sodium presented a rapid and irreversible decrease in the EEG activity at approximately 30s post-injection with minimal behavioural responses. CD and MCD methods caused EEG responses consistent with brain death at approximately 120 s and 300 s, respectively. Additionally, isoelectric EEGs resulted in all pentobarbital sodium and CD groups, but only in 54 and 88% of the eight and eighteen week-old turkeys in the MCD groups, respectively. There were few clear patterns of behavioural responses after CD and MCD application. However, cessation of body movement and time to isoelectric EEG after CD application were positively correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Use of CD and MCD resulted in a prolonged time to death in both age groups of turkeys. MCD application presents a number of welfare risks based on electroencephalographic and behavioural findings. Intravenous pentobarbital sodium induced rapid brain death, but possesses several on-farm limitations. To develop improvements in cervical dislocation methods, further investigations into combined or alternative methods are required to reduce the prolonged time to insensibility and death.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Eutanásia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/veterinária , Tecnologia de Alimentos/normas
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