Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.991
Filtrar
1.
Quintessence Int ; 51(6): 486-494, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Distraction is a highly acceptable technique for diverting a patient's attention from what may be perceived as an unpleasant procedure, reducing anxiety and helping the patient relax. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of watching television during dental treatment on pediatric patients' anxiety and cooperation compared to the commonly used conventional Tell-Show-Do (TSD) behavioral management method. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Sixty-nine children (mean age 6.8 years) scheduled to undergo restorative dental treatment were randomly divided into two intervention groups: a group that was managed by television distraction and a control group that was managed by TSD. During treatment, anxiety was assessed by the Facial Image Scale and cooperative behavior was assessed by the Frankl scale. Pulse rate and oxygen saturation were also measured during the treatment. RESULTS: Compared to TSD, television distraction significantly reduced anxiety by 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.798 to 1.744, adjusted P < .001), decreased pulse rate by 6.44 beats per minute (bpm) (95% CI 4.60 to 8.28, adjusted P < .001), and significantly increased cooperation by 1.17 (95% CI -1.318 to -1.020, adjusted P < .001). A greater effect of television distraction on reduced anxiety and increased cooperation was observed during administration of the anesthetic injection. No effect of television distraction on saturation levels was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Television distraction is an effective method for reducing anxiety and improving cooperative behavior in children during dental treatments.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Assistência Odontológica , Criança , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Injeções , Televisão
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200008, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sedentary behavior has been associated with several health indicators. This study aims to describe this outcome in elderly people living in rural areas. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elderly people from the rural area in the city of Rio Grande/RS, in 2017. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was evaluated by eight aspects: watching television/videos/DVDs, using computer/internet, reading, socializing with friends and/or family, driving or riding a car/bike/taking public transport, practicing a hobby, working, and other activities. The analysis was composed by the description of aspects and multivariable (linear regression) analysis to test associations between the outcome and socioeconomic, demographic and physical activity characteristics. Association of the excess of sedentary behavior and time watching television within the independent variables was also verified. RESULTS: The mean of sedentary behavior was 274.9 minutes/day (n = 1,030), but watching television represented almost half (130.5 minutes/ day). Age was inversely associated with sedentary behavior, while income and schooling presented a direct relation. Income had a positive association with excessive sedentary behavior and time watching television. CONCLUSION: The mean sedentary behavior was lower when compared with the literature for the elderly. We suggest that actions to encourage healthy habits aim especially at reducing the time spent watching television.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027670

RESUMO

Although watching TV often involves multiple viewing distances and viewers, less attention has been paid to the effects of display curvature radius, viewing distance, and lateral viewing position on TV watching experience. This study examined the effects of four display curvature radii (2300R, 4000R, 6000R, and flat), two viewing distances (2.3 m and 4 m), and five lateral viewing positions (P1-P5; 0, 35, 70, 105, and 140 cm off-center) on seven TV watching experience elements (spatial presence, engagement, ecological validity, negative effects, visual comfort, image quality, and user satisfaction). Fifty-six individuals (14 per display curvature radius) were seated in pairs to watch videos, each time at a different viewing position (2 viewing distances × 5 paired lateral viewing positions). The spatial presence and engagement increased when display curvature radius approached a viewing distance and lateral viewing position approached P1, with 4000R-4m-P1 (display curvature radius-viewing distance-lateral viewing position) providing the best results. Lateral viewing position alone significantly affected five TV watching experience elements; the spatial presence and engagement decreased at P3-P5, and ecological validity, image quality, and user satisfaction decreased at P4-P5. However, display curvature radius alone did not appreciably affect TV watching experience, and viewing distance alone significantly affected visual comfort only, with a 4-m viewing distance increasing visual comfort. This study demonstrated that effective display curvature radii for watching TV are viewing distance-dependent, and less off-center lateral viewing positions (P1-P2) are recommended for TV watching experience. Finally, among the TV watching experience elements, engagement explained user satisfaction to the greatest degree.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Aumento da Imagem/instrumentação , Televisão , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Apresentação de Dados , Ergonomia/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity, particularly among women, is increasing in Nepal. Previous studies in the South Asia have found television watching to be a risk factor for overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. However, this association had not been studied in the context of Nepal. This study aims to identify the association between frequency of television watching and overweight and obesity among Nepalese women of reproductive age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016 (NDHS 2016) data. A total weighted sample of 6,031 women were included in the final analyses. The women were 15-49 years of age and were either not pregnant or had not delivered a child within the two months prior to the survey. Body mass index (BMI) was the primary outcome of this study, which was categorized using an Asia-specific cutoff value. Normal and/or underweight was defined as a BMI <23.0 kg/m2, overweight was defined as a BMI between 23.0 kg/m2 and <27.5 kg/m2, and obesity was defined as a BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2. Frequency of watching television was the main independent variable of this study, which was divided into the following three categories: not watching television at all, watching television less than once a week, and watching television at least once a week. Multilevel ordered logistic regression was conducted to find the factors associated with overweight and obesity. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant in the final model. RESULTS: Around 35% of the participants were overweight or obese (overweight: 23.7% and obese: 11.6%). A majority of the study participants was aged between 15 and 24 years (36.5%), and resided in an urban area (63.2%), Province No. 3 (22.3%), and the Terai ecological region (49.5%). Around one-third (34.0%) of the participants received no formal education while an almost similar proportion (35.5%) completed secondary education. Approximately half of the study participants (50.6%) reported watching television at least once a week, whereas more than a quarter (28.7%) of them did not watch television at all. Women who watched television at least once a day had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than the other groups (p-value <0.0001). Women who watched television at least once a week were 1.3 times more likely to be overweight or obese in comparison to women who never watched television (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7; p-value <0.05). In the urban areas, women who watched television at least once a week were 40% more likely to be overweight or obese than those who did not watch television at all (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7; p-value <0.01). No significant association between overweight and obesity and the frequency of viewing television was observed in the rural area. CONCLUSIONS: Watching television at least once a week is associated with overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age living in the urban areas of Nepal. Public health promotion programs should raise awareness among women regarding harmful health consequences of sedentary lifestyle due to television watching.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Televisão , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurately measuring parents' attitudes and beliefs regarding limiting their children's TV viewing is important to inform the design and evaluation of effective interventions. This manuscript assesses the internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior (MGDB) scales among parents of Latino preschoolers to characterize Latino parents' attitudes and beliefs toward limiting their preschoolers' TV viewing. METHOD: Participants included parents of Latino preschoolers in the United States, 3-5 years old (n = 186). Parents completed a socio-demographic survey and the 105-item MGDB questionnaire (Attitudes, Perceived Positive/Negative Behavioral Control, Subjective Norms, Positive and Negative Anticipated Emotions, Habits, Self-Efficacy, Desires, and Intentions surrounding their child's TV viewing) which was used to measure internal consistency reliability and construct validity. A subsample of participants completed the questionnaire twice to measure test-retest reliability. Further, parents completed a 7-day TV viewing diary for their preschooler, and a TV parenting practices questionnaire as measures of convergent validity. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability was generally acceptable for the MGDB scales (Cronbach's alphas> 0.7), except for the Desires scale, which was revealed to have two factors and the Attitudes and Perceived Behavioral Control scales. Test-retest reliability over 2 months had negligible to moderate correlations (r's = 0.28 to 0.61). Two structural equation models were conducted. One yielded acceptable model fit (x2 (97) = 113.65, p = .119) and the other had questionable model fit (x2 (97) = 125.39; p = .028). Testing convergent validity, only two MGDB scales (Habits and Self-Efficacy) were positively correlated with the TV parenting practices questionnaire (r's = 0.33 to 0.51), and none were meaningfully correlated with preschoolers' mean daily TV viewing. CONCLUSIONS: Initial reliability and validity for some of the MGDB scales appear acceptable among parents of Latino preschoolers. Refinement of the instrument and testing among larger samples is necessary to fully evaluate psychometric properties. This instrument may be useful for characterizing Latino parents' attitudes and beliefs toward limiting their preschoolers' TV viewing and informing future TV reduction interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT01216306 Registered October 6, 2010.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Pais/psicologia , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 493-502, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food advertising is a major contributor to obesity, and fast food (FF) restaurants are top advertisers. Research on the impact of food advertising in adolescents is lacking and no prior research has investigated neural predictors of food intake in adolescents. Neural systems implicated in reward could be key to understanding how food advertising drives food intake. OBJECTIVES: To investigate how neural responses to both unhealthy and healthier FF commercials predict food intake in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 171 adolescents (aged 13-16 y) who ranged from normal weight to obese completed an fMRI paradigm where they viewed unhealthy and healthier FF and nonfood commercials. Adolescents then consumed a meal in a simulated FF restaurant where foods of varying nutritional profiles (unhealthy compared with healthier) were available. RESULTS: Greater neural activation in reward-related regions (nucleus accumbens, r = 0.29; caudate nucleus, r = 0.27) to unhealthy FF commercials predicted greater total food intake. Greater responses to healthier FF relative to nonfood commercials in regions associated with reward (i.e., nucleus accumbens, r = 0.24), memory (i.e., hippocampus, r = 0.32), and sensorimotor processes (i.e., anterior cerebellum, r = 0.33) predicted greater total food and unhealthier food intake, but not healthier food intake. Lower activation in neural regions associated with visual attention and salience (e.g., precuneus, r = -0.35) to unhealthy relative to healthier FF commercials predicted healthier food intake. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that FF commercials contribute to overeating in adolescents through reward mechanisms. The addition of healthier commercials from FF restaurants is unlikely to encourage healthier food intake, but interventions that reduce the ability of unhealthy FF commercials to capture attention could be beneficial. However, an overall reduction in the amount of FF commercials exposure for adolescents is likely to be the most effective approach.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods/economia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Publicidade , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa , Televisão
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the evidence about marketing of ultra-processed foods and "non-alcoholic" beverages in Latin America. METHODS: We performed a structured search of quantitative and qualitative studies in PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, published between January 2000 and May 2017 and conducted in Latin America. We conducted a quality assessment following a standardized tool and a thematic analysis to identify key typologies of marketing across studies. RESULTS: Out of 521 studies screened by title and abstract, we included 36 in this review; 27 of them analyzed television advertisement. Other marketing channels studied were food packaging, point of sale and outdoor advertisement. Studies found television advertises foods and beverages that are mostly ultraprocessed foods and have low nutritional value, particularly those promoted during children's programming. We also observed children have a literal interpretation of images printed on food packaging, so this can be deceiving. Several studies also found proximity to unhealthy foods may increase their consumption. Finally, the thematic analysis identified the following typologies of food marketing: a) television advertisement, b) food packaging marketing, c) marketing strategies at points of sale and d) other marketing strategies. We found almost no advertisements for unprocessed or minimally processed foods such as fruits and vegetables. We did not find any studies on digital marketing conducted in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This review found that the main channel of food marketing was television advertising. This synthesis provides insights to the challenges unhealthy eating represents to the public health of Latin America and identifies knowledge gaps to guide future research.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Fast Foods , Indústria Alimentícia , Marketing/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Humanos , América Latina , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Televisão
10.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and their health implications is a major public health concern worldwide. This study set out to understand the relationship between the number of hours spent watching television and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. METHODS: The study employed both ordinary least squares and quantile regressions to estimate the mean and distributional association of prolonged television watching and BMI. RESULTS: The findings showed that prolonged television viewing is associated with larger BMI values. Additionally, the relationship was found to be greater towards the lower and upper tails of the BMI range and insignificant in the middle of the BMI distribution. Furthermore, the findings also showed that there is a gender gap in BMI levels, where females are likely to have higher BMI values than males. CONCLUSIONS: The creation of more proactive recreational programs that can act as substitutes to television watching is recommended in order to reduce the amount of time that individuals spend watching television. It is also recommended that such interventions are tailored towards improving females' levels of physical activity. The inclusion of television programs aimed at encouraging physical exercise and healthy diets is also imperative.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Televisão , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(2): 189-200, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844272

RESUMO

It has long been hypothesized that individual recollection fits collective memory. To look for a collective schema, we analysed the content of 30 years of media coverage of World War II on French national television. We recorded human brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging as participants recalled World War II displays at the Caen Memorial Museum following an initial tour. We focused on the medial prefrontal cortex, a key region for social cognition and memory schemas. The organization of individual memories captured using the distribution of the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal in the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex was more accurately predicted by the structure of the collective schema than by various control models of contextual or semantic memory. Collective memory, which exists outside and beyond individuals, can also organize individual memories and constitutes a common mental model that connects people's memories across time and space.


Assuntos
Associação , Mapeamento Encefálico , Processos Grupais , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , França , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Museus , Fotografação , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Televisão , II Guerra Mundial
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1737, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and television viewing are independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. However, limited evidence is available on their combined effects, specifically of MVPA and watching television, on cardiorespiratory fitness in the young Asian population. Therefore, the present study examined whether MVPA can attenuate the detrimental effects of prolonged television viewing on the cardiorespiratory fitness of Asian adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on 9553 adolescents (aged 12-15 years) from 8 Asian metropolitan cities (Tokyo, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Taipei, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Seoul, and Singapore). Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by using a 15-m progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) test. The time spent on MVPA and watching television was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. RESULTS: MVPA was more closely associated with the PACER score than the duration of watching television. Compared with the reference group (i.e. those with the lowest levels of MVPA [< 30 min/day] and the most sedentary [≥3 h/day of television time]), PACER scores were significantly higher for those who met the physical activity recommendation (≥60 min/day in MVPA), regardless of the duration of television viewing. Conversely, girls in the least active group (< 30 min/day of MVPA) who watched television < 1 h/day demonstrated better PACER scores than the reference group. CONCLUSIONS: Sufficient MVPA (≥60 min/day) can attenuate the detrimental effects of excessive television viewing with cardiorespiratory fitness in Asian adolescents. In addition, the duration of television viewing had significant but weaker associations with cardiorespiratory fitness compared to MVPA.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão , Adolescente , Ásia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, an estimated 3.6 billion people rely on solid fuels for cooking over open fires or in simple cookstoves. Universal access to clean cooking fuels and technology by 2030 is a United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal. METHODS: The Mediae Company created a home makeover television and radio show, Shamba Chef, designed to promote modern, cleaner, safer cooking methods and improved nutrition in Kenya, which reached 5 million homes in late 2017. This was accompanied by a mobile phone platform called iChef. Researchers evaluated the effects of Shamba Chef on cookstove purchase, use, and attitudes, beliefs, and intentions. RESULTS: The study revealed dose-response effects of Shamba Chef exposure on several key outcomes. Exposure to the program was associated with an awareness of improved biomass stoves (OR 4.4; 95% CI 2.8 to 6.9), and aspirations to own an improved biomass stove (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.9). Receiving information about modern stoves from two or more sources generated greater awareness of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.1). The qualitative study revealed that Shamba Chef explained how the stoves worked, communicated their benefits, and encouraged participants to trust and purchase those cookstoves. CONCLUSION: Shamba Chef was successful in influencing determinants of cookstove purchase and use, and there is evidence from the qualitative study that it influenced the purchase and use of improved biomass stoves.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária/métodos , Utensílios Domésticos , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Fogo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Produtos Domésticos , Humanos , Quênia , Ciências da Nutrição , Tecnologia , Televisão
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1524, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of computers/TV has become increasingly common worldwide after entering the twenty-first century and depression represents a growing public health burden. Understanding the association between screen time-based sedentary behavior (ST-SB) and the risk of depression is important to the development of prevention and intervention strategies. METHODS: We searched the electronic databases of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. The odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was adopted as the pooled measurement. Subgroup analyses were investigated by stratified meta-analyses based on age, gender and reference group (reference category of screen time, e.g. 2 h/day, 4 h/day). RESULTS: There were 12 cross-sectional studies and 7 longitudinal studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the pooled OR was 1.28 with high heterogeneity (I2 = 89%). Compared to those who reported less SB, persons reporting more SB had a significantly higher risk of depression. When the gender was stratified, the pooled OR was 1.18 in female groups while no significant association was observed in males. Among the 19 studies, 5 studies used a reference group with ST = 2 h/days (pooled OR = 1.46), 9 studies used ≥4 h as a reference group (pooled OR = 1.38), 2 studies used 1 h as a reference group (pooled OR = 1.07) and for the remaining 3 studies, hours of ST were calculated as a continuous variable (pooled OR = 1.04). CONCLUSIONS: ST-SB is associated with depression risk and the effects vary in different populations. In addition, valid objective measures of SB should be developed in future studies.


Assuntos
Computadores , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 529-531, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have examined the characteristics of anti-smoking advertisements that are associated with quitting behaviour. Some studies use researchers or graduate students to code advertisement characteristics, while others recruit smokers or members of the general public. The aim of this study was to assist future campaign development by assessing whether anti-smoking advertisement characteristics are coded differently by smokers and 'experts' (individuals with knowledge of health promotion, public health or advertising). METHODS: A total of 49 smokers and 42 experts coded anti-smoking advertisements according to four key characteristics (emotional/cognitive approach, negative/positive tone, message frame, and main message) and the use of eight executional techniques. Chi-squared tests were used to measure differences in coding outcomes between smokers and experts. RESULTS: There were significant differences between smokers and experts in the coding of all key characteristics and four of the eight executional techniques. Compared with smokers, experts were more likely to perceive advertisements as negative in tone and as inducing fear. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers and experts perceived the characteristics of anti-smoking advertisements differently. Implications for public health: Differences between smokers and experts may need to be taken into account where studies use either of these groups to code advertisements for campaign development or evaluation purposes.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Fumantes/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/psicologia , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
17.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 519-521, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe advertising of discretionary foods on television at times when children watch television. METHODS: We randomly sampled 84 days (one of each weekday for every month of the year) for 2017, viewed all food advertisements and categorised them according to type (healthy, discretionary or other). The frequency of advertisements per hour was calculated for times when most children watch television (peak viewing time PVT1) and when C-rated programs can be broadcast (PVT2). RESULTS: The rate of advertising of discretionary foods during PVT1 was 1.5/hour (95%CI 1.4-1.5), and during PVT2 was 1.7/hour (1.6-1.8). CONCLUSIONS: Children continue to be exposed to food advertising. Implications for public health: Voluntary food and grocery industry codes have not prevented children from being exposed to discretionary food advertising on television. From June 2019, all food and beverage advertising is subject to either food industry or advertising industry codes. The data presented here will form the baseline for future evaluation of whether the new arrangements reduce children's exposure to food advertising.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Waste Manag Res ; 37(11): 1170-1177, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645225

RESUMO

Cathode ray tube televisions (TVs) contributes significantly to the rapidly increasing waste stream of cathode ray tubes in the e-waste. This study mainly focused on the material flow of waste cathode ray tube TVs in China. Currently, waste cathode ray tubes constitute a major part of the total generation of e-waste in China. The study aimed to emphasise the flow of materials in the generated waste cathode ray tube TVs by using stock-based material flow analysis model. The modelling was conducted to investigate the disposable number of obsolete devices, in-use stock, and end-of-life of cathode ray tube TVs. SubSTance flow ANalysis (STAN) software was used to perform the material flow analysis modelling and graphical model of the waste cathode ray tube TVs. The results show that in a period of 10 years, overall about 3241.37 kt of cathode ray tube TVs were net produced in China, containing 183.6 kt of glass, 1718.2 kt of plastic, 243 kt of steel/iron, 153.5 kt of lead, 76.6 kt of copper, 7.8 kt of aluminium, and 1.6 kt of antimony. The results revealed that almost 125 kt of end-of-life cathode ray tube TVs containing about 68 kt of glass, 40 kt of plastic, 9 kt of steel/iron, 6 kt of lead, 3 kt of copper, 0.3 kt of aluminium, and 0.07 kt of antimony were dumped in the period of 10 years. Therefore, the management of waste cathode ray tube TVs required better infrastructure for recycling and better regulation to achieve better results in the high recovery of valuable resources.


Assuntos
Tubo de Raio Catódico , Resíduo Eletrônico , China , Vidro , Reciclagem , Televisão
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1980-2004, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506774

RESUMO

Across industrialized nations, children and teens are a highly prized target for the advertising industry because young people have a tremendous influence on family purchases; however, media scholars have long suggested that young people are a fundamentally vulnerable audience because they lack the necessary developmental competencies to adequately process and protect themselves from advertising communications. Yet, the precise developmental mechanisms have not been clearly articulated nor is there a clear understanding of how these competencies extend across childhood contexts (e.g., developmental phase, cultures). The current study seeks to lend clarity to this matter by looking at the potential influence that children's executive function and emotion regulation have on the relationship between television exposure (as a proxy of exposure to advertising messages and other consumption-oriented media content) and consumer behavior across a broad range of ages from two wealthy industrialized countries. Mothers of young elementary school children (5-8 years) and early adolescents (9-12 years) in the Netherlands (N = 333, 51.7% female child) and the United States of America (N = 810, 49.6% female child) took part in an online survey to report on their child's cognitive/affective development, media use, and consumer behavior (i.e., purchase requests, purchase related conflict). The results showed that across ages, executive function via attentional shifting moderated the link between purchase requests and purchase conflict, whereas positively valenced emotion regulation moderated the same relationship but only for older children. Lastly, the findings revealed that while there are differences in reported behavior among children in these two countries, the developmental processes tend to work in the same manner. The discussion focuses on what these findings mean for children's consumer development as they approach adolescence and how researchers and child advocates should take these developmental factors into account when considering children's potential vulnerability as consumers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Países Baixos , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão , Estados Unidos
20.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 586-602, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) has recently become standard practice among TV series viewers; this expansion generates concerns regarding the potential negative outcomes associated with this habit. However, the investigation of its psychological correlates remains fragmentary, with few initial studies a priori conceptualizing this behavior as a new addictive disorder. This study explored these psychological correlates using cluster analysis of binge-watching behavior based on three key psychological factors: motivations, impulsivity, and emotional reactivity. METHODS: An online survey was completed by 4,039 TV series viewers. Data were analyzed using hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, the validity of the clusters being finally determined through mutual comparisons with a selection of external correlates. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified: recreational TV series viewers (presenting low involvement in binge-watching), regulated binge-watchers (moderately involved), avid binge-watchers (presenting elevated but non-problematic involvement), and unregulated binge-watchers (presenting potentially problematic involvement associated with negative outcomes). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study underlines the heterogeneous and multidetermined nature of binge-watching. Our findings suggest that high engagement in binge-watching is distinct from problematic binge-watching, thus reinforcing the notion that conceptualizing binge-watching as an addictive disorder is of low relevance and might actually lead to the overpathologization of this highly popular leisure activity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Atividades de Lazer , Filmes Cinematográficos , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Aditivo/classificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Televisão , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA