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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 43-54, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184865

RESUMO

En este trabajo se plantean algunas reflexiones respecto de la edición genética y su impacto en la responsabilidad. Me centraré en la investigación y en las prácticas que se realizan en línea germinal, ya que son las que más preocupan a nuestra sociedad. Aunque estas tecnologías no generan problemas realmente novedosos, cuestionan el alcance de nuestra noción tradicional de responsabilidad y nos plantean nuevos desafíos respecto de cómo afrontarlas. Podemos pensar la responsabilidad de manera individual, en tanto progenitores, a la hora de decidir respecto de nuestra descendencia. Pero también se puede plantear una responsabilidad colectiva: por ejemplo, en tanto científicos a la hora de regular la ciencia, o en tanto sociedad. En este último sentido pareciera que deberíamos considerar cómo estas tecnologías puedan afectar el sistema público de acceso al cuidado de la salud así como también tener en cuenta si determinados grupos de pacientes corren el riesgo de ser postergados sin olvidar cuál pueda ser el impacto en las futuras generaciones


En aquest treball es plantegen algunes reflexions respecte de l'edició genètica i el seu impacte en la responsabilitat. Em centraré en la recerca i en les pràctiques que es realitzen en la línia germinal, ja que són les que més preocupen la nostra societat. Encara que aquestes tecnologies no generen problemes realment nous, qüestionen l'abast de la nostra noció tradicional de responsabilitat i ens plantegen nous desafiaments respecte de com afrontar-les. Podem pensar la responsabilitat de manera individual, en tant progenitors, a l'hora de decidir respecte de la nostra descendència. Però també es pot plantejar una responsabilitat col•lectiva: per exemple, en tant que científics a l'hora de regular la ciència, o en tant que societat. En aquest últim sentit hauríem de considerar com aquestes tecnologies poden afectar el sistema públic d'accés a la salut així com també tenir en compte si determinats grups de pacients corren el risc de ser postergats sense oblidar quin pugui ser l'impacte en les futures generacions


In this article I would like to examine gene editing and its impact on responsibility. I will focus on germ line’ research and practice. Though these technologies do not raise novel issues, they make us re-think the scope of traditional responsibility. I will examine responsibility from an individual perspective: for example our role as parents and the impact of our decisions on our descendants. I will also examine responsibility from a collective perspective: scientists should examine how to regulate these technologies. In addition, as a society we should address how these technologies may affect public access to health care, or if groups of patients might be overlooked. We should also think the impact gene editing may have on future generations


Assuntos
Humanos , Edição de Genes/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Células Germinativas , Sistemas de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 35, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Event-based social media monitoring and pathogen whole genome sequencing (WGS) will enhance communicable disease surveillance research and systems. If linked electronically and scanned systematically, the information provided by these technologies could be mined to uncover new epidemiological patterns and associations much faster than traditional public health approaches. The benefits of earlier outbreak detection are significant, but implementation could be opposed in the absence of a social licence or if ethical and legal concerns are not addressed. METHODS: A three-phase mixed-method Delphi survey with Australian policy-makers, health practitioners and lawyers (n = 44) was conducted to explore areas of consensus and disagreement over (1) key policy and practical issues raised by the introduction of novel communicable disease surveillance programmes; and (2) the most significant and likely risks from using social media content and WGS technologies in epidemiological research and outbreak investigations. RESULTS: Panellists agreed that the integration of social media monitoring and WGS technologies into communicable disease surveillance systems raised significant issues, including impacts on personal privacy, medicolegal risks and the potential for unintended consequences. Notably, their concerns focused on how these technologies should be used, rather than how the data was collected. Panellists held that social media users should expect their posts to be monitored in the interests of public health, but using those platforms to contact identified individuals was controversial. The conditions of appropriate use of pathogen WGS in epidemiological research and investigations was also contentious. Key differences amongst participants included the necessity for consent before testing and data-linkage, thresholds for action, and the legal and ethical importance of harms to individuals and commercial entities. The erosion of public trust was seen as the most significant risk from the systematic use of these technologies. CONCLUSIONS: Enhancing communicable disease surveillance with social-media monitoring and pathogen WGS may cause controversy. The challenge is to determine and then codify how these technologies should be used such that the balance between individual risk and community benefit is widely accepted. Participants agreed that clear guidelines for appropriate use that address legal and ethical concerns need to be developed in consultation with relevant experts and the broader Australian public.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Atitude , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Mineração de Dados , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Vigilância da População/métodos , Tecnologia , Austrália , Mineração de Dados/ética , Mineração de Dados/legislação & jurisprudência , Surtos de Doenças , Ética em Pesquisa , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Controle Social Formal , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tecnologia/ética , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Confiança , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
OMICS ; 22(1): 65-76, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293405

RESUMO

Driverless cars with artificial intelligence (AI) and automated supermarkets run by collaborative robots (cobots) working without human supervision have sparked off new debates: what will be the impacts of extreme automation, turbocharged by the Internet of Things (IoT), AI, and the Industry 4.0, on Big Data and omics implementation science? The IoT builds on (1) broadband wireless internet connectivity, (2) miniaturized sensors embedded in animate and inanimate objects ranging from the house cat to the milk carton in your smart fridge, and (3) AI and cobots making sense of Big Data collected by sensors. Industry 4.0 is a high-tech strategy for manufacturing automation that employs the IoT, thus creating the Smart Factory. Extreme automation until "everything is connected to everything else" poses, however, vulnerabilities that have been little considered to date. First, highly integrated systems are vulnerable to systemic risks such as total network collapse in the event of failure of one of its parts, for example, by hacking or Internet viruses that can fully invade integrated systems. Second, extreme connectivity creates new social and political power structures. If left unchecked, they might lead to authoritarian governance by one person in total control of network power, directly or through her/his connected surrogates. We propose Industry 5.0 that can democratize knowledge coproduction from Big Data, building on the new concept of symmetrical innovation. Industry 5.0 utilizes IoT, but differs from predecessor automation systems by having three-dimensional (3D) symmetry in innovation ecosystem design: (1) a built-in safe exit strategy in case of demise of hyperconnected entrenched digital knowledge networks. Importantly, such safe exists are orthogonal-in that they allow "digital detox" by employing pathways unrelated/unaffected by automated networks, for example, electronic patient records versus material/article trails on vital medical information; (2) equal emphasis on both acceleration and deceleration of innovation if diminishing returns become apparent; and (3) next generation social science and humanities (SSH) research for global governance of emerging technologies: "Post-ELSI Technology Evaluation Research" (PETER). Importantly, PETER considers the technology opportunity costs, ethics, ethics-of-ethics, framings (epistemology), independence, and reflexivity of SSH research in technology policymaking. Industry 5.0 is poised to harness extreme automation and Big Data with safety, innovative technology policy, and responsible implementation science, enabled by 3D symmetry in innovation ecosystem design.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Big Data , Internet , Tecnologia , Humanos , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Tecnologia/métodos , Tecnologia/tendências
5.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 24(5): 1537-1550, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942536

RESUMO

This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. Finally, there are other moral and social risks associated with the way VR blurs the distinction between the real and illusory. These concerns regarding VR naturally raise questions about public policy. The article makes several recommendations for legal regulations of VR that together address each of the above concerns. It is argued that these regulations would not seriously threaten personal liberty but rather would protect and enhance the autonomy of VR consumers.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Política Pública , Controle Social Formal , Tecnologia/ética , Realidade Virtual , Cultura , Despersonalização , Emoções , Liberdade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Ilusões , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Princípios Morais , Autonomia Pessoal , Privacidade , Risco , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Soc Stud Sci ; 47(2): 240-262, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28406390

RESUMO

This article discusses the co-production of search technology and a European identity in the context of the EU data protection reform. The negotiations of the EU data protection legislation ran from 2012 until 2015 and resulted in a unified data protection legislation directly binding for all European member states. I employ a discourse analysis to examine EU policy documents and Austrian media materials related to the reform process. Using the concept 'sociotechnical imaginary', I show how a European imaginary of search engines is forming in the EU policy domain, how a European identity is constructed in the envisioned politics of control, and how national specificities contribute to the making and unmaking of a European identity. I discuss the roles that national technopolitical identities play in shaping both search technology and Europe, taking as an example Austria, a small country with a long history in data protection and a tradition of restrained technology politics.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Ferramenta de Busca , Áustria , Europa (Continente) , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
Ambio ; 45 Suppl 1: S32-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26667058

RESUMO

Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Tecnologia/métodos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/legislação & jurisprudência , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência
11.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129911, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26098313

RESUMO

This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.


Assuntos
Patentes como Assunto , Corporações Profissionais , Tecnologia/instrumentação , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Nature ; 521(7553): 460-6, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017445

RESUMO

We are witnessing the advent of a new era of robots - drones - that can autonomously fly in natural and man-made environments. These robots, often associated with defence applications, could have a major impact on civilian tasks, including transportation, communication, agriculture, disaster mitigation and environment preservation. Autonomous flight in confined spaces presents great scientific and technical challenges owing to the energetic cost of staying airborne and to the perceptual intelligence required to negotiate complex environments. We identify scientific and technological advances that are expected to translate, within appropriate regulatory frameworks, into pervasive use of autonomous drones for civilian applications.


Assuntos
Biomimética/instrumentação , Robótica/instrumentação , Tecnologia , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Voo Animal , Indústria Manufatureira , Robótica/tendências , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 21(6): 1393-412, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25371277

RESUMO

Remotely piloted aviation systems (RPAS) or 'drones' are well known for their military applications, but could also be used for a range of non-military applications for state, industrial, commercial and recreational purposes. The technology is advanced and regulatory changes are underway which will allow their use in domestic airspace. As well as the functional and economic benefits of a strong civil RPAS sector, the potential benefits for the military RPAS sector are also widely recognised. Several actors have nurtured this dual-use aspect of civil RPAS development. However, concerns have been raised about the public rejecting the technology because of their association with military applications and potentially controversial applications, for example in policing and border control. In contrast with the enthusiasm for dual-use exhibited throughout the EC consultation process, the strategy for avoiding public rejection devised in its roadmap would downplay the connection between military and non-military RPAS and focus upon less controversial applications such as search and rescue. We reflect upon this contrast in the context of the European agenda of responsible research and innovation. In doing so, we do not rely upon critique of drones per se, in their neither their civil nor military guise, but explore the extent to which current strategies for managing their public acceptability are compatible with a responsible and socially beneficial development of RPAS for civil purposes.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Pesquisa de Uso Dual/ética , Militares , Opinião Pública , Robótica , Responsabilidade Social , Tecnologia/ética , Atitude , Direitos Civis , Dissidências e Disputas , Pesquisa de Uso Dual/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Maquiavelismo , Marketing , Ciência Militar , Pilotos , Trabalho de Resgate/métodos , Robótica/ética , Robótica/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Social Formal , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Armas
15.
Int J Clin Pract ; 68(8): 936-40, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25074335

RESUMO

Patients, clinicians, payers and policy makers face substantial uncertainties in their respective healthcare decisions as they attempt to achieve maximum value, or the greatest level of benefit possible at a given cost. Uncertainties largely come from incomplete information at the time that decisions must be made. This is true in all areas of medicine because evidence from clinical trials is often incongruent with real-world patient care. This article highlights key uncertainties around the (comparative) benefits and harms of medical technologies. Initiatives and strategies such as comparative effectiveness research and coverage with evidence development may help to generate reliable and relevant evidence for decisions on coverage and treatment. These efforts could result in better decisions that improve patient outcomes and better use of scarce medical resources.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Tecnologia/normas , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade/organização & administração , Aprovação de Equipamentos , Humanos , Tecnologia/economia , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Incerteza
16.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e98009, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24914959

RESUMO

The volatility and uncertainty in the process of technological developments are growing faster than ever due to rapid technological innovations. Such phenomena result in integration among disparate technology fields. At this point, it is a critical research issue to understand the different roles and the propensity of each element technology for technological convergence. In particular, the network-based approach provides a holistic view in terms of technological linkage structures. Furthermore, the development of new indicators based on network visualization can reveal the dynamic patterns among disparate technologies in the process of technological convergence and provide insights for future technological developments. This research attempts to analyze and discover the patterns of the international patent classification codes of the United States Patent and Trademark Office's patent data in printed electronics, which is a representative technology in the technological convergence process. To this end, we apply the physical idea as a new methodological approach to interpret technological convergence. More specifically, the concepts of entropy and gravity are applied to measure the activities among patent citations and the binding forces among heterogeneous technologies during technological convergence. By applying the entropy and gravity indexes, we could distinguish the characteristic role of each technology in printed electronics. At the technological convergence stage, each technology exhibits idiosyncratic dynamics which tend to decrease technological differences and heterogeneity. Furthermore, through nonlinear regression analysis, we have found the decreasing patterns of disparity over a given total period in the evolution of technological convergence. This research has discovered the specific role of each element technology field and has consequently identified the co-evolutionary patterns of technological convergence. These new findings on the evolutionary patterns of technological convergence provide some implications for engineering and technology foresight research, as well as for corporate strategy and technology policy.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Patentes como Assunto , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência
18.
J Health Econ ; 36: 33-46, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24732386

RESUMO

Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Bebedeira/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos de Coortes , Comércio/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/tendências , Eletrônica/economia , Eletrônica/legislação & jurisprudência , Eletrônica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Tecnologia/economia , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Tecnologia/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 20(3): 791-807, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24519533

RESUMO

Dogs are known for their incredible ability to detect odours, extracting them from a "complex" environment and recognising them. This makes sniffer dogs precious assets in a broad variety of security applications. However, their use is subject to some intrinsic restrictions. Dogs can only be trained to a limited set of applications, get tired after a relatively short period, and thus require a high turnover. This has sparked a drive over the past decade to develop artificial sniffer devices-generally known as "chemical sniffers" or "electronic noses"-able to complement and possibly replace dogs for some security applications. Such devices have been already deployed, or are intended to be deployed, at borders, airports and other critical installation security checkpoints. Similarly to dogs, they are adopted for detecting residual traces that indicate either the presence of, or recent contact with, substances like drugs and explosives. It goes without saying that, as with sniffer dogs, the use of artificial sniffer devices raises many sensitive issues. Adopting an ethical and legal perspective, the present paper discusses the privacy and data protection implications of the possible deployment of a hand-held body scanning sniffer for screening passengers at EU airport security checkpoints.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Crime , Cães , Nariz Eletrônico , Privacidade , Tecnologia , Animais , União Europeia , Substâncias Explosivas , Humanos , Tecnologia/ética , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 20(3): 769-90, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24497004

RESUMO

This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. In addition, recent developments such as the extension of dual-use export control legislation in the area of human rights protection are also identified and reviewed. The discussion of dual-use concepts is hereby undertaken in the context of human- and/or national-security-based approaches to security. This paper discusses four main concepts of dual use as applied today in international and national law: civilian versus military, peaceful versus non-peaceful, legitimate versus illegitimate and benevolent versus malevolent. In addition, the usage of the term to describe positive technology spin-offs between civilian and military applications is also briefly addressed. Attention is also given to the roles civil society and research ethics may play in the governance of dual-use sciences and technologies.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/ética , Princípio do Duplo Efeito , Cooperação Internacional , Pesquisa , Ciência/ética , Tecnologia/ética , Armas , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos , Ciência/legislação & jurisprudência , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Terrorismo , Nações Unidas , Guerra
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