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1.
Appetite ; 168: 105734, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624432

RESUMO

Adolescent obesity is a growing global health problem. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to food cues plays a role in both the development and the persistence of obesity. Understanding how visual attention changes dynamically in response to food cues may explain how they contribute to obesity. The primary aims were to evaluate attentional bias for food cues and conduct a time-course analysis of obese adolescents' food-cue processing. We also investigated the roles of inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and eating styles in their visual attention to food stimuli. A total of 60 age- and gender-matched 12-16-year-olds (n = 30, obese group; n = 30, control group; M = 13.9 years, SD = 1.26) were included in this study's sample. The participants viewed a series of high-calorie and low-calorie food images along with nonfood images in the free exploration paradigm during eye-tracking. Time-course analysis of the proportion of fixations on images of food and high-calorie foods determined that the attentional processing of the two groups differed, especially in later stages. The obese group had higher Stroop Interference and Trail Making Test-B scores than the control group, but these executive functions' scores did not affect their proportions of fixations on food and high-calorie food images over time. Higher Perceptual Reasoning Index scores led to a decrease in the proportions of fixations on high-calorie food images over time in the obese group, and this was particularly noticeable after about 4000 ms. This study found that time-course analysis of visual attention to food cues allows us to understand how it changes dynamically over larger time intervals. Future studies should provide knowledge about maintained attention for food cues and their relationship with top-down factors in obese adolescents.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Ingestão de Energia , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Alimentos , Humanos
2.
Appetite ; 168: 105772, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715244

RESUMO

Awareness of food sensory cues in our surroundings may influence our eating behaviour in different ways. For example, exposure to non-consciously perceived odours may influence food choice but not appetite. Moreover, this type of exposure may mainly influence the food choice of starters or desserts but not of main courses. This infers that odour priming may influence impulsive or rewarding food choice but may not overrule our habits concerning the choice of a main meal. It is crucial to understand the role of odour priming on eating behaviour and how people can be steered towards healthier options. Implicit measures, such as visual attention, may be central to understand the food choice process. Therefore, we aimed to determine how non-conscious exposure to odours affect congruent snack choice (i.e. with similar taste characteristics) and whether this is modulated by visual attention. A total of 53 healthy young adults took part in a cross-over study which consisted of two test sessions. In each test session, they were non-consciously exposed to an odour that is associated to a sweet or savoury food. Visual attention was investigated by means of a wearable eye-tracker and subsequent snack choice was (covertly) measured. Our results showed that congruent snacks were fixated on first. However, sweet snacks were fixated on more frequently, and for a longer period of time, and were chosen most often, irrespective of the type of odour exposure. Our findings indicate that odour priming might steer the initial orientation towards congruent foods, but other factors (e.g. cognitive) may overrule its effect on the final choice.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Lanches , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Cross-Over , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 27: 242-253, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890153

RESUMO

Eye tracking, or oculography, provides insight into where a person is looking. Recent advances in camera technology and machine learning have enabled prevalent devices like smart-phones to track gaze and visuo-motor behavior at near clinical-quality resolution. A critical gap in using oculography to diagnose visuo-motor dysfunction on a large scale is in the design of visual task paradigms, algorithms for diagnosis, and sufficiently large datasets. In this study, we used a 500 Hz infrared oculography dataset in healthy controls and patients with various neurological diseases causing visuo-motor abnormality due to eye movement disorder or vision loss. We used novel visuo-motor tasks involving rapid reading of 40 single-digit numbers per page and developed a machine learning algorithm for predicting disease state. We show that oculography data acquired while a person reads one page of 40 single-digit numbers (15-30 seconds duration) is predictive of of visuo-motor dysfunction (ROC-AUC = 0:973). Remarkably, we also find that short recordings of about 2.5 seconds (6-12× reduction in time) are sufficient for disease detection (ROC-AUC = 0:831). We identify which tasks are most informative for identifying visuo-motor dysfunction (those with the most visual crowding), and more specifically, which aspects of the task are most predictive (the recording segments where gaze moves vertically across lines). In addition to segregating disease and controls, our novel visuo-motor paradigms can discriminate among diseases impacting eye movement, diseases associated with vision loss, and healthy controls (81% accuracy compared with baseline of 33%).


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos
4.
Perception ; 51(1): 3-24, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967251

RESUMO

The study of lithic technology can provide information on human cultural evolution. This article aims to analyse visual behaviour associated with the exploration of ancient stone artefacts and how this relates to perceptual mechanisms in humans. In Experiment 1, we used eye tracking to record patterns of eye fixations while participants viewed images of stone tools, including examples of worked pebbles and handaxes. The results showed that the focus of gaze was directed more towards the upper regions of worked pebbles and on the basal areas for handaxes. Knapped surfaces also attracted more fixation than natural cortex for both tool types. Fixation distribution was different to that predicted by models that calculate visual salience. Experiment 2 was an online study using a mouse-click attention tracking technique and included images of unworked pebbles and 'mixed' images combining the handaxe's outline with the pebble's unworked texture. The pattern of clicks corresponded to that revealed using eye tracking and there were differences between tools and other images. Overall, the findings suggest that visual exploration is directed towards functional aspects of tools. Studies of visual attention and exploration can supply useful information to inform understanding of human cognitive evolution and tool use.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Cognição , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Tecnologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261434, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914809

RESUMO

Attention is considered to be a critical part of the sexual response cycle, and researchers have differentiated between the roles of initial (involuntary) and subsequent (voluntary) attention paid to sexual stimuli as part of the facilitation of sexual arousal. Prior studies using eye-tracking methodologies have shown differing initial attention patterns to erotic stimuli between men and women, as well as between individuals of different sexual orientations. No study has directly compared initial attention to sexual stimuli in asexual individuals, defined by their lack of sexual attraction, to women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD), a disorder characterized by a reduced or absent interest in sex coupled with significant personal distress. The current study tested differences in the initial attention patterns of 29 asexual individuals (Mage = 26.56, SD = 4.80) and 25 heterosexual women with SIAD (Mage = 27.52, SD = 4.87), using eye-tracking. Participants were presented with sexual and neutral stimuli, and their initial eye movements and initial fixations to both image types and areas of erotic contact within sexual images were recorded. Mixed-model ANOVAs and t-tests were used to compare the two groups on the speed with which their initial fixations occurred, the duration of their initial fixations, and the proportion of initial fixations made to sexual stimuli. On two indices of initial attention, women with SIAD displayed an initial attention preference for sexual stimuli over neutral stimuli compared to asexual participants. This study adds to a growing literature on the distinction between asexuality and SIAD, indicating that differences in early attention may be a feature that differentiates the groups.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Identidade de Gênero , Excitação Sexual , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/psicologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Literatura Erótica , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261616, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pragmatic challenges remain in the monitoring and return to play (RTP) decisions following suspected Sports Related Concussion (SRC). Reliance on traditional approaches (pen and paper) means players readiness for RTP is often based on self-reported symptom recognition as a marker for full physiological recovery. Non-digital approaches also limit opportunity for robust data analysis which may hinder understanding of the interconnected nature and relationships in deficit recovery. Digital approaches may provide more objectivity to measure and monitor impairments in SRC. Crucially, there is dearth of protocols for SRC assessment and digital devices have yet to be tested concurrently (multimodal) in SRC rugby union assessment. Here we propose a multimodal protocol for digital assessment in SRC, which could be used to enhance traditional sports concussion assessment approaches. METHODS: We aim to use a repeated measures observational study utilising a battery of multimodal assessment tools (symptom, cognitive, visual, motor). We aim to recruit 200 rugby players (male n≈100 and female n≈100) from University Rugby Union teams and local amateur rugby clubs in the North East of England. The multimodal battery assessment used in this study will compare metrics between digital methods and against traditional assessment. CONCLUSION: This paper outlines a protocol for a multimodal approach for the use of digital technologies to augment traditional approaches to SRC, which may better inform RTP in rugby union. Findings may shed light on new ways of working with digital tools in SRC. Multimodal approaches may enhance understanding of the interconnected nature of impairments and provide insightful, more objective assessment and RTP in SRC. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04938570. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=NCT04938570&term=&cntry=&state=&city=&dist=.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7122437, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899896

RESUMO

To maintain situation awareness (SA) when exposed to emergencies during pilotage, a pilot needs to selectively allocate attentional resources to perceive critical status information about ships and environments. Although it is important to continuously monitor a pilot's SA, its relationship with attention is still not fully understood in ship pilotage. This study performs bridge simulation experiments that include vessel departure, navigation in the fairway, encounters, poor visibility, and anchoring scenes with 13 pilots (mean = 11.3 and standard deviation = 1.4 of experience). Individuals were divided into two SA group levels based on the Situation Awareness Rating Technology (SART-2) score (mean = 20.13 and standard deviation = 5.83) after the experiments. The visual patterns using different SA groups were examined using heat maps and scan paths based on pilots' fixations and saccade data. The preliminary visual analyses of the heat maps and scan paths indicate that the pilots' attentional distribution is modulated by the SA level. That is, the most concerning areas of interest (AOIs) for pilots in the high and low SA groups are outside the window (AOI-2) and electronic charts (AOI-1), respectively. Subsequently, permutation simulations were utilized to identify statistical differences between the pilots' eye-tracking metrics and SA. The results of the statistical analyses show that the fixation and saccade metrics are affected by the SA level in different AOIs across the five scenes, which confirms the findings of previous studies. In encounter scenes, the pilots' SA level is correlated with the fixation and saccade metrics: fixation count (p = 0.034 < 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.032 < 0.05 in AOI-2), fixation duration (p = 0.043 < 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.014 < 0.05 in AOI-2), and saccade count (p = 0.086 < 0.1 in AOI-1 and p = 0.054 < 0.1 in AOI-2). This was determined by the fixation count (p = 0.024 < 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.034 < 0.05 in AOI-2), fixation duration (p = 0.036 < 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.047 < 0.05 in AOI-2), and saccade duration (p = 0.05 ≤ 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.042 < 0.05 in AOI-2) in poor-visibility scenes. In the remaining scenes, the SA could not be measured using eye movements alone. This study lays a foundation for the cognitive mechanism recognition of pilots based on SA via eye-tracking technology, which provides a reference to establish cognitive competency standards in preliminary pilot screenings.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Pilotos , Conscientização , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960295

RESUMO

Statistical measurements of eye movement-specific properties, such as fixations, saccades, blinks, or pupil dilation, are frequently utilized as input features for machine learning algorithms applied to eye tracking recordings. These characteristics are intended to be interpretable aspects of eye gazing behavior. However, prior research has demonstrated that when trained on implicit representations of raw eye tracking data, neural networks outperform these traditional techniques. To leverage the strengths and information of both feature sets, we integrated implicit and explicit eye tracking features in one classification approach in this work. A neural network was adapted to process the heterogeneous input and predict the internally and externally directed attention of 154 participants. We compared the accuracies reached by the implicit and combined features for different window lengths and evaluated the approaches in terms of person- and task-independence. The results indicate that combining implicit and explicit feature extraction techniques for eye tracking data improves classification results for attentional state detection significantly. The attentional state was correctly classified during new tasks with an accuracy better than chance, and person-independent classification even outperformed person-dependently trained classifiers for some settings. For future experiments and applications that require eye tracking data classification, we suggest to consider implicit data representation in addition to interpretable explicit features.


Assuntos
Atenção , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Movimentos Sacádicos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898624

RESUMO

Reading is a complex cognitive process that involves primary oculomotor function and high-level activities like attention focus and language processing. When we read, our eyes move by primary physiological functions while responding to language-processing demands. In fact, the eyes perform discontinuous twofold movements, namely, successive long jumps (saccades) interposed by small steps (fixations) in which the gaze "scans" confined locations. It is only through the fixations that information is effectively captured for brain processing. Since individuals can express similar as well as entirely different opinions about a given text, it is therefore expected that the form, content and style of a text could induce different eye-movement patterns among people. A question that naturally arises is whether these individuals' behaviours are correlated, so that eye-tracking while reading can be used as a proxy for text subjective properties. Here we perform a set of eye-tracking experiments with a group of individuals reading different types of texts, including children stories, random word generated texts and excerpts from literature work. In parallel, an extensive Internet survey was conducted for categorizing these texts in terms of their complexity and coherence, considering a large number of individuals selected according to different ages, gender and levels of education. The computational analysis of the fixation maps obtained from the gaze trajectories of the subjects for a given text reveals that the average "magnetization" of the fixation configurations correlates strongly with their complexity observed in the survey. Moreover, we perform a thermodynamic analysis using the Maximum-Entropy Model and find that coherent texts were closer to their corresponding "critical points" than non-coherent ones, as computed from the Pairwise Maximum-Entropy method, suggesting that different texts may induce distinct cohesive reading activities.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Adolescente , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914743

RESUMO

Feedback is essential for many kinds of learning, but the cognitive processes involved in learning from feedback are unclear. Models of category learning incorporate selective attention to stimulus features while generating a response, but during the feedback phase of an experiment, it is assumed that participants receive complete information about stimulus features as well as the correct category. The present work looks at eye tracking data from six category learning datasets covering a variety of category complexities and types. We find that selective attention to task-relevant information is pervasive throughout feedback processing, suggesting a role for selective attention in memory encoding of category exemplars. We also find that error trials elicit additional stimulus processing during the feedback phase. Finally, our data reveal that participants increasingly skip the processing of feedback altogether. At the broadest level, these three findings reveal that selective attention is ubiquitous throughout the entire category learning task, functioning to emphasize the importance of certain stimulus features, the helpfulness of extra stimulus encoding during times of uncertainty, and the superfluousness of feedback once one has learned the task. We discuss the implications of our findings for modelling efforts in category learning from the perspective of researchers trying to capture the full dynamic interaction of selective attention and learning, as well as for researchers focused on other issues, such as category representation, whose work only requires simplifications that do a reasonable job of capturing learning.


Assuntos
Atenção , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833681

RESUMO

The emergence of innovative neurotechnologies in global brain projects has accelerated research and clinical applications of BCIs beyond sensory and motor functions. Both invasive and noninvasive sensors are developed to interface with cognitive functions engaged in thinking, communication, or remembering. The detection of eye movements by a camera offers a particularly attractive external sensor for computer interfaces to monitor, assess, and control these higher brain functions without acquiring signals from the brain. Features of gaze position and pupil dilation can be effectively used to track our attention in healthy mental processes, to enable interaction in disorders of consciousness, or to even predict memory performance in various brain diseases. In this perspective article, we propose the term 'CyberEye' to encompass emerging cognitive applications of eye-tracking interfaces for neuroscience research, clinical practice, and the biomedical industry. As CyberEye technologies continue to develop, we expect BCIs to become less dependent on brain activities, to be less invasive, and to thus be more applicable.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Encéfalo , Cognição , Movimentos Oculares
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833713

RESUMO

New and emerging non-invasive digital tools, such as eye-tracking, facial expression and physiological biometrics, have been implemented to extract more objective sensory responses by panelists from packaging and, specifically, labels. However, integrating these technologies from different company providers and software for data acquisition and analysis makes their practical application difficult for research and the industry. This study proposed a prototype integration between eye tracking and emotional biometrics using the BioSensory computer application for three sample labels: Stevia, Potato chips, and Spaghetti. Multivariate data analyses are presented, showing the integrative analysis approach of the proposed prototype system. Further studies can be conducted with this system and integrating other biometrics available, such as physiological response with heart rate, blood, pressure, and temperature changes analyzed while focusing on different label components or packaging features. By maximizing data extraction from various components of packaging and labels, smart predictive systems can also be implemented, such as machine learning to assess liking and other parameters of interest from the whole package and specific components.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Aplicativos Móveis , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Aprendizado de Máquina
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833742

RESUMO

Remote eye tracking has become an important tool for the online analysis of learning processes. Mobile eye trackers can even extend the range of opportunities (in comparison to stationary eye trackers) to real settings, such as classrooms or experimental lab courses. However, the complex and sometimes manual analysis of mobile eye-tracking data often hinders the realization of extensive studies, as this is a very time-consuming process and usually not feasible for real-world situations in which participants move or manipulate objects. In this work, we explore the opportunities to use object recognition models to assign mobile eye-tracking data for real objects during an authentic students' lab course. In a comparison of three different Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), a Faster Region-Based-CNN, you only look once (YOLO) v3, and YOLO v4, we found that YOLO v4, together with an optical flow estimation, provides the fastest results with the highest accuracy for object detection in this setting. The automatic assignment of the gaze data to real objects simplifies the time-consuming analysis of mobile eye-tracking data and offers an opportunity for real-time system responses to the user's gaze. Additionally, we identify and discuss several problems in using object detection for mobile eye-tracking data that need to be considered.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Percepção Visual
14.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(10): 816-829, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attention bias modification training (ABMT) is purported to reduce depression by targeting and modifying an attentional bias for sadness-related stimuli. However, few tests of this hypothesis have been completed. METHOD: The present study examined whether change in attentional bias mediated a previously reported association between ABMT condition (active ABMT, sham ABMT, assessments only; N = 145) and depression symptom change among depressed adults. The preregistered, primary measure of attention bias was a discretized eye-tracking metric that quantified the proportion of trials where gaze time was greater for sad stimuli than neutral stimuli. RESULTS: Contemporaneous longitudinal simplex mediation indicated that change in attentional bias early in treatment partially mediated the effect of ABMT on depression symptoms. Specificity analyses indicated that in contrast to the eye-tracking mediator, reaction time assessments of attentional bias for sad stimuli (mean bias and trial level variability) and lapses in sustained attention did not mediate the association between ABMT and depression change. Results also suggested that mediation effects were limited to a degree by suboptimal measurement of attentional bias for sad stimuli. CONCLUSION: When effective, ABMT may improve depression in part by reducing an attentional bias for sad stimuli, particularly early on during ABMT. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Cognição , Depressão/terapia , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770554

RESUMO

Research focused on signals derived from the human organism is becoming increasingly popular. In this field, a special role is played by brain-computer interfaces based on brainwaves. They are becoming increasingly popular due to the downsizing of EEG signal recording devices and ever-lower set prices. Unfortunately, such systems are substantially limited in terms of the number of generated commands. This especially applies to sets that are not medical devices. This article proposes a hybrid brain-computer system based on the Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP), EOG, eye tracking, and force feedback system. Such an expanded system eliminates many of the particular system shortcomings and provides much better results. The first part of the paper presents information on the methods applied in the hybrid brain-computer system. The presented system was tested in terms of the ability of the operator to place the robot's tip to a designated position. A virtual model of an industrial robot was proposed, which was used in the testing. The tests were repeated on a real-life industrial robot. Positioning accuracy of system was verified with the feedback system both enabled and disabled. The results of tests conducted both on the model and on the real object clearly demonstrate that force feedback improves the positioning accuracy of the robot's tip when controlled by the operator. In addition, the results for the model and the real-life industrial model are very similar. In the next stage, research was carried out on the possibility of sorting items using the BCI system. The research was carried out on a model and a real robot. The results show that it is possible to sort using bio signals from the human body.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia , Eletroculografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696060

RESUMO

Remote eye tracking technology has suffered an increasing growth in recent years due to its applicability in many research areas. In this paper, a video-oculography method based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for pupil center detection over webcam images is proposed. As the first contribution of this work and in order to train the model, a pupil center manual labeling procedure of a facial landmark dataset has been performed. The model has been tested over both real and synthetic databases and outperforms state-of-the-art methods, achieving pupil center estimation errors below the size of a constricted pupil in more than 95% of the images, while reducing computing time by a 8 factor. Results show the importance of use high quality training data and well-known architectures to achieve an outstanding performance.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Pupila , Bases de Dados Factuais , Redes Neurais de Computação
17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102871, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619492

RESUMO

Interpersonal communication is a specific scenario in which patients with psychiatric symptoms may manifest different behavioral patterns due to psychopathology. This was a pilot study by eye-tracking technology to investigate attentive bias during social information processing in schizophrenia. We enrolled 39 patients with schizophrenia from Shanghai Mental Health Center and 42 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls. The experiment was a free-viewing task, in which pictures with three types of degree of interpersonal communication were shown. We used two measures: 1) initial fixation duration, 2) total gaze duration. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to determine symptom severity. The ratio of first fixation duration for pictures of communicating vs. non-communicating persons was significantly lower in patients than in controls (Mann-Whitney U = 512, p = 0.004). We found that male patients showed a significantly lower ratio of first fixation duration than male controls (Mann-Whitney U = 190, p = 0.028), while it was marginally lower in female patients than female controls (Mann-Whitney U = 77, p = 0.057). The ratio of first fixation duration for pictures of communicating persons vs. no persons was negatively correlated with PANSS negative symptoms in male patients (rho = -0.458, p = 0.024). In contrast, it was negatively correlated with PANSS positive symptoms in female patients (-0.701, p = 0.004). These findings suggest altered attentive bias during social information processing with a pattern of avoidance at first sight towards pictures of communicating persons in schizophrenia. It is worthwhile to note that social functioning impairment is associated with the severity of symptoms.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , China , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Conscious Cogn ; 95: 103213, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601355

RESUMO

Biased attention for emotional information is associated with the emotional disorders. Trait mindfulness is associated with lower depression and anxiety and with improved attentional control. Mindfulness is also related to lower levels of brooding rumination. The current study examined the association between trait mindfulness, brooding rumination, depressed and anxious state moods, and attention to emotional visual stimuli utilizing eye tracking methodology. Participants were 158 undergraduates. Trait mindfulness was negatively associated with attention to sad and threatening stimuli, but was not associated with attention to positive or neutral stimuli. There was an indirect effect of mindfulness on attention to sad stimuli through brooding rumination. Data are cross sectional but provide initial evidence that mindfulness may partially exert its effects on depression and anxiety by lessening attention to negatively-valenced stimuli.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos
19.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(11): 2798-2807, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We combined electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking recordings to examine the underlying factors elicited during the serial Rapid-Automatized Naming (RAN) task that may differentiate between children with dyslexia (DYS) and chronological age controls (CAC). METHODS: Thirty children with DYS and 30 CAC (Mage = 9.79 years; age range 7.6 through 12.1 years) performed a set of serial RAN tasks. We extracted fixation-related potentials (FRPs) under phonologically similar (rime-confound) or visually similar (resembling lowercase letters) and dissimilar (non-confounding and discrete uppercase letters, respectively) control tasks. RESULTS: Results revealed significant differences in FRP amplitudes between DYS and CAC groups under the phonologically similar and phonologically non-confounding conditions. No differences were observed in the case of the visual conditions. Moreover, regression analysis showed that the average amplitude of the extracted components significantly predicted RAN performance. CONCLUSION: FRPs capture neural components during the serial RAN task informative of differences between DYS and CAC and establish a relationship between neurocognitive processes during serial RAN and dyslexia. SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest our approach as a methodological model for the concurrent analysis of neurophysiological and eye-gaze data to decipher the role of RAN in reading.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura , Criança , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
20.
Med Phys ; 48(11): 6710-6723, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534365

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Eye-tracking approaches have been used to understand the visual search process in radiology. However, previous eye-tracking work in computer tomography (CT) has been limited largely to single cross-sectional images or video playback of the reconstructed volume, which do not accurately reflect radiologists' visual search activities and their interactivity with three-dimensional image data at a computer workstation (e.g., scroll, pan, and zoom) for visual evaluation of diagnostic imaging targets. We have developed a platform that integrates eye-tracking hardware with in-house-developed reader workstation software to allow monitoring of the visual search process and reader-image interactions in clinically relevant reader tasks. The purpose of this work is to validate the spatial accuracy of eye-tracking data using this platform for different eye-tracking data acquisition modes. METHODS: An eye-tracker was integrated with a previously developed workstation designed for reader performance studies. The integrated system captured real-time eye movement and workstation events at 1000 Hz sampling frequency. The eye-tracker was operated either in head-stabilized mode or in free-movement mode. In head-stabilized mode, the reader positioned their head on a manufacturer-provided chinrest. In free-movement mode, a biofeedback tool emitted an audio cue when the head position was outside the data collection range (general biofeedback) or outside a narrower range of positions near the calibration position (strict biofeedback). Four radiologists and one resident were invited to participate in three studies to determine eye-tracking spatial accuracy under three constraint conditions: head-stabilized mode (i.e., with use of a chin rest), free movement with general biofeedback, and free movement with strict biofeedback. Study 1 evaluated the impact of head stabilization versus general or strict biofeedback using a cross-hair target prior to the integration of the eye-tracker with the image viewing workstation. In Study 2, after integration of the eye-tracker and reader workstation, readers were asked to fixate on targets that were randomly distributed within a volumetric digital phantom. In Study 3, readers used the integrated system to scroll through volumetric patient CT angiographic images while fixating on the centerline of designated blood vessels (from the left coronary artery to dorsalis pedis artery). Spatial accuracy was quantified as the offset between the center of the intended target and the detected fixation using units of image pixels and the degree of visual angle. RESULTS: The three head position constraint conditions yielded comparable accuracy in the studies using digital phantoms. For Study 1 involving the digital crosshairs, the median ± the standard deviation of offset values among readers were 15.2 ± 7.0 image pixels with the chinrest, 14.2 ± 3.6 image pixels with strict biofeedback, and 19.1 ± 6.5 image pixels with general biofeedback. For Study 2 using the random dot phantom, the median ± standard deviation offset values were 16.7 ± 28.8 pixels with use of a chinrest, 16.5 ± 24.6 pixels using strict biofeedback, and 18.0 ± 22.4 pixels using general biofeedback, which translated to a visual angle of about 0.8° for all three conditions. We found no obvious association between eye-tracking accuracy and target size or view time. In Study 3 viewing patient images, use of the chinrest and strict biofeedback demonstrated comparable accuracy, while the use of general biofeedback demonstrated a slightly worse accuracy. The median ± standard deviation of offset values were 14.8 ± 11.4 pixels with use of a chinrest, 21.0 ± 16.2 pixels using strict biofeedback, and 29.7 ± 20.9 image pixels using general biofeedback. These corresponded to visual angles ranging from 0.7° to 1.3°. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated eye-tracker system to assess reader eye movement and interactive viewing in relation to imaging targets demonstrated reasonable spatial accuracy for assessment of visual fixation. The head-free movement condition with audio biofeedback performed similarly to head-stabilized mode.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Computadores , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiologistas
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