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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20200150, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1115945

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe Covid-19 mobile applications available for download on smartphones. Method: a cross-sectional study with 52 mobile applications on Covid-19, obtained from virtual stores for smartphones with Android and iOS operating systems. Fisher's exact test and Cramér's V were used. Results: of the applications, 45 (86.6%) were developed in 2020, 51 (98.1%) were free, and 49 (94.2%) did not have accessibility for people with disabilities. It was observed that, in 23 countries, 17 (32.7%) applications in English and 14 (26.9%) in Portuguese were created, with a choice of 11 languages, relating to nine subthemes on Covid-19, the majority on "case monitoring" and "symptoms, prevention, and care", with 17 (32.7%) each. There was an association between the target audience and the subtheme of "symptoms, prevention, and care", and between patient monitoring and professional training. Conclusion: Covid-19 mobile applications were available in countries on five continents, in the main languages of communication and free of charge; however, with limited accessibility for people with disabilities.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir aplicaciones móviles sobre Covid-19 disponibles para descargar en teléfonos inteligentes. Método: estudio transversal realizado con 52 aplicaciones móviles sobre Covid-19 obtenidas en las tiendas virtuales para teléfonos inteligentes con sistemas operativos Android e iOS. Se emplearon la Prueba Exacta de Fisher y el coeficiente V de Cramér. Resultados: del total de aplicaciones, 45 (86,6%) fueron desarrolladas en el año 2020, 51 (98,1%) eran gratuitas, y 49 (94,2%) no ofrecían accesibilidad para personas con discapacidades. Se observó que, en 23 países, se diseñaron diversas aplicaciones, 17 (32,7%) en inglés y 14 (26,9%) en portugués, con opción de 11 idiomas, relacionadas con nueve subtemas sobre Covid-19. La mayoría sobre "monitorización de casos" y sobre "síntomas, prevención y cuidados", con 17 (32,7%) aplicaciones en cada subtema. Se registró una asociación entre el público objetivo y el subtema de "síntomas, prevención y cuidados", y también entre la monitorización de pacientes y la capacitación profesional. Conclusión: se registró disponibilidad de aplicaciones móviles sobre Covid-19 en países de los cinco continentes, en los principales idiomas de comunicación, y en forma gratuita; no obstante, con accesibilidad limitada para personas con discapacidades.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever aplicativos móveis sobre Covid-19 disponíveis para download em smartphones. Método: estudo transversal com 52 aplicativos móveis sobre Covid-19, obtidos nas lojas virtuais para smartphones com sistema operacional Android e iOS. Utilizou-se o Teste Exato de Fisher e V de Cramér. Resultados: dos aplicativos, 45 (86,6%) foram desenvolvidos em 2020, 51 (98,1%) eram gratuitos e 49 (94,2%) não possuíam acessibilidade para pessoas com deficiência. Observou-se que foram criados, em 23 países - 17 (32,7%) em inglês e 14 (26,9%) em português, com opção de 11 idiomas, aplicativos referentes a nove subtemas sobre a Covid-19, a maioria sobre "monitoramento de casos" e "sintomas, prevenção e cuidados", com 17 (32,7%) cada. Ocorreu associação entre o público-alvo e o subtema "sintomas prevenção e cuidados", e entre monitoramento de pacientes e capacitação profissional. Conclusão: os aplicativos móveis sobre Covid-19 encontravam-se disponíveis em países dos cinco continentes, nos principais idiomas de comunicação, de forma gratuita, entretanto, com escassa acessibilidade para pessoas com deficiência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tecnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Educação em Saúde
3.
Soins ; 65(846): 35-39, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012417

RESUMO

Digital technology is now an integral part of health training, offering many possibilities to diversify teaching methods. The apprenticeship has changed in a few years. Its challenges, means and methods are evolving and adapting to objectives which remain the same: to train autonomous, reflective and adaptable caregivers to give excellent quality care.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Tecnologia , Humanos
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3927-3930, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018859

RESUMO

As the world's older population grows dramatically, the needs of continuing care retirement communities increases. Studies show that privacy can be a major concern for adopting technologies, while the older population prefers smart homes [1]. In order to minimize the number of sensors to be installed in each house, we performed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to filter out the relatively unimportant sensors. We applied a machine learning model to classify residents' activity types, using a different set of sensors chosen by PCA. Then, we validated the trade-off between the classification model accuracy and the number of sensors used in classification. Our experiment shows that feature engineering helps reduce accuracy degradation for activity type classification when using fewer sensors in smart homes.


Assuntos
Privacidade , Tecnologia , Engenharia
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 992-997, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018152

RESUMO

Technology is rapidly changing the health care industry. As new systems and devices are developed, validating their effectiveness in practice is not trivial, yet it is essential for assessing their technical and clinical capabilities. Digital auscultations are new technologies that are changing the landscape of diagnosis of lung and heart sounds and revamping the centuries old original design of the stethoscope. Here, we propose a methodology to validate a newly developed digital stethoscope, and compare its effectiveness against a market-accepted device, using a combination of signal properties and clinical assessments. Data from 100 pediatric patients is collected using both devices side by side in two clinical sites. Using the proposed methodology, we objectively compare the technical performance of the two devices, and identify clinical situations where performance of the two devices differs. The proposed methodology offers a general approach to verify a new digital auscultation device as clinically-viable; while highlighting the important consideration for clinical conditions in performing these evaluations.


Assuntos
Ruídos Cardíacos , Estetoscópios , Auscultação , Criança , Humanos , Pulmão , Tecnologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866216

RESUMO

Validation of heart rate responses in wearable technology devices is generally composed of laboratory-based protocols that are steady state in nature and as a result, high accuracy measures are returned. However, there is a need to understand device validity in applied settings that include varied intensities of exercise. The purpose was to determine concurrent heart rate validity during trail running. Twenty-one healthy participants volunteered (female n = 10, [mean (SD)]: age = 31 [11] years, height = 173.0 [7] cm, mass = 75.6 [13] kg). Participants were outfitted with wearable technology devices (Garmin Fenix 5 wristwatch, Jabra Elite Sport earbuds, Motiv ring, Scosche Rhythm+ forearm band, Suunto Spartan Sport watch with accompanying chest strap) and completed a self-paced 3.22 km trail run while concurrently wearing a criterion heart rate strap (Polar H7 heart rate monitor). The trail runs were out-and-back with the first 1.61 km in an uphill direction, and the 1.61 return being downhill in nature. Validity was determined through three methods: Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE), Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement (LOA), and Lin's Concordance Coefficient (rC). Validity measures overall are as follows: Garmin Fenix 5 (MAPE = 13%, LOA = -32 to 162, rC = 0.32), Jabra Elite Sport (MAPE = 23%, LOA = -464 to 503, rC = 0.38), Motiv ring (MAPE = 16%, LOA = -52 to 96, rC = 0.29), Scosche Rhythm+ (MAPE = 6%, LOA = -114 to 120, rC = 0.79), Suunto Spartan Sport (MAPE = 2%, LOA = -62 to 61, rC = 0.96). All photoplethysmography-based (PPG) devices displayed poor heart rate agreement during variable intensity trail running. Until technological advances occur in PPG-based devices allowing for acceptable agreement, heart rate in outdoor environments should be obtained using an ECG-based chest strap that can be connected to a wristwatch or other comparable receiver.


Assuntos
Determinação da Frequência Cardíaca/instrumentação , Determinação da Frequência Cardíaca/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Tecnologia/instrumentação , Tecnologia/métodos , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/instrumentação , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Fotopletismografia/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
7.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es8, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870083

RESUMO

Cognitive neuroscience research is typically conducted in controlled laboratory environments that hold very little resemblance to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms. Fortunately, recent advances in portable electroencephalography technology now allow researchers to collect brain data from groups of students in real-world classrooms. Even though this line of research is still new, there is growing evidence that students' engagement, memory retention, and social dynamics are reflected in the brain-to-brain synchrony between students and teachers (i.e., the similarity in their brain responses). In this Essay, I will provide an overview of this emerging line of research, discuss how this approach can facilitate new collaborations between neuroscientists and discipline-based education researchers, and propose directions for future research.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação , Universidades , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudantes/psicologia
8.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 7(4): 294-298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920634

RESUMO

Individuals experiencing brain aging, cognitive decline, and dementia are currently confronted with several more complex challenges due to the current Sars-Cov-2 pandemic as compared to younger and cognitively healthy people. During the first six months of the pandemic, we are experiencing critical issues related to the management of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The evolving, highly contagious global viral spread has created a pressure test of unprecedented proportions for the existing brain health care infrastructure and related services for management, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Social distancing and lock-down measures are catalyzing and accelerating a technological paradigm shift, away from a traditional model of brain healthcare focused on late symptomatic disease stages and towards optimized preventive strategies to slow brain aging and increase resilience at preclinical asymptomatic stages. Digital technologies transform global healthcare for accessible equality of opportunities in order to generate better outcomes for brain aging aligned with the paradigm of preventive medicine.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Tecnologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936827

RESUMO

The present study tests predictions from the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influences (TIMSI) concerning processes linking social interactions to social integration into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) communities and careers. Students from historically overrepresented groups in STEM were followed from their senior year of high school through their senior year in college. Based on TIMSI, we hypothesized that interactions with social influence agents (operationalized as mentor network diversity, faculty mentor support, and research experiences) would promote both short- and long-term integration into STEM via social influence processes (operationalized as science self-efficacy, identity, and internalized community values). Moreover, we examined the previously untested hypothesis of reciprocal influences from early levels of social integration in STEM to future engagement with social influence agents. Results of a series of longitudinal structural equation model-based mediation analyses indicate that, in the short term, higher levels of faculty mentorship support and research engagement, and to a lesser degree more diverse mentor networks in college promote deeper integration into the STEM community through the development of science identity and science community values. Moreover, results indicate that, in the long term, earlier high levels of integration in STEM indirectly influences research engagement through the development of higher science identity. These results extend our understanding of the TIMSI framework and advance our understanding of the reciprocal nature of social influences that draw students into STEM careers.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Modelos Estatísticos , Ciência/educação , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Tecnologia/educação , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mentores , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 39(143): 5-11, sept. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120609

RESUMO

La Inteligencia Artificial (IA), si bien ha generado gran interés en los últimos cinco años en el campo de la Medicina, no podemos aseverar que se trate de un concepto nuevo, ya que, desde la década del 1940 se publican artículos sobre la materia. La primera vez que tuve ocasión de tomar conocimiento sobre el gran potencial que residía en una computadora fue en mayo de 1997, cuando me encontraba cursando el segundo año de la residencia en Ginecología. Fue una sorpresa leer en el periódico que la máquina llamada "Deep Blue", desarrollada por IBM (International Business Machines), había ganado una competencia virtual de ajedrez al entonces campeón mundial de ajedrez, Garry Kasparov


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Inteligência Artificial , Tecnologia , Mama , Diagnóstico
11.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111004, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778289

RESUMO

To provide access to sustainable sanitation for the entire world population, novel technologies and systems have been developed. These options are often independent of sewers, water, and energy and therefore promise to be more appropriate for fast-growing urban areas. They also allow for resource recovery and and are adaptable to changing environmental and demographic conditions what makes them more sustainable. More options, however, also enhance planning complexity. Structured decision making (SDM) can help balance opposing interests. Yet, most of the current research focuses on the selection of a preferred option, assuming that a set of appropriate options is available. There is a lack of reproducible methods for the identification of sanitation system planning options that can consider the growing number of available technology and the many possible system configurations. Additionally, there is a lack of data, particularly for novel options, to evaluate the various sustainability criteria for sanitation.To overcome this limitation, we present a novel software supported approach: the SANitation sysTem Alternative GeneratOr (Santiago). To be optimally effective, Santiago is required to be integrated into an SDM approach. In this paper, we present all the elements that such an integration requires and illustrate these methods at the case of Arba Minch, a fast growing town in Ethiopia. Based on this example and experiences from other cases, we discuss the lessons learnt and present the advantages potentially brought by Santiago for sanitation planning The integration requires four elements: a set of technologies to be looked at, decision objectives for sustainable sanitation, screening criteria to evalute technology appropriateness, and about the technologies and the casea. The main output is a set of sanitation system options that is locally appropriate, diverse in order to reveal trade-offs, and of a manageable size. To support the definition of decision objectives, we developed a generic objective hierarchy for sustainable sanitation. Because one of the main challenges lies in the quantification of screening criteria, we established the data for 27 criteria and 41 technologies in a library.The case studies showed, that if the integration is successful, then Santiago can provide substantial benefits: (i) it is systematic and reproducible; (ii) it opens up the decision space with novel and potentially more appropriate solutions; (iii) it makes international data accessible for more empirical decision making; (iv) it enables decisions based on strategic objectives in line with the sustainable development goals; (v) it allows to prioritise appropriate and resource efficient systems right from the beginning (vi) and it contributes to a more citywide inclusive approach by birding strategic objectives with an area-based appropriateness assessment. The here presented approach enables the prioritisation of appropriate and resource efficient sanitation technologies and systems in strategic planning. Thereby this approach contributes to SDG 6.2, 6.3, and 11, sustainable sanitation for all.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Tecnologia , Cidades , Etiópia
12.
Wiad Lek ; 73(7): 1499-1504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: of the work was to develop and apply in the clinical trial a software product for the dental caries prediction based on neural network programming. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Dental examination of 73 persons aged 6-7, 12-15 and 35-44 years was carried out. The data obtained during the survey were used as input for the construction and training of the neural network. The output index was determined by the increase in the intensity of caries, taking into account the number of cavities. To build a neural network, a high-level Python programming language with the NumPay extension was used. RESULTS: Results: The intensity of carious dental lesions was the highest in 35-44 years old patients - 6.69 ± 0.38, in 6-7 years old children and 12-15 years old children it was 3.85 ± 0.27 and 2.15 ± 0.24, respectively (p <0.05). After constructing and training the neural network, 61 true and 12 false predictions were obtained based on these indices, the accuracy of predicting the occurrence of caries was 83.56%. Based on these results, a graphical user interface for the "CariesPro" software application was created. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The resulting neural network and the software product based on it permit to predict the development of dental caries in persons of all ages with a probability of 83.56%.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tecnologia
15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(9): 581-587, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833511

RESUMO

The past 10 years have seen the development and maturation of several digital technologies that can have a critical role to enhancement of happiness and psychological well-being. In particular, the past decade has seen the emergence of a new paradigm: "Positive Technology," the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience. In this article we discussed the potential of Positive Technology to augment and enhance the existing strategies for generating psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular different positive technologies-m-Health and smartphone apps, stand-alone and social virtual reality, video games, exergames, and social technologies-have the potential of enhancing different critical features of our personal experience-affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness-that are challenged by the pandemic and its social and economic effects. In conclusion, although the focus of tackling the direct impact of COVID-19 is important, positive technologies can be extremely useful to reduce the psychological burden of the pandemic and to help individuals in flourishing even during difficult and complex times.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Mental , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Felicidade , Humanos , Mídias Sociais , Tecnologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Realidade Virtual
16.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 694-700, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856810

RESUMO

The article substantiates the relevance of the study of the essence, tools and mechanisms of digital transformation of the health sector. A comparative assessment of the current health care system in the cities of the world is presented, trends in the use of end-to-end technologies for improving the health care system in Russia are revealed. The development of the health sector in modern conditions is based on the introduction of new information and communication technologies, for the proactive use of which, it is necessary to increase the digital skills and awareness of health workers and the population. The national projects of the Russian Federation «Health care¼ and «Digital economy¼ speak about the need to implement design solutions for the formation of competence models of personnel in the conditions of global digitalization. The formation of the digital contour of the health sector should be based on a clear understanding of the competence profile, its inclusion in the innovative health care system and the preservation of human capital. The use of competence approach to the digital transformation of healthcare contributes to improving the adaptability of the existing system of health organization to the new technological order provides the possibility of introducing cross-cutting technologies in the processes of decision-making to improve the accessibility and quality of care.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Federação Russa , Tecnologia
17.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 758-761, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856821

RESUMO

The current state of demand for medical information in the media has a high practical significance for the mass audience. Medicine is a science-intensive, rapidly developing field. In this regard, it is necessary to systematically inform the public about the achievements of medicine - in science, technology and industry, explaining the essence and possible consequences of a scientific discovery, popularizing methods of treatment of a particular disease, introducing society to innovative technological processes in the medical field, achievements and developments of the medical and pharmaceutical industry. The paper reviews the experience of media coverage of medical issues in the aspect of familiarity with innovations and technologies in the context of historical development both in our country and abroad. It also describes the presentation of medical topics in modern media - in periodicals, on radio, on television - in popular science programs or TV movies, in electronic sources. In addition, the article analyzes the genre diversity of the presentation of medical topics. The paper provides information about the media coverage of the main directions of the national project "Health" and its innovative directions.


Assuntos
Tecnologia , Federação Russa
19.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 110953, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795813

RESUMO

The continuously increasing carbon emissions have become a significant hurdle for global sustainable development. Technological progress is considered essential for controlling carbon emissions. However, previous literature has analyzed technological progress as a whole, largely ignoring its spatial spillovers. Therefore, our understanding of how technological progress influences carbon emissions is still limited. To fill this gap, we conduct an in-depth analysis of the effect of technological progress regarding carbon emissions by introducing a new framework that combines the slacks-based measure of the Malmquist-Luenberger index and the spatial dynamic model. Employing a Chinese provincial panel dataset for 2000-2016 as a case study, the conventional analysis indicates that both technological progress and its components have not played a significant role in decreasing carbon emissions. A further analysis using the spatial dynamic model suggests that the technological progress of neighbouring regions plays a significant role in reducing carbon emissions. Moreover, the effect of efficiency change is stronger than that of technical change, which provides new evidence on how technological progress influences carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Tecnologia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Eficiência
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756558

RESUMO

New World archaeologists have amply demonstrated that fluted point technology is specific to Terminal Pleistocene American cultures. Base-fluted, and rarer tip-fluted, projectile points from the Americas have been well-documented by archaeologists for nearly a century. Fluting is an iconic stone tool manufacturing method and a specific action that involves the extraction of a channel flake along the longitudinal axis of a bifacial piece. Here we report and synthesize information from Neolithic sites in southern Arabia, demonstrating the presence of fluting on a variety of stone tool types including projectile points. Fluted projectile points are known from both surface sites and stratified contexts in southern Arabia. Fluting technology has been clearly identified at the Manayzah site (Yemen) dating to 8000-7700 cal. BP. Examination of fluted points and channel flakes from southern Arabia enable a reconstruction of stone tool manufacturing techniques and reduction sequences (chaines opératoires). To illustrate the technological similarities and contrasts of fluting methods in Arabia and the Americas, comparative studies and experiments were conducted. Similarities in manufacturing approaches were observed on the fluting scars of bifacial pieces, whereas technological differences are apparent in the nature and localization of the flute and, most probably, the functional objective of fluting in economic, social and cultural contexts. Arabian and American fluted point technologies provide an excellent example of convergence of highly specialized stone tool production methods. Our description of Arabian and American fluting technology demonstrates that similar innovations and inventions were developed under different circumstances, and that highly-skilled and convergent production methods can have different anthropological implications.


Assuntos
Tecnologia/história , América , Arábia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Invenções/história , Indústria Manufatureira/história , Iêmen
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