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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013855, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caries is one of the most prevalent and preventable conditions worldwide. If identified early enough then non-invasive techniques can be applied, and therefore this review focusses on early caries involving the enamel surface of the tooth. The cornerstone of caries detection and diagnosis is a visual and tactile dental examination, although alternative approaches are available. These include illumination-based devices that could potentially support the dental examination. There are three categories of illumination devices that exploit various methods of application and interpretation, each primarily defined by different wavelengths, optical coherence tomography (OCT), near-infrared (NIR), and fibre-optic technology, which incorporates more recently developed digital fibre optics (FOTI/DIFOTI). OBJECTIVES: To estimate the diagnostic test accuracy of different illumination tests for the detection and diagnosis of enamel caries in children or adults. We also planned to explore the following potential sources of heterogeneity: in vitro or in vivo studies with different reference standards; tooth surface (occlusal, proximal, smooth surface, or adjacent to a restoration); single or multiple sites of assessment on a tooth surface; and the prevalence of caries into dentine. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist undertook a search of the following databases: MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 15 February 2019); Embase Ovid (1980 to 15 February 2019); US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov, to 15 February 2019); and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to 15 February 2019). We studied reference lists as well as published systematic review articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included diagnostic accuracy study designs that compared the use of illumination-based devices with a reference standard (histology, enhanced visual examination with or without radiographs, or operative excavation). These included prospective studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a single index test and studies that directly compared two or more index tests. Both in vitro and in vivo studies of primary and permanent teeth were eligible for inclusion. We excluded studies that explicitly recruited participants with caries into dentine or frank cavitation. We also excluded studies that artificially created carious lesions and those that used an index test during the excavation of dental caries to ascertain the optimum depth of excavation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data independently and in duplicate using a standardised data extraction form and quality assessment based on QUADAS-2 specific to the clinical context. Estimates of diagnostic accuracy were determined using the bivariate hierarchical method to produce summary points of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence regions. The comparative accuracy of different illumination devices was conducted based on indirect and direct comparisons between methods. Potential sources of heterogeneity were pre-specified and explored visually and more formally through meta-regression. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 datasets from 23 studies that evaluated 16,702 tooth surfaces. NIR was evaluated in 6 datasets (673 tooth surfaces), OCT in 10 datasets (1171 tooth surfaces), and FOTI/DIFOTI in 8 datasets (14,858 tooth surfaces). The participant selection domain had the largest number of studies judged at high risk of bias (16 studies). Conversely, for the index test, reference standard, and flow and timing domains the majority of studies were judged to be at low risk of bias (16, 12, and 16 studies respectively). Concerns regarding the applicability of the evidence were judged as high or unclear for all domains. Notably, 14 studies were judged to be of high concern for participant selection, due to selective participant recruitment, a lack of independent examiners, and the use of an in vitro study design. The summary estimate across all the included illumination devices was sensitivity 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 0.85) and specificity 0.87 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.92), with a diagnostic odds ratio of 21.52 (95% CI 10.89 to 42.48). In a cohort of 1000 tooth surfaces with a prevalence of enamel caries of 57%, this would result in 142 tooth surfaces being classified as disease free when enamel caries was truly present (false negatives), and 56 tooth surfaces being classified as diseased in the absence of enamel caries (false positives). A formal comparison of the accuracy according to device type indicated a difference in sensitivity and/or specificity (Chi2(4) = 34.17, P < 0.01). Further analysis indicated a difference in the sensitivity of the different devices (Chi2(2) = 31.24, P < 0.01) with a higher sensitivity of 0.94 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.97) for OCT compared to NIR 0.58 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.68) and FOTI/DIFOTI 0.47 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.59), but no meaningful difference in specificity (Chi2(2) = 3.47, P = 0.18). In light of these results, we planned to formally assess potential sources of heterogeneity according to device type, but due to the limited number of studies for each device type we were unable to do so. For interpretation, we presented the coupled forest plots for each device type according to the potential source of heterogeneity. We rated the certainty of the evidence as low and downgraded two levels in total due to avoidable and unavoidable study limitations in the design and conduct of studies, indirectness arising from the in vitro studies, and imprecision of the estimates. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Of the devices evaluated, OCT appears to show the most potential, with superior sensitivity to NIR and fibre-optic devices. Its benefit lies as an add-on tool to support the conventional oral examination to confirm borderline cases in cases of clinical uncertainty. OCT is not currently available to the general dental practitioner, and so further research and development are necessary. FOTI and NIR are more readily available and easy to use; however, they show limitations in their ability to detect enamel caries but may be considered successful in the identification of sound teeth. Future studies should strive to avoid research waste by ensuring that recruitment is conducted in such a way as to minimise selection bias and that studies are clearly and comprehensively reported. In terms of applicability, any future studies should be undertaken in a clinical setting that is reflective of the complexities encountered in caries assessment within the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Transiluminação/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Esmalte Dentário , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Viés de Seleção , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Anaesthesia ; 76(1): 27-35, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776518

RESUMO

It is recognised that high-flow nasal therapy can prevent desaturation during airway management. Studies in spontaneously breathing patients show an almost linear relationship between flow rate and positive airway pressure in the nasopharynx. Positive airway pressure has been suggested as one of the possible mechanisms explaining how high-flow nasal therapy works. However, data on pressures generated by high-flow nasal therapy in apnoeic adults under general anaesthesia are absent. This randomised controlled crossover trial investigated airway pressures generated by different flow rates during high-flow nasal therapy in anaesthetised and paralysed apnoeic patients, comparing pressures with closed and open mouths. Following induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade, a continuous jaw thrust was used to enable airway patency. Airway pressure was measured in the right main bronchus, the middle of the trachea and the pharynx, using a fibreoptically-placed catheter connected to a pressure transducer. Each measurement was randomised with respect to closed or open mouth and different flow rates. Twenty patients undergoing elective surgery were included (mean (SD) age 38 (18) years, BMI 25.0 (3.3) kg.m-2 , nine women, ASA physical status 1 (35%), 2 (55%), 3 (10%). While closed mouths and increasing flow rates demonstrated non-linear increases in pressure, the pressure increase was negligible with an open mouth. Airway pressures remained below 10 cmH2 O even with closed mouths and flow rates up to 80 l.min-1 ; they were not influenced by catheter position. This study shows an increase in airway pressures with closed mouths that depends on flow rate. The generated pressure is negligible with an open mouth. These data question positive airway pressure as an important mechanism for maintenance of oxygenation during apnoea.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Apneia/terapia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Nasofaringe , Adulto , Pressão do Ar , Anestesia , Estudos Cross-Over , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Transdutores de Pressão , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Food Chem ; 340: 128156, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011465

RESUMO

The Berthelot reaction for ammonia is revisited with the aim of miniaturization and addressing interferences as encountered with food and water samples. Headspace single drop microextraction of ammonia in phosphoric acid served to attain selectivity in complex matrices, and liquid-liquid microextraction of red or blue indophenol species into 1-octanol-isooctane (60:40, v/v) resulted into high sensitivity. Fiber-optics-based cuvetteless micro-spectrophotometry has been used for colorimetric determination on microliter volumes of extract. The linear dynamic range, limit of detection and enrichment factor have been found to be 0.2-3 mg kg-1, 0.14 mg kg-1 and 38, respectively, measuring red species for milk, cheese and beer (4.9-5.5% error; 4.8-6.3% RSD; n = 5); and 5-400 µg L-1, 0.4 µg L-1 and 137, respectively, measuring blue species for water samples (3.3-5.7% error; 3.6-6.8% RSD; n = 5). A plausible reaction scheme has been proposed for nitroprusside catalysis in indophenol reaction.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Indofenol/química , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Água/química , Amônia/isolamento & purificação , Cerveja/análise , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Teoria Quântica
5.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(12): 757-760, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign tracheal stenosis has emerged as a therapeutic challenge for physicians involved in the care of survivors of critical care units. Although the traditional mainstay of open surgical reconstructive treatment is still considered the gold standard, endoscopic therapies such as laser re-canalization, balloon dilation, or stenting are commonly practiced in invasive bronchology. Recurrent obstructing granulomas pose a challenge for bronchoscopists. Mitomycin C (MyC) is a cytotoxic agent that is isolated from Streptomyces caespitosus and acts by inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis through alkylation and cross-linkages. Topical MyC is commonly used in indirect laryngoscopies for the treatment of granulation tissue in the trachea by using saturated pledgets. OBJECTIVES: To describe fiberoptic bronchoscopic submucosal injection of MyC as a treatment for recurrent bening tracheal stenosis. METHODS: The authors report their successful experience with submucosal intralesional injection of MyC in the management of recurrent obstructing granulomas/stenosis using the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope in a series of 10 patients between 2005 and 2019. RESULTS: The results suggest that intralesional injection of MyC using the flexible bronchoscope after the endoscopic treatment of the stenotic lesion may reduce the rate of subsequent formation of granulation tissue and scarring without side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of MyC injection should be studied prospectively.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/métodos , Citotoxinas/uso terapêutico , Mitomicina/uso terapêutico , Estenose Traqueal/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Broncoscopia/instrumentação , Citotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais/instrumentação , Injeções Intralesionais/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitomicina/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Respiratória
6.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(6): 971-992, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128891

RESUMO

Surgeons have been involved, since the beginning, in the development and evolution of endoscopy. They have been instrumental in developing new methods and have been actively involved in most of the therapeutic applications. The continued evolution of endoscopic technique is inevitable and will involve the integration of new technology with innovative thinking.


Assuntos
Endoscópios Gastrointestinais/história , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/história , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/história , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/instrumentação , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/instrumentação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos , Óptica e Fotônica/história , Óptica e Fotônica/tendências , Estados Unidos
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 984-987, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018150

RESUMO

This paper presents a signal analysis approach to identify the contact objects at the tip of a flexible ureteroscope. First, a miniature triaxial fiber optic sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating(FBG) is devised to measure the interactive force signals at the ureteroscope tip. Due to the multidimensional properties of these force signals, the principal components analysis(PCA) method is introduced to reduce dimensions. The signal features are then extracted from the representative principal component signals using the wavelet transform(WT) method. Experimental results show that the contact objects at the tip of a ureteroscope are readily discriminated from the measured force signals with the proposed approach.Clinical Relevance-This work commits to analyze the contact force signals at the tip of a flexible ureteroscope for the purpose of contact objects identification.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Ureteroscópios , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Fenômenos Físicos , Análise de Ondaletas
8.
Pharm Res ; 37(10): 192, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914239

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective was to characterize hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HMPCAS) grades L, M, and H to enhance itraconazole (ITZ) release and permeation from spray dried dispersions (SDDs), and to investigate underpinning molecular ITZ-HPMCAS interactions that differentiated grade performance. METHODS: ITZ or its SDDs were subjected to solution stabilization assessment, one-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, saturation transfer difference NMR studies, small volume dissolution, solid state transformation studies, and in vitro dissolution/permeation flux studies. RESULTS: HPMCAS-L was the best performing grade overall and exhibited greatest ITZ supersaturation concentration, small volume dissolution, and in vitro dissolution/permeation flux. Meanwhile, H grade retarded ITZ precipitation to the greatest extent in solution stabilization studies and exhibited greater hydrophobic interaction with ITZ in NMR studies. However, this apparent advantage of H grade through hydrophobic interactions between drug-polymer appeared to limit overall dissolution/permeation performance of SDD. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro SDD studies and drug-polymer interaction studies provided insight into the performance of HPMCAS grades, as well as the relative contributions of various mechanisms that polymer can promote ITZ absorption from SDD.


Assuntos
Itraconazol/química , Metilcelulose/análogos & derivados , Química Farmacêutica , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilcelulose/química , Solubilidade
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236331, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756613

RESUMO

This paper investigates event extraction and early event classification in contiguous spatio-temporal data streams, where events need to be classified using partial information, i.e. while the event is ongoing. The framework incorporates an event extraction algorithm and an early event classification algorithm. We apply this framework to synthetic and real problems and demonstrate its reliability and broad applicability. The algorithms and data are available in the R package eventstream, and other code in the supplementary material.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Big Data , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise
11.
Clin Ter ; 171(4): e335-e339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614368

RESUMO

Awake fiberoptic intubation (AFOI) is mandatory to manage difficult airways. Superior laryngeal nerve block (SLNB) could reduce risks and improve patient comfort. The aim of this study is to assess the procedural comfort of SLNB during AFOI in a population of patients undergoing upper airway oncological surgery. Forty patients were randomized into two groups and were treated with continuous infusion of remifentanil, topic anesthesia and intercricoid block. In the study group (=20), SLNB was performed with lidocaine (L-SLNB); in the control group (n=20) SLNB was performed using saline (S-SLNB). AFOI was more comfortable in the L-SLNB group compared to S-SLNB patients [FOICS ≤ 1 in 18 patients (90%) L-SLNB; 2 (10%) S-SLNB (P <0.001)]. Intubation was faster in L-SLNB (47.45 ±15.38 sec) than S-SLNB (80.15 ±37.91 sec) (p <0.001). The SLNB procedure during AFOI is a safe and comfortable procedure in a population of patients undergoing upper airways surgery. Time to intubation was shorter in L-SLNB than in S-SLNB.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal , Nervos Laríngeos , Bloqueio Nervoso , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Anestesia Local , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Lidocaína , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigília
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407381

RESUMO

A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) structure with a ring-core and 5 well-ordered semiellipse air-holes has been creatively proposed. Through a comparison between the structures with a high refractive index (RI) ring-core and the structure without, it conclude that a PCF with a high RI ring-core can work better. Schott SF57 was elected as the substrate material of ring-core. This paper compares the effects of long-axis and short-axis changes on the PCF and selects the optimal solution. Especially TE0,1 mode's dispersion is maintained between 0 and 3 ps / (nm · km) ranging from 1.45 µm to 1.65 µm. This property can be used to generate a supercontinuum with 200 µm long zero dispersion wavelength (ZDM). In addition, Δneff reaches up to 10-3, which enables the near -degeneracy of the eigenmodes to be almost neglected. The proposed PCF structure will have great application value in the field of optical communications.


Assuntos
Fibras Ópticas , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibras Ópticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Ópticos , Refratometria/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1622: 461112, 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386708

RESUMO

Fixed bed adsorption is widely used for separations and purifications of active components in medicine, and for wastewater treatment. At present, fixed bed adsorption breakthrough curve is generally obtained by manual sampling and off-line detection. In this study, we proposed a method for on-line monitoring of fixed bed adsorption process using a self-assembled fiber-optic sensing (FOS) system. The adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the fixed bed packed with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were studied. The reproducibility and precision of the system was investigated. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the system was less than 1.54%, which indicates that the system has a good reproducibility. The effects of initial concentration, flow rate, adsorbent mass and particle size on the breakthrough curves were investigated. Through screening, it was found that adsorption kinetics of the polymer materials fit to Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The MIPs showed high binding capacity, good selectivity, fast adsorption rate, indicating a great potential for the treatment of 2,4-D contaminated water. Moreover, this study has identified that the detection method has the advantages of being on-line, realtime, simple, and accurate. The on-line method can facilitate the study of fixed bed adsorption processes and accelerate the understanding of adsorption kinetics.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/análise , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Polímeros/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Cinética , Impressão Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Águas Residuárias/química
18.
Nat Methods ; 17(5): 509-513, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371979

RESUMO

We designed a head-mounted three-photon microscope for imaging deep cortical layer neuronal activity in a freely moving rat. Delivery of high-energy excitation pulses at 1,320 nm required both a hollow-core fiber whose transmission properties did not change with fiber movement and dispersion compensation. These developments enabled imaging at >1.1 mm below the cortical surface and stable imaging of layer 5 neuronal activity for >1 h in freely moving rats performing a range of behaviors.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Locomoção , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos
19.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1363-1366, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) included several critical steps associated with increased risk of aerosol generation. We reported a modified PT technique aiming to minimize the risk of aerosol generation and to increase the staff safety in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PT was performed with a modified technique including the use of a smaller endotracheal tube (ETT) cuffed at the carina during the procedure. RESULTS: The modified technique we proposed was successfully performed in three critically ill patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 critically ill patients, a modified PT technique, including the use of a smaller ETT cuffed at the carina and fiber-optic bronchoscope inserted between the tube and the inner surface of the trachea, may ensure a better airway management, respiratory function, patient comfort, and great safety for the staff.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/cirurgia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/cirurgia , Traqueostomia/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(1): 135-143, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fiber Optic RealShape (FORS) is a new technology platform that enables real time three dimensional (3D) visualisation of endovascular guidewires and catheters, based on the concepts of fibre optic technology instead of fluoroscopy. Anatomical context is provided by means of co-registered prior anatomical imaging, such as digital subtraction angiography or computed tomography. This preclinical study assesses the safety and feasibility of FORS technology. METHODS: Six physicians performed endovascular tasks in a phantom model and a porcine model using FORS enabled floppy guidewires, Cobra-2 catheters and Berenstein catheters. Each physician performed a set of predefined tasks in both models, including setup of the FORS system, device registration, and 12 aortic and peripheral target vessel cannulation tasks. The evaluation of the FORS system was based on (i) target vessel cannulation success; (ii) safety assessment; (iii) the accuracy of the FORS based device visualisation; and (iv) user experience. RESULTS: Successful cannulation was achieved in 72 of the 72 tasks (100%) in the phantom model and in 70 of the 72 tasks (97%) in the porcine model. No safety issues were reported. The FORS based device visualisation had a median offset at the tip of 2.2 mm (interquartile range 1.2-3.8 mm). The users judged the FORS based device visualisation to be superior to conventional fluoroscopic imaging, while not affecting the mechanical properties (torquability, pushability) of the FORS enabled guidewire and catheters. CONCLUSION: The combined outcomes of high cannulation success, positive user experience, adequate accuracy, and absence of safety issues demonstrate the safety and feasibility of the FORS system in a preclinical environment. FORS technology has great potential to improve device visualisation in endovascular interventions.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Cateterismo Periférico/instrumentação , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Suínos
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