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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21967, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medical products transportation has become an important research topic requiring multidisciplinary collaboration among experts in medicine, engineering, and health economics. Current modes of transportation are unable to overcome the limited settings in maternal healthcare, particularly during the event of obstetric emergencies. The drone is a promising medical product aerial transportation (MedART) that holds an enormous potential for delivery of medical supplies in the healthcare system. We conducted a systematic review to examine scientific evidence of positive impact of drone transportation on maternal health. METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2019: ScienceDirect, PubMed, and EMBASE. The report was made in accordance with the principles of PRISMA guidelines. The search terms used were related to drones including unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and unmanned aerial system (UAS), and related to obstetric/maternal including obstetric emergencies and postpartum hemorrhage. Studies were selected if the intervention used were drones, and if any direct or indirect maternal health indicators were reported. Meta-analysis was not done throughout the study in view of the anticipated heterogeneity of each study. RESULTS: Our initial search yielded a total of 244 relevant publications, from which 236 were carried forward for a title and abstract screening. After careful examination, only two were included for systematic synthesis. Among the reasons for exclusion were irrelevance to maternal health purpose, and irrelevance to drone applications in healthcare. An updated search yielded one additional study that was also included. Overall, two studies assessed drones for blood products delivery, and one study used drones to transport blood samples. CONCLUSION: A significant deficiency was found in the number of reported studies analyzing mode of medical products transportation and adaptation of drones in maternal healthcare. Future drone research framework should focus on maternal healthcare-specific drone applications in order to reap benefits in this area.


Assuntos
Aeronaves/instrumentação , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Gravidez , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/tendências
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911861

RESUMO

Lung sounds acquired by stethoscopes are extensively used in diagnosing and differentiating respiratory diseases. Although an extensive know-how has been built to interpret these sounds and identify diseases associated with certain patterns, its effective use is limited to individual experience of practitioners. This user-dependency manifests itself as a factor impeding the digital transformation of this valuable diagnostic tool, which can improve patient outcomes by continuous long-term respiratory monitoring under real-life conditions. Particularly patients suffering from respiratory diseases with progressive nature, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, are expected to benefit from long-term monitoring. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has also shown the lack of respiratory monitoring systems which are ready to deploy in operational conditions while requiring minimal patient education. To address particularly the latter subject, in this article, we present a sound acquisition module which can be integrated into a dedicated garment; thus, minimizing the role of the patient for positioning the stethoscope and applying the appropriate pressure. We have implemented a diaphragm-less acousto-electric transducer by stacking a silicone rubber and a piezoelectric film to capture thoracic sounds with minimum attenuation. Furthermore, we benchmarked our device with an electronic stethoscope widely used in clinical practice to quantify its performance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Estetoscópios , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Acústica , Auscultação/instrumentação , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pandemias , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Transdutores , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932848

RESUMO

The emerging wearable medical devices open up new opportunities for the provision of health services and promise to accelerate the development of novel telemedical services. The main objective of this study was to investigate the desirable features and applications of telemedical services for the Polish older adults delivered by wearable medical devices. The questionnaire study was conducted among 146 adult volunteers in two cohorts (C.1: <65 years vs. C.2: ≥65 years). The analysis was based on qualitative research and descriptive statistics. Comparisons were performed by Pearson's chi-squared test. The questionnaire, which was divided into three parts (1-socio-demographic data, needs, and behaviors; 2-health status; 3-telemedicine service awareness and device concept study), consisted of 37 open, semi-open, or closed questions. Two cohorts were analyzed (C.1: n = 77; mean age = 32 vs. C.2: n = 69; mean age = 74). The performed survey showed that the majority of respondents were unaware of the telemedical services (56.8%). A total of 62.3% of C.1 and 34.8% of C.2 declared their understanding of telemedical services. The 10.3% of correct explanations regarding telemedical service were found among all study participants. The most desirable feature was the detection of life-threatening and health-threatening situations (65.2% vs. 66.2%). The findings suggest a lack of awareness of telemedical services and the opportunities offered by wearable telemedical devices.


Assuntos
Telemedicina/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geriatria/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845880

RESUMO

Random sampling is an important approach to field vegetation surveys. However, sampling surveys in desert areas are difficult because determining an appropriate quadrat size that represent the sparse and unevenly distributed vegetation is challenging. In this study, we present a methodology for quadrat size optimization based on low-altitude high-precision unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. Using the Daliyaboyi Oasis as our study area, we simulated random sampling and analyzed the frequency distribution and variation in the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) index of the samples. Our results show that quadrats of 50 m × 50 m size are the most representative for sampling surveys in this location. The method exploits UAV technology to rapidly acquire vegetation information and overcomes the shortcomings of traditional methods that rely on labor-intensive fieldwork to collect species-area relationship (SAR) data. Our method presents two major advantages: (1) speed and efficiency stemming from the application of UAV, which also effectively overcomes the difficulties posed in vegetation surveys by the challenging desert climate and terrain; (2) the large sample size enabled by the use of a sampling simulation. Our methodology is thus highly suitable for selecting the optimal quadrat size and making accurate estimates, and can improve the efficiency and accuracy of field vegetation sampling surveys.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/instrumentação , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/normas , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Tamanho da Amostra
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555585

RESUMO

Seasonal migrations are key to the production and persistence of marine fish populations but movements within shelf migration corridors or, "flyways", are poorly known. Atlantic sturgeon and striped bass, two critical anadromous species, are known for their extensive migrations along the US Mid-Atlantic Bight. Seasonal patterns of habitat selection have been described within spawning rivers, estuaries,and shelf foraging habitats, but information on the location and timing of key coastal migrations is limited. Using a gradient-based array of acoustic telemetry receivers, we compared the seasonal incidence and movement behavior of these species in the near-shelf region of Maryland, USA. Atlantic sturgeon incidence was highest in the spring and fall and tended to be biased toward shallow regions, while striped bass had increased presence during spring and winter months and selected deeper waters. Incidence was transient (mean = ~2 d) for both species with a pattern of increased residency (>2 d) during autumn and winter, particularly for striped bass, with many individuals exhibiting prolonged presence on the outer shelf during winter. Flyways also differed spatially between northern and southern migrations for both species and were related to temperature: striped bass were more likely to occur in cool conditions while Atlantic sturgeon preferred warmer temperatures. Observed timing and spatial distribution within the Mid-Atlantic flyway were dynamic between years and sensitive to climate variables. As shelf ecosystems come under increasing maritime development, gridded telemetry designs represent a feasible approach to provide impact responses within key marine flyways like those that occur within the US Mid-Atlantic Bight.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Bass/fisiologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/instrumentação , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Estuários , Maryland , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3108, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561737

RESUMO

In the Southern Ocean, large-scale phytoplankton blooms occur in open water and the sea-ice zone (SIZ). These blooms have a range of fates including physical advection, downward carbon export, or grazing. Here, we determine the magnitude, timing and spatial trends of the biogeochemical (export) and ecological (foodwebs) fates of phytoplankton, based on seven BGC-Argo floats spanning three years across the SIZ. We calculate loss terms using the production of chlorophyll-based on nitrate depletion-compared with measured chlorophyll. Export losses are estimated using conspicuous chlorophyll pulses at depth. By subtracting export losses, we calculate grazing-mediated losses. Herbivory accounts for ~90% of the annually-averaged losses (169 mg C m-2 d-1), and phytodetritus POC export comprises ~10%. Furthermore, export and grazing losses each exhibit distinctive seasonality captured by all floats spanning 60°S to 69°S. These similar trends reveal widespread patterns in phytoplankton fate throughout the Southern Ocean SIZ.


Assuntos
Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Cadeia Alimentar , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Algoritmos , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/instrumentação , Eutrofização , Herbivoria , Oceanos e Mares , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492034

RESUMO

For gait classification, hoof-on and hoof-off events are fundamental locomotion characteristics of interest. These events can be measured with inertial measurement units (IMUs) which measure the acceleration and angular velocity in three directions. The aim of this study was to present two algorithms for automatic detection of hoof-events from the acceleration and angular velocity signals measured by hoof-mounted IMUs in walk and trot on a hard surface. Seven Warmblood horses were equipped with two wireless IMUs, which were attached to the lateral wall of the right front (RF) and hind (RH) hooves. Horses were walked and trotted on a lead over a force plate for internal validation. The agreement between the algorithms for the acceleration and angular velocity signals with the force plate was evaluated by Bland Altman analysis and linear mixed model analysis. These analyses were performed for both hoof-on and hoof-off detection and for both algorithms separately. For the hoof-on detection, the angular velocity algorithm was the most accurate with an accuracy between 2.39 and 12.22 ms and a precision of around 13.80 ms, depending on gait and hoof. For hoof-off detection, the acceleration algorithm was the most accurate with an accuracy of 3.20 ms and precision of 6.39 ms, independent of gait and hoof. These algorithms look highly promising for gait classification purposes although the applicability of these algorithms should be investigated under different circumstances, such as different surfaces and different hoof trimming conditions.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Marcha/fisiologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Aceleração , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/instrumentação , Análise da Marcha/estatística & dados numéricos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Casco e Garras/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/veterinária , Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155220

RESUMO

The present study aimed to validate and compare the football-specific measurement accuracy of two optical tracking systems engineered by TRACAB. The "Gen4" system consists of two multi-camera units (a stereo pair) in two locations either side of the halfway line, whereas the distributed "Gen5" system combines two stereo pairs on each side of the field as well as two monocular systems behind the goal areas. Data were collected from 20 male football players in two different exercises (a football sport-specific running course and small-sided games) in a professional football stadium. For evaluating the accuracy of the systems, measures were compared against simultaneously recorded measures of a reference system (VICON motion capture system). Statistical analysis uses RMSE for kinematic variables (position, speed and acceleration) and the difference in percentages for performance indicators (e.g. distance covered, peak speed) per run compared to the reference system. Frames in which players were obviously not tracked were excluded. Gen5 had marginally better accuracy (0.08 m RMSE) for position measurements than Gen4 (0.09 m RMSE) compared to the reference. Accuracy difference in instantaneous speed (Gen4: 0.09 m⋅s-1 RMSE; Gen5: 0.08 m⋅s-1 RMSE) and acceleration (Gen4: 0.26 m⋅s-2 RMSE; Gen5: 0.21 m⋅s-2 RMSE) measurements were significant, but also trivial in terms of the effect size. For total distance travelled, both Gen4 (0.42 ± 0.60%) and Gen5 (0.27 ± 0.35%) showed only trivial deviations compared to the reference. Gen4 showed moderate differences in the low-speed distance travelled category (-19.41 ± 13.24%) and small differences in the high-speed distance travelled category (8.94 ± 9.49%). Differences in peak speed, acceleration and deceleration were trivial (<0.5%) for both Gen4 and Gen5. These findings suggest that Gen5's distributed camera architecture has minor benefits over Gen4's single-view camera architecture in terms of accuracy. We assume that the main benefit of the Gen5 towards Gen4 lies in increased robustness of the tracking when it comes to optical overlapping of players. Since differences towards the reference system were very low, both TRACAB's tracking systems can be considered as valid technologies for football-specific performance analyses in the settings tested as long as players are tracked correctly.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Gravação em Vídeo/instrumentação , Aceleração , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Desaceleração , Futebol Americano , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Dispositivos Ópticos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Corrida , Futebol
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126101

RESUMO

Understanding demographic parameters such as survival is important for scientifically sound wildlife management. Survival can vary by region, sex, age-class, habitat, and other factors. White-tailed deer fawn survival is highly variable across the species' range. While recent studies have investigated fawn survival in several Midwestern states, there have been no published estimates from Iowa for 30 years. We radio-collared 48 fawns in central Iowa from 2015-2017 to estimate survival, home range size, and habitat composition and identity causes of mortality. Estimated fawn survival (± SE) was similar to other Midwest studies at 30 (0.78 ± 0.07)) and 60 days (0.69 ± 0.08), but considerably lower at 7 months (0.31 ± 0.02). Survival was positively associated with woodland habitat through 30 and 60 days, but not related to habitat at 7 months. Female fawns avoided agricultural habitat in their home ranges. Fawn 95% kernel density home ranges were smaller than in other studies in the Midwest (21.22 ± 2.74 ha at 30 days, 25.47 ± 2.87 ha at 60 days, and 30.59 ± 2.37 ha at 7 months). The large amount of woodland and grassland (>90%) in our study area meant that fawns did not have to travel far to find suitable cover, which may explain their small home ranges. We recorded 21 mortalities, the leading cause of which was disease (n = 9; 56% epizootic hemorrhagic disease [EHD]) followed by suspected predation (4) and harvest (3). The mortality associated with an outbreak of EHD in 2016, all of which occurred after 60 days post-capture, is the most likely explanation for our low survival estimate at 7 months. While predation, usually early in life, is the leading cause of mortality in most studies, sporadic diseases like EHD can be a major source of mortality in older fawns in some years.


Assuntos
Cervos/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Infecções por Reoviridae/mortalidade , Animais , Causas de Morte , Ecossistema , Feminino , Iowa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155156

RESUMO

The data layer devices in the Software Defined Network (SDN) play an important role in packet forwarding. However, whether the forwarding task can be efficiently completed by the node has not attracted enough attention. A method called TrustBlock is proposed in this paper, which introduces trust as a security attribute in SDN routing planning. Besides, in order to enhance the integrity and controllability of trust evaluation, the double-layer blockchain architecture is established. In the first layer, the behavior data of the node is recorded, and then the trust calculation is performed in the second layer. In the evaluation model, nodes' trust is calculated from three aspects: direct trust, indirect trust and historical trust. Firstly, from the perspective of security, blockchain is used to achieve identity authentication of nodes, after that, from the perspective of reliability, the forwarding status is used to calculate the trust value. Secondly, consensus algorithm is used to filter malicious recommendation trust value and prevent colluding attacks. Finally, the adaptive historical trust weight is designed to prevent the periodic attack. In this paper, the entropy method is used to determine the weight of each evaluation attribute, which can avoid the problem that the subjective judgment method is not adaptable to the weight setting. Simulation results show that the detection rate of the TrustBlock is up to 98.89%, which means this model can effectively identify the abnormal nodes in SDN. Moreover, it is attractive in terms of integrity and controllability.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Algoritmos , Blockchain , Modelos Teóricos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Software
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119687

RESUMO

Wildlife monitoring using passive telemetry has become a robust method for investigating animal migration. With increased use, this method progressively pollutes the environment with technological waste represented by so called ghost tags (PIT tags ending in the environment due to reproductive expulsions, shedding or animal mortality). However, their presence in the environment may lead to failed detections of living individuals. We used tagging data from studies of the asp Leuciscus aspius and the bleak Alburnus alburnus collected from 2014 to 2018 and located ghost tag positions on the monitored spawning site using portable backpack reader for their detection. We modelled virtual river-wide flat-bed antennas (widths 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m) representing monitoring effort and estimated the probability of the presence of ghost tags within the antenna field. Of 3724 PIT tags used in the study, we detected on the spawning ground 173 ghost tags originating from long-term monitoring. The ghost tags accumulated in the environment in time, suggesting insufficient degradation rate or shift downstream from the research site. Number of ghost tags present on the spawning ground led to high probability of disabled readings of tagged fish passing through the antenna electro-magnetic field. We demonstrate how accumulated ghost tags may cause detection failures for focal species and incomplete data acquisition. We infer that intensive long-term monitoring using PIT tag technology may encumber future data acquisition or entail additional costs for clean-up.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Cipriniformes/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Animais , Retroalimentação , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0223934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109248

RESUMO

Biomass is an important indicator for monitoring vegetation degradation and productivity. This study tests the applicability of Hyperspectral Remote-Sensing in situ measurements for high-precision estimation aboveground biomass (AGB) on regional scales of Khorchin grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. In order to improve prediction accuracy of AGB which is frequently used as an indicator of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), this paper combined ground measurement with remote sensing inversion to build the spectral model. The ground normalized difference vegetation index (SOC_NDVI) calculated from ground spectral of grassland vegetation which was measured by a portable visible/NIR hyperspectral spectrometer (SOC 710). Meanwhile, the remote normalized difference vegetation index (TM_NDVI) calculated from remote spectral of grassland vegetation which was measured by Thematic Mapper (TM) from Landsat 8 which launched by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). According to regression analysis for the relationship between AGB and SOC_NDVI, SOC_NDVI and TM_NDVI, the evaluation model for aboveground biomass was developed (AGB = 12.523×e3.370×(0.462×TM_NDVI+0.413), standard error = 24.74 g m-2, R2 = 0.636, p < 0.001). The model accuracy verification results show that the correlation between the measured value and the predicted value of biomass was better with low model standard error. The model could make up for the lack of timeliness and comprehensiveness of conventional ground biomass survey, and provide technical support for high-precision large-area productivity estimation and ecological degradation diagnosis of regional scale grassland.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Pradaria , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , China , Ecologia/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espectral/instrumentação
13.
J Fish Biol ; 96(3): 847-852, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003468

RESUMO

Studies have reported poor survival of surgically tagged freshwater fishes in warm African waters. This study aimed to assess the applicability of using radio telemetry (and surgical implantation of tags) for Anguilla spp. Nineteen yellow eels (Anguilla bengalensis, A. marmorata and A. mossambica) were surgically implanted with radio tags between October 2018 and January 2019 in the Thukela River, South Africa. Most eels were alive 6 months after tagging, and recaptured eels displayed advanced or complete healing at the incision site. Therefore, this method appears suitable for African freshwater eels.


Assuntos
Anguilla/cirurgia , Sistemas de Identificação Animal/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Anguilla/classificação , Anguilla/fisiologia , Sistemas de Identificação Animal/instrumentação , Migração Animal , Animais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Rios , África do Sul , Cicatrização/fisiologia
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(4): 104643, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of cardio-embolism in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Insertable cardiac monitors (ICM) make long-term monitoring for AF possible, but limited health care resources make patient selection important. AF is associated with atherosclerosis and markers of this could potentially be used to guide AF monitoring. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred fourteen TIA-patients without AF were thoroughly monitored for AF with ECG, 72-hour Holter monitoring and ICM with a median monitoring time of 2.2 years. Patients with AF (n = 18) were significantly older than patients without AF (age 71.1 versus 64.4 years, P = .008) but were otherwise similar in regards to comorbidities. AF patients had significantly thicker carotid intima-media and also more often presence of carotid plaques than patients without AF, but no difference was found after adjusting for age and sex. No difference in noncontrast cardiac CT calculated coronary artery calcium score was found between the 2 groups. Serum biomarkers did not differ between groups, except for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), where patients with BNP in the upper tertile were more likely to have AF than patients with BNP in the lowest tertile, odds ratio 5.96 (95% confidence interval 1.04-34.07, P = .045). CONCLUSIONS: Carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium score were poor predictors of AF in patients with TIA. Apart from BNP, the examined biomarkers (hs-CRP, MR-proADM, c-TnI, copeptin) had no predictive value, but larger scale studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Fatores de Risco , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(2): 144-150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether frequent premature atrial contractions (PAC) predict atrial fibrillation (AF) in cryptogenic stroke patients, we analyzed the association between frequent PACs in 24-h Holter electrocardiogram recording and AF detected by insertable cardiac monitoring (ICM). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a database of 66 consecutive patients with cryptogenic stroke who received ICM implantation between October 2016 and March 2018 at 5 stroke centers. We included the follow-up data until June 2018 in this analysis. We defined frequent PACs as the upper quartile of the 66 patients. We analyzed the association of frequent PACs with AF detected by ICM. RESULTS: Frequent PACs were defined as >222 PACs per a 24-h period. The proportion of patients with newly detected AF by ICM was higher in patients with frequent PACs than those without (50% [8/16] vs. 22% [11/50], p < 0.05). Frequent PACs were associated with AF detection and time to the first AF after adjustment for CHADS2 score after index stroke, high plasma -B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; >100 pg/mL) or serum -N-terminal pro-BNP levels (>300 pg/mL), and large left atrial diameter (≥45 mm). CONCLUSION: High frequency of PACs in cryptogenic stroke may be a strong predictor of AF detected by ICM.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/complicações , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 79-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305022

RESUMO

Following significant developments in technology, alternative devices have been applied in fieldwork for animal and plant surveys. Thermal-image acquisition cameras installed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used in animal surveys in the wilderness. This article demonstrates an example of how UAVs can be used in high mountainous regions, presenting a case study on the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey with a detection rate of 65.19% for positive individual identification. It also presents a model that can prospectively predict population size for a given animal species, which is based on combined initial work using UAVs and traditional surveys on the ground. A great potential advantage of UAVs is significantly shortening survey procedures, particularly for areas with high mountains and plateaus, such as the Himalayas, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Hengduan Mountains, the Yunnan-Gui Plateau and Qinling Mountains in China, where carrying out a traditional survey is extremely difficult, so that species and population surveys, particularly for critically endangered animals, are largely absent. This lack of data has impacted the management of endangered animals as well as the formulation and amendment of conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Colobinae/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Aeronaves , Animais , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação
17.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225518, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790457

RESUMO

This paper proposes an emergency Traffic Adaptive MAC (eTA-MAC) protocol for WBANs based on Prioritization. The main advantage of the protocol is to provide traffic ranking through a Traffic Class Prioritization-based slotted-Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (TCP-CSMA/CA) scheme. The emergency traffic is handled through Emergency Traffic Class Provisioning-based slotted-CSMA/CA (ETCP-CSMA/CA) scheme. The emergency-based traffic adaptivity is provided through Emergency-based Traffic Adaptive slotted-CSMA/CA (ETA-CSMA/CA) scheme. The TCP-CSMA/CA scheme assigns a distinct, minimized and prioritized backoff period range to each traffic class in every backoff during channel access in Contention Access Period (CAP). The ETCP-CSMA/CA scheme delivers the sporadic emergency traffic that occurs at a single or multiple BMSN(s) instantaneously, with minimum delay and packet loss. It does this while being aware of normal traffic in the CAP. Then, the ETA-CSMA/CA scheme creates a balance between throughput and energy in the sporadic emergency situation with energy preservation of normal traffic BMSNs. The proposed protocol is evaluated using NS-2 simulator. The results indicate that the proposed protocol is better than the existing Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols by 86% decrease in packet delivery delay, 61% increase in throughput, and a 76% decrease in energy consumption.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Humanos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 186(2-3): 337-341, 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846036

RESUMO

Even with the very low probability of events leading to leakage of radioactive particles outside the nuclear facility (<10-4 per reactor per year), R&D of systems that could mitigate the impact of these events cannot be neglected. For such a purpose, the RMS-00x radiation monitoring system could be used, which is a modular system covering the functionality of dose rate measurement, air sampling and radiation map creation without requiring the human personnel to be present at the measurement site. Before this system is used in real conditions, its components must be thoroughly calibrated, based on certified measurement equipment and state-of-art simulation tools. This article deals with the description of the RMS-00x sensor modules and demonstrates their functionality in combination with unmanned aerial vehicle. In addition, demonstration of the use of the developed technology was carried out as part of the regular emergency planning and preparedness of Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovské Bohunice (EBO) nuclear power plant on 26 October 2017.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Centrais Nucleares , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Humanos
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(22)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703380

RESUMO

Rapid detection of illicit opium poppy plants using UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) imagery has become an important means to prevent and combat crimes related to drug cultivation. However, current methods rely on time-consuming visual image interpretation. Here, the You Only Look Once version 3 (YOLOv3) network structure was used to assess the influence that different backbone networks have on the average precision and detection speed of an UAV-derived dataset of poppy imagery, with MobileNetv2 (MN) selected as the most suitable backbone network. A Spatial Pyramid Pooling (SPP) unit was introduced and Generalized Intersection over Union (GIoU) was used to calculate the coordinate loss. The resulting SPP-GIoU-YOLOv3-MN model improved the average precision by 1.62% (from 94.75% to 96.37%) without decreasing speed and achieved an average precision of 96.37%, with a detection speed of 29 FPS using an RTX 2080Ti platform. The sliding window method was used for detection in complete UAV images, which took approximately 2.2 sec/image, approximately 10× faster than visual interpretation. The proposed technique significantly improved the efficiency of poppy detection in UAV images while also maintaining a high detection accuracy. The proposed method is thus suitable for the rapid detection of illicit opium poppy cultivation in residential areas and farmland where UAVs with ordinary visible light cameras can be operated at low altitudes (relative height < 200 m).


Assuntos
Ópio/metabolismo , Papaver/metabolismo , Papaver/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Altitude , Plantas
20.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224932, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710629

RESUMO

A new telemetric system for the electrochemical monitoring of dissolved oxygen is showed. The device, connected with two amperometric sensors, has been successfully applied to the wireless detection of the extracellular oxygen in the central complex of freely-walking Gromphadorhina portentosa. The unit was composed of a potentiostat, a two-channel sensor conditioning circuit, a microprocessor module, and a wireless serial transceiver. The amperometric signals were digitalized and sent to a notebook using a 2.4 GHz transceiver while a serial-to-USB converter was connected to a second transceiver for completing the communication bridge. The software, running on the laptop, allowed to save and graph the oxygen signals. The electronics showed excellent stability and the acquired data was linear in a range comprised between 0 and -165 nA, covering the entire range of oxygen concentrations. A series of experiments were performed to explore the dynamics of dissolved oxygen by exposing the animals to different gases (nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide), to low temperature and anesthetic agents (chloroform and triethylamine). The resulting data are in agreement with previous O2 changes recorded in the brain of awake rats and mice. The proposed system, based on simple and inexpensive components, can constitute a new experimental model for the exploration of central complex neurochemistry and it can also work with oxidizing sensors and amperometric biosensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Baratas/fisiologia , Oxigênio/análise , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofórmio/metabolismo , Baratas/metabolismo , Desenho de Equipamento , Etilaminas/metabolismo , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Software , Caminhada , Tecnologia sem Fio
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