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1.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108668, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509318
2.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684821

RESUMO

Currently, there is a growing demand for flavorings, especially of natural origin. It is worth paying attention to the biotechnological processes of flavor production, characterized by simplicity, high efficiency and relatively low cost. In this study, we analyzed the ability of the Galac tomyces geotrichum mold to transform by-products of the dairy industry: sour whey and buttermilk to complex flavour mixtures with pleasant, honey-rose aroma. Furthermore, the aroma complexity of the fermentation product has been carefully identified applying a sensomic approach involving the use of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) to identify and quantify aroma compounds. Based on the calculation of odor activity value (OAV), 13 key aroma compounds were present in both tested variants. The highest OAVs were found for phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) in the buttermilk variant (912) and 2-phenylethanol (rose-like) in the sour whey variant (524). High values of this indicator were also recorded for phenylacetaldehyde (319) and 3-methyl-1-butanol with a fruity aroma (149) in the sour whey culture. The other compounds identified are 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-butanedione (cheesy), isovaleric acid (cheesy), 3-(methylthio)-propanal (boiled potato), butanoic acid (vinegar), (E)-2-nonenal (fatty), ethyl furaneol (burnt sugar), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage), and acetic acid (vinegar).


Assuntos
Leitelho/análise , Leitelho/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Geotrichum/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Soro do Leite/química , Soro do Leite/microbiologia , Acetaldeído/análogos & derivados , Acetaldeído/análise , Biotecnologia , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Olfatometria , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641296

RESUMO

In recent years, many analyses have been carried out to investigate the chemical components of food data. However, studies rarely consider the compositional pitfalls of such analyses. This is problematic as it may lead to arbitrary results when non-compositional statistical analysis is applied to compositional datasets. In this study, compositional data analysis (CoDa), which is widely used in other research fields, is compared with classical statistical analysis to demonstrate how the results vary depending on the approach and to show the best possible statistical analysis. For example, honey and saffron are highly susceptible to adulteration and imitation, so the determination of their chemical elements requires the best possible statistical analysis. Our study demonstrated how principle component analysis (PCA) and classification results are influenced by the pre-processing steps conducted on the raw data, and the replacement strategies for missing values and non-detects. Furthermore, it demonstrated the differences in results when compositional and non-compositional methods were applied. Our results suggested that the outcome of the log-ratio analysis provided better separation between the pure and adulterated data and allowed for easier interpretability of the results and a higher accuracy of classification. Similarly, it showed that classification with artificial neural networks (ANNs) works poorly if the CoDa pre-processing steps are left out. From these results, we advise the application of CoDa methods for analyses of the chemical elements of food and for the characterization and authentication of food products.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641618

RESUMO

The naturally occurring saponins exhibit remarkable interfacial activity and also possess many biological activities linking to human health benefits, which make them particularly attractive as bifunctional building blocks for formulation of colloidal multiphase food systems. This review focuses on two commonly used food-grade saponins, Quillaja saponins (QS) and glycyrrhizic acid (GA), with the aim of clarifying the relationship between the structural features of saponin molecules and their subsequent self-assembly and interfacial properties. The recent applications of these two saponins in various colloidal multiphase systems, including liquid emulsions, gel emulsions, aqueous foams and complex emulsion foams, are then discussed. A particular emphasis is on the unique use of GA and GA nanofibrils as sole stabilizers for fabricating various multiphase food systems with many advanced qualities including simplicity, ultrastability, stimulability, structural viscoelasticity and processability. These natural saponin and saponin-based colloids are expected to be used as sustainable, plant-based ingredients for designing future foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Ácido Glicirrízico/química , Plantas/química , Saponinas de Quilaia/química , Coloides/química , Cosméticos/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4430-4443, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549430

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of protein oxidation and denaturation on the fish texture and moisture loss during frozen storage, we measured the changes of protein oxidation and denaturation (salt-soluble protein (SSP), total sulfhydryl (SH), disulfide (SS), carbonyl contents and Ca2+ -ATPase activity), texture (hardness), and moisture loss (drip loss) of bighead carp fillets stored at -12, -20 and -28°C during 16 weeks. These data were employed to develop partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model, PLSR-RBFNN (PR) model and RBFNN-PLSR (RP) model. The results showed that the RP model provided no enhancement to RBFNN model because it had the exactly same root mean square error (RMSE) and R2 . PLSR model showed better performance than other models when predicting hardness. More appropriate linear or linearity-dominant hybrid model needed to be explored to establish the relationship between protein oxidation and denaturation and texture. The PR model performed better than other models in predicting drip loss with its lower RMSE and higher R2 , which revealed both linear and nonlinear relationship between protein oxidation and denaturation and moisture loss. Therefore, the PR model was a promising and encouraging tool to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between protein oxidation and denaturation and moisture loss of fish during frozen storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The study explored the effects of protein oxidation and denaturation on the texture and moisture loss of bighead carp during frozen storage (-12 to -28°C). PLSR model showed better performance than other models when predicting the relationship between protein oxidation and denaturation and texture. The PR model was an available tool for manufacturers to predict the relationship between protein oxidation and denaturation and moisture loss.


Assuntos
Carpas , Proteínas de Peixes , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Congelamento , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Oxirredução , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Água/análise
7.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572147

RESUMO

The current process of meat production using livestock has significant effects on the global environment, including high emissions of greenhouse gases. In recent years, cultured meat has attracted attention as a way to acquire animal proteins. However, the lack of markers that isolate proliferating cells from bovine tissues and the complex structure of the meat make it difficult to culture meat in a dish. In this study, we screened 246 cell-surface antibodies by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for their capacity to form colonies and their suitability to construct spheroid "meat buds". CD29+ cells (Ha2/5 clone) have a high potency to form colonies and efficiently proliferate on fibronectin-coated dishes. Furthermore, the meat buds created from CD29+ cells could differentiate into muscle and adipose cells in a three-dimensional structure. The meat buds embedded in the collagen gel proliferated in the matrix and formed large aggregates. Approximately 10 trillion cells can theoretically be obtained from 100 g of bovine tissue by culturing and amplifying them using these methods. The CD29+ cell characteristics of bovine tissue provide insights into the production of meat alternatives in vitro.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Gado/genética , Carne , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
8.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4444-4456, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431103

RESUMO

To guarantee food safetyand sustainability, it is necessary to verify meat authenticity. This study focused on the development of single nucleotide polymorphism-based polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (SNP-based PCR-RFLP) and forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) methodologies based on PCR amplification of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for discrimination of six red meat species, that is, cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, camel, and donkey. FINS allowed the unambiguous identification of all species analyzed. In addition, six SNPs, where a restriction site for TasI could be localized using a preliminary in silico analysis, gave a unique RFLP pattern for each species. The results revealed a low level of species substitution (8%) in the tested meat samples. In particular, one buffalo and goat samples have been substituted with cow and sheep, respectively. Finally, the developed techniques herein showed high potentials to be routinely used as reliable and fast tools to avoid meat species substitutions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research deals with genetic techniques to trace meats. This kind of research helps the concerned agencies to build capacity to safeguard consumer sentiments as well as providing better market access and better food price and quality for the consumer.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos , Carne , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Camelus/genética , Bovinos/genética , Equidae/genética , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Cabras/genética , Carne/análise , Carne/classificação , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ovinos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4417-4429, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459510

RESUMO

In this study, non-targeted 1 H NMR fingerprinting was used in combination with multivariate statistical analyses for the classification of Greek currants based on their geographical origins (Aeghion, Nemea, Kalamata, Zante, and Amaliada). As classification techniques, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were carried out. To elucidate different components according to PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), products from Aeghion (Vostizza) were statistically compared with each one of the four other regions. PLS-DA plots ensure that currants from Kalamata, Nemea, Zante, and Amaliada are well classified with respect to the PDO currants, according to differences observed in metabolites. Results suggest that composition differences in carbohydrates, amino, and organic acids of currants are sufficient to discriminate them in correlation to their geographical origin. In conclusion, currants metabolites which mostly contribute to classification performance of such discriminant analysis model present a suitable alternative technique for currants traceability. The study results contribute information to the currants' metabolite fingerprinting by NMR spectroscopy and their geographical origin. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study presents an analytical approach for a high nutritional value Greek PDO product, Vostizza currant. A further research and implementation of this method in food industry, can be the key to food fraud incidents. Thus, application of this work opens up posibilities to "farm to table" mission.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Análise Multivariada , Ribes , Análise Discriminante , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Grécia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Ribes/classificação , Ribes/genética
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361794

RESUMO

Wheat bread, produced by the single-phase method, is a common food consumed all over the world. Due to changes in lifestyle and nutritional trends, alternative raw materials are sought to increase the nutritional value and improve the taste of daily consumed products. Additionally, customers seek a wide variety of foods, especially when it comes to basic foods. Nuts, such as coconuts or chestnuts, might provide an attractive flavour with benefits to the nutritional quality. In this study, the effect of substituting wheat flour with coconut or chestnut flour (flour contribution level: 5, 10, 15, 30, 50% w/w), was evaluated in terms of the breads specific volume, texture, colour, nutritional composition, and dietary fibre fraction contents. Moreover, a sensory evaluation was conducted to assess potential consumer acceptance. Based on the consumer's perception, the overall acceptance of bread with 15% w/w of coconut and chestnut flour was in privilege compared to the control sample. As a result, taking all of the tested parameters into account, the breads with 5, 10, and 15% supplementation of chestnut or coconut flour were still of good quality compared to the wheat bread and their fibre content was significantly higher.


Assuntos
Aesculus/química , Pão/análise , Cocos/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Triticum/química , Culinária/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 3926-3938, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341996

RESUMO

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit (MF) is a rich source of functional compounds, such as anthocyanin. However, during solvent extraction, these compounds are not fully dispersed into the substrate, leading to incomplete extraction. Moreover, raw MF rapidly ripens and deteriorates after harvesting; hence, innovative methods to process MF are needed. Here, a pectinase-assisted extraction method is developed to liberate polyphenols and anthocyanins from cell wall matrices in MF. We optimized the procedure to maximize water solubility index (WSI), total phenolic (TP) content, and total anthocyanin (TA) content using a central composite design to perform a response surface methodology (RSM) analysis. The optimal conditions predicted by the RSM were a 1:5 w/v material/water ratio with 3.5% pectinase (v/w) and 1.5% citric acid (w/w) for 113 min at 50°C. Under these conditions, the WSI, TP, and TA were significantly higher compared with those in the untreated control. The results well matched (within 5% differences) with the predicted RSM values. Furthermore, metabolite analysis revealed that the levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin hexoside, and quercetin were higher in pectinase-assisted MF extraction compared with the untreated control. This work demonstrated that pectinase-assisted extraction using citric acid could be an efficient technique to enhance the value of MF and its potential applications in the food industry. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A pectinase-assisted extraction method was optimized to enhance the WSI, TP, and TA yields from MF extracts. The optimal conditions were predicted to be 1:5 w/v material/water ratio, 3.5% pectinase (v/w), and 1.5% CA (w/w) with a 113 min reaction time at 50°C. Under these conditions, WSI, TP, and TA were significantly increased compared with the untreated control. These results suggested the potential of mulberry plants for use in the food industry via the development of a simple, efficient process to extract functional compounds from MF.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos , Frutas , Morus , Extratos Vegetais , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Morus/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação
12.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439780

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the content of biologically active compounds during the fermentation and aging of natural meads with the addition of three Cornelian cherry juices from three cultivars: 'Koralovyi', 'Podolski' and 'Yantarnyi', in the amount of 10% v/v. After the fermentation process the content of gallic and ellagic acids significantly increased, in relation to wort. Whereas the greatest losses were observed among unstable anthocyanins. The three-month aging process also reduced the content of the analyzed compounds except for ellagic acid, the content of which increased by up to 90%. The content of biologically active compounds, including iridoids and antioxidant phenolics, are constantly changing in the process of fermentation and aging of fruit meads. The studies proved that the addition of Cornelian cherry juice allows significantly enriched classic meads with new biologically active compounds, such as: exceptional iridoids (loganic acid, cornuside, loganine, sweroside), flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Mel/análise , Iridoides/química , Fenóis/química , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/classificação , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/classificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Elágico/química , Ácido Elágico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/classificação , Flavonóis/isolamento & purificação , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Humanos , Iridoides/classificação , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Iridoides/metabolismo , Fenóis/classificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Prunus avium/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/química , Ácido Quínico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Quínico/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361722

RESUMO

Off-flavors produced by undesirable microbial spoilage are a major concern in wineries, as they affect wine quality. This situation is worse in warm areas affected by global warming because of the resulting higher pHs in wines. Natural biotechnologies can aid in effectively controlling these processes, while reducing the use of chemical preservatives such as SO2. Bioacidification reduces the development of spoilage yeasts and bacteria, but also increases the amount of molecular SO2, which allows for lower total levels. The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, such as Lachancea thermotolerans, results in effective acidification through the production of lactic acid from sugars. Furthermore, high lactic acid contents (>4 g/L) inhibit lactic acid bacteria and have some effect on Brettanomyces. Additionally, the use of yeasts with hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCDC) activity can be useful to promote the fermentative formation of stable vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanins, reducing the amount of ethylphenol precursors. This biotechnology increases the amount of stable pigments and simultaneously prevents the formation of high contents of ethylphenols, even when the wine is contaminated by Brettanomyces.


Assuntos
Brettanomyces/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Dióxido de Enxofre/farmacologia , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
14.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361739

RESUMO

We developed an alternative whipping cream fat using shea butter but with low saturation. Enriched stearic-oleic-stearic (SOS) solid fat was obtained from shea butter via solvent fractionation. Acyl migration reactant, which mainly contains asymmetric SSO triacylglycerol (TAG), was prepared through enzymatic acyl migration to obtain the creaming quality derived from the ß'-crystal form. Through enzymatic acyl migration, we obtained a 3.4-fold higher content of saturated-saturated-unsaturated (SSU) TAG than saturated-unsaturated-saturated (SUS) TAG. The acyl migration reactant was refined to obtain refined acyl migration reactant (RAMR). An alternative fat product was prepared by blending RAMR and hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) at a ratio of 4:6 (w/w). The melting points, solid fat index (SFI), and melting curves of the alternative products were similar to those of commercial whipping cream fat. The alternative fat had a content of total unsaturated fatty acids 20% higher than that of HPKO. The atherogenic index (AI) of alternative fat was 3.61, much lower than those of whipping cream fat (14.59) and HPKO (1220.3), because of its low atherogenic fatty acid content and high total unsaturated fatty acids. The polymorphic crystal form determined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy showed that the ß'-crystal form was predominant. Therefore, the alternative fat is comparable with whipping cream that requires creaming quality, and has a reduced saturated fat content.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Fracionamento Químico , Cristalização , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Humanos , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/química , Ácidos Oleicos/análise , Óleo de Palmeira/análise , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Ácidos Esteáricos/análise , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361748

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects that the type of impregnating solution and drying method (freeze drying (FD) and vacuum drying (VD) at 45 °C and convective drying (CD) at 50, 60, and 70 °C) had on the physicochemical and quality properties of courgettes. Courgette slices were vacuum-impregnated (6 kPa) in freshly squeezed onion, kale, and onion and kale (50:50) juices with 3% NaCl solution (N). The application of vacuum impregnation (VI) with impregnating solutions from freshly squeezed onions and kale had a beneficial effect on the bioactive values of courgette. The highest contents of quercetin (41.84 µg/g d.m.) and carotenoids (276.04 µg/g d.m.) were found in courgette impregnated with onion juice after freeze drying. The highest values of lutein and zeaxanthin (216.42 µg/g d.m.) were recorded for courgette impregnated with kale juice and convective dried. By analysing the kinetics of convective drying, the best matching of the logistic model was found. Increasing the drying process temperature from 50 to 70 °C reduced the drying time from 15% to 36%, depending on the type of impregnating solution used. Water activity < 0.6 was recorded for courgette dried by freezing, vacuum, and convection at 60 and 70 °C. Conclusions: The vacuum impregnation process and the impregnation solutions from freshly squeezed vegetables can be used to develop new snacks with high levels of bioactive compounds. The FD method is the most appropriate considering both the bioactive compounds content and the obtained colour and water activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cucurbitaceae/química , Dessecação/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização/métodos , Brassica/química , Carotenoides/análise , Dessecação/instrumentação , Liofilização/instrumentação , Humanos , Cinética , Luteína/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Cebolas/química , Quercetina/análise , Lanches , Vácuo , Zeaxantinas/análise
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361753

RESUMO

The popularity and consumption of fermented milk products are growing. On the other hand, consumers are interested in health-promoting and functional foods. Fermented milk products are an excellent matrix for the incorporation of bioactive ingredients, making them functional foods. To overcome the instability or low solubility of many bioactive ingredients under various environmental conditions, the encapsulation approach was developed. This review analyzes the fortification of three fermented milk products, i.e., yogurt, cheese, and kefir with bioactive ingredients. The encapsulation methods and techniques alongside the encapsulant materials for carotenoids, phenolic compounds, omega-3, probiotics, and other micronutrients are discussed. The effect of encapsulation on the properties of bioactive ingredients themselves and on textural and sensory properties of fermented milk products is also presented.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Kefir/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Carotenoides/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
17.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4119-4133, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383322

RESUMO

Our objectives were to examine (1) how intense pulsed light (IPL) processing parameters (exposure time and initial temperature) affected aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel of nonfat dry milk, (2) which levels of each parameter produced aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel changes from an untreated control sample, and (3) whether minimal or intense processing conditions produced a noticeable appearance change from the control. Four exposure times (1, 2, 3, and 4 passes through the IPL chamber) and three initial temperatures (25, 30, and 35℃) were studied with untreated milk powder as the control. The samples were prepared as both milk powder and reconstituted milk for sensory evaluation. Using standard evaluating protocols, trained descriptive analysis panelists rated the aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel of these samples. Panelists compared the appearance of the IPL-treated samples that underwent a minimal or intense processing condition to the control by using a two-out-of-five difference test. Increasing the exposure time led to increased intensities of overall flavor, burnt flavor, and umami taste in both milk powder and reconstituted milk, while increasing temperature increased animal and sulfur aromas in reconstituted milk only. Compared to the control, all levels of exposure time at any initial temperature resulted in increased aroma and flavor including cardboard aroma, sulfur aroma, and brothy flavor in both milk powder and reconstituted milk. Only the 4-pass exposure at the initial temperature of 25℃ changed the appearance of milk powder. However, the appearance change was not noticeable in reconstituted milk. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The standard evaluation protocols and lexicons provide useful tools for research on milk powder. Additionally, the understanding of critical factors impacting sensory properties will contribute to a better implementation of this decontamination technology.


Assuntos
Alimentos em Conserva , Luz , Leite , Paladar , Animais , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Leite/efeitos da radiação , Leite/normas , Paladar/efeitos da radiação
18.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4100-4109, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383964

RESUMO

Color is an importantaspect when formulating products, as the consumer will evaluate this aspect in the first instance. There is a growing interest in non-wheat producing regions to replace it with local sources of starches. However, the substitution of wheat flour affects characteristics such as texture, flavor, and color of the intermediate and final products. The objective of this work was to determine if the variation of the baking time allows reducing the color difference that the replacement of flour generates by dehydrated cassava puree (DCP). For that, four replacement levels were evaluated using the CIE-L * a * b * and CIE-L * C * H * methodology. The browning index and total color difference (ΔE) between samples with different replacement levels and between different stages of production were also evaluated. It was proved that the decrease in the baking time allowed the development of a similar coloring between snacks made with DCP and those made without substitution. Also, moisture values of less than 5% (dry basis) were obtained in the snacks. The browning index increased with the proportion of DCP in flour and doughs, but not in baked snacks. The pregelatinization of starches could be a mechanism to improve the quality of products with substitutions of wheat flour. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Color is a critical attribute of foods in consumer acceptance. The accelerated color development that pregelatinized cassava starch produces in the appearance of baked goods can be useful for food development. A quick color development can mean shorter exposure time to heat, which is important for some products with heat-sensitive components. Also, it is interesting to note that the cassava dehydrated puree is a gluten-free product.


Assuntos
Culinária , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Manihot , Lanches , Farinha , Géis , Manihot/química , Amido
19.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4070-4086, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392535

RESUMO

In this study, rosemary essential oil was encapsulated in zein-electrospun fibers at different concentrations of loading (0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% v/v). The chemical composition of rosemary essential oil was determined by GC-MS. The resultant zein-electrospun fibers were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, DSC, FTIR, and NMR. After being loaded with the essential oil, the fibers were evaluated for antimicrobial properties by the disc diffusion method against S. aureus (ATCC 1112) and E. coli (ATCC 1330). The release test was studied at pH values of 3 and 7.2 in phosphate buffer for 180 min. The GC-MS indicated that α-pinene occurred as a major compound in rosemary essential oil. Diameters of the zein-electrospun fibers increased in response to higher concentrations of rosemary essential oil. The AFM assay attributed a tubular morphology to the fibers. The physical status of rosemary essential oil in zein-electrospun fibers was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC thermograms and FTIR spectra confirmed the existence of the rosemary essential oil in zein-electrospun fibers. FTIR spectra also indicated that adding rosemary essential oil to the fibers affected the secondary structure of zein protein. The NMR study showed that the electrospinning process did not change the secondary structure of zein. Disc diffusion indicated that zein-electrospun mats generated inhibition zones against S. aureus and E. coli. The release test revealed that pH values significantly affect the release of rosemary essential oil from fibers. The results demonstrated how loading zein-electrospun fibers with rosemary essential oil can benefit food packaging. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, electrospun fibers were produced from food-grade biopolymer to encapsulate rosemary essential oil. This product can be produced at industrial scale as an active food packaging/coating, controlled release, and delivery of the rosemary essential oil to food products and gastrointestinal. Also, it can be considered as a functional food to increase health.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos , Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus , Zeína , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zeína/química
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4026-4036, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409609

RESUMO

Allicin, a chemical found in functional foods, has a variety of beneficial bioactivities but the unpleasent odor and unstability hinder its applications. Isolating products from cyclodextrin (CD) complexation, using ß-CD and its derivatives, is usually a time and energy-consuming process. Herein, a high-efficiency and eco-friendly preparation method of an inclusion (allicin@α-CD) formed by allicin and α-CD was designed, which turned liquid allicin into crystal particles with high-speed stirring (10,000 r/min) at 25°C for 10 min in water. In vivo and in vitro masking evaluations showed that the inclusion particles could decrease the unpleasant odor of allicin. Molecular docking and experimental characterization results illustrated that the main reason of odor masking was due to the disulfide and thiocarbonyl groups of allicin being partially encapsulated by the cavity of α-CD. Compared with the physical mixture, the stability of allicin in allicin@α-CD at 60°C for 10 days was 33-fold improved. Overall, this efficient strategy of inclusion provided a promising approach for the industrialization of allicin-related formulations. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, an environmentally friendly method of α-CD inclusion without the use of organic reagents was designed to solidify and stabilize allicin, which effectively masked the unpleasant odor and taste of allicin. It has contributed greatly to improving the compliance of consumers and provided a new and effective approach to broaden the application of allicin.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Odorantes , alfa-Ciclodextrinas , Cristalização , Dissulfetos/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Odorantes/análise , Solubilidade , Ácidos Sulfínicos/química , alfa-Ciclodextrinas/química
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