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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 543-559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002945

RESUMO

Anxiety is prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Youth with maladaptive responses to common situations and stressors are at risk of having anxiety disorders. Persistent anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders can be debilitating with long-term adverse outcomes in adulthood. Hence, decreasing the burden of anxiety disorders is an important public health priority. Development of anxiety disorders has a multifactorial etiology. There is a considerable complex interaction of genetics, temperament, parenting behavior, environmental triggers, and physiologic factors. Identification of these risk factors is key to early detection, prevention, and development of applicable management approaches. Despite several evidence-based treatments published, there are limited prevention strategies available. Effective implementation of prevention strategies is essential and can be achieved by either elimination or reduction of the negative risk factors or strengthening the protective factors on anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. This chapter reviews the common risk and protective factors and provides current literature on prevention strategies for pediatric and adolescent anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Criança , Humanos , Poder Familiar , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Temperamento
2.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12891, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359565

RESUMO

Asymmetric patterns of frontal brain electrical activity reflect approach and avoidance tendencies, with stability of relative right activation associated with withdrawal emotions/motivation and left hemisphere activation linked with approach and positive affect. However, considerable shifts in approach/avoidance-related lateralization have been reported for children not targeted because of extreme temperament. In this study, dynamic effects of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) power within and across hemispheres were examined throughout early childhood. Specifically, EEG indicators at 5, 10, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months-of-age (n = 410) were analyzed via a hybrid of difference score and panel design models, with baseline measures and subsequent time-to-time differences modeled as potentially influencing all subsequent amounts of time-to-time change (i.e., predictively saturated). Infant sex was considered as a moderator of dynamic developmental effects, with temperament attributes measured at 5 months examined as predictors of EEG hemisphere development. Overall, change in left and right frontal EEG power predicted declining subsequent change in the same hemisphere, with effects on the opposing neurobehavioral system enhancing later growth. Infant sex moderated the pattern of within and across-hemisphere effects, wherein for girls more prominent left hemisphere influences on the right hemisphere EEG changes were noted and right hemisphere effects were more salient for boys. Largely similar patterns of temperament prediction were observed for the left and the right EEG power changes, with limited sex differences in links between temperament and growth parameters. Results were interpreted in the context of comparable analyses using parietal power values, which provided evidence for unique frontal effects.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Motivação , Caracteres Sexuais , Temperamento/fisiologia
3.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(11): 128-132, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851184

RESUMO

In some cases, a variety of creative abilities appear in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopaminergic therapy. These are the creativity of thinking, unusual motivation and efficiency, which are not inherent to the patients before. The author considers a spectrum of these changes, as well as their possible pathobiochemical and pathophysiological basis. The connection between creativity in art and impulsive-compulsive disorders is discussed. Specific personality traits, type of temperament and emotional stability can play a significant role in the development of creative abilities. It is important to recognize and control the severity of the creative potential of patients with Parkinson's disease, improving the quality of life, and to increase self-esteem, psychological attitude and social adaptation among these patients preventing the excesses of this process.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Temperamento
4.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4053-4065, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581299

RESUMO

Selection for production traits with little or no emphasis on health-related traits has the potential to increase susceptibility to disease in food-producing animals. A possible genetic strategy to mitigate such effects is to include both production and health traits in the breeding objective when selecting animals. For this to occur, reliable methodologies are required to assess beneficial health traits, such as the immune capacity of animals. We describe here a methodology to assess the immune competence of beef cattle which is both practical to apply on farm and does not restrict the future sale of tested animals. The methodology also accommodates variation in prior vaccination history of cohorts of animals being tested. In the present study, the immune competence phenotype of 1,100 Angus calves was assessed during yard weaning. Genetic parameters associated with immune competence traits were estimated and associations between immune competence, temperament, and stress-coping ability traits were investigated. Results suggested that immune competence traits, related to an animal's ability to mount both antibody and cell-mediated immune responses, are moderately heritable (h2 = 0.32 ± 0.09 and 0.27 ± 0.08, respectively) and favorably genetically correlated with the temperament trait, flight time (r = 0.63 ± 0.31 and 0.60 ± 0.29 with antibody and cell-mediated immune responses, respectively). Development of methodologies to assess the immune competence phenotype of beef cattle is a critical first step in the establishment of genetic selection strategies aimed at improving the general disease resistance of beef herds. Strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of disease in beef cattle are expected to significantly improve animal health and welfare, reduce reliance on the use of antibiotics to treat disease, and reduce disease-associated costs incurred by producers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/imunologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 290-307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596822

RESUMO

Temperament traits of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence, are well defined in terms of their neural circuitry, neurochemical modulators, and patterns of associative learning. When heritably excessive, each of these traits may become a mechanistically fundamental biogenetic trait vulnerability for personality disorder. The other main risk factor for personality disorder is environmental, notably abuse, neglect, and psychological trauma. The emerging concept of mechanism-based pharmacotherapy aims to activate the brain's homeostasis as the only available delivery system to re-calibrate complex neurophysiological participants in each of the temperament traits. In a positive feedback, a homeostasis-driven improvement of excessive temperament is expected to facilitate maturation of neocortical networks of cognition, most reliably in expert psychotherapy (Part I of this paper) and, ultimately, thereby improve top-down cortical control of subcortical affect reactivity. As an emerging concept informed by neuroscience and clinical research, mechanism-based pharmacotherapy has the potential to be superior to traditional symptom-based treatments. Such mechanism-based approach illustrates what the pharmacological treatment of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) might look like.


Assuntos
Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/tratamento farmacológico , Temperamento , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 308-315, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that temperament features of adolescents may be good predictors of the development of future psychopathology in this population. The aim of the study was to adapt the content and validate the psychometric properties of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego - Auto-questionnaire in a sample of Serbian adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample included 2113 adolescents, 56% girls and 44% boys, average age 16.73±0.47, attending 48 Serbian secondary schools. The base for the development of this scale included Serbian standardised versions as well as the TEMPS-I, Interview version. RESULTS: The final scale is comprised of 36 items, with six factors (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable, and anxious-cognitive/somatic) explaining 39.9% of the total variance, the internal consistency coefficient α=0.77, and the average test-retest coefficient (rho=0.84). The correlations among the temperaments ranged from weak to moderate, with the highest positive correlations between the depressive, cyclothymic and anxious scales. The highest values were detected on hyperthymic and the lowest on depressive temperament. Significantly higher scores of depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments were detected in girls, whereas boys had higher scores on the hyperthymic scale. CONCLUSIONS: The scale has shown good psychometric properties, which encourages its further use in adolescent population. The results show certain specific features of this population, such as higher scores on all temperament types than the ones in student and adult population and a tendency of socially desirable answers.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sérvia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
7.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(4): 233-239, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498059

RESUMO

The Wisconsin Twin Project comprises multiple longitudinal studies that span infancy to early adulthood. We summarize recent papers that show how twin designs with deep phenotyping, including biological measures, can inform questions about phenotypic structure, etiology, comorbidity, heterogeneity, and gene-environment interplay of temperamental constructs and mental and physical health conditions of children and adolescents. The general framework for investigations begins with rich characterization of early temperament and follows with study of experiences and exposures across childhood and adolescence. Many studies incorporate neuroimaging and hormone assays.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Gêmeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Criança , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Neurociências/tendências , Fenótipo , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/tendências , Psicopatologia/tendências , Temperamento/fisiologia , Wisconsin
8.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 21: 39-45, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395232

RESUMO

AIM: This study explores the association between infant temperament at six months postpartum and pre- and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms. The association between infant temperament and stressful life events is also evaluated. METHOD: A total of 210 Mexican women were assessed during pregnancy (gestational age 32.39 ±â€¯4.01) and at six months postpartum. The instruments used were: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Anxiety Subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90R), a short form of Stressful Life Events and The Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, when infants were six months old. RESULTS: Although a mother's emotional state during pregnancy (depressive and anxiety symptoms and stressful life events) was not associated with difficult infant temperament, it was associated with depressive and anxious symptomatology during the postpartum period. Mothers with prenatal depressive symptoms who remained depressed and mothers who only had depression symptoms during the postpartum period reported having more difficult infants. Likewise, mothers with prenatal anxiety symptoms who maintained anxiety symptoms postpartum and mothers with anxiety symptoms during the postpartum period alone reported having more difficult infants. Comorbidity was found between depressive and anxious postnatal symptomatology in its association with difficult infant temperament. CONCLUSION: In this study, postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms played an important role in shaping difficult infant temperament. Comorbidity between the two conditions warrants clinical attention and additional research, since it is related to maternal perception of difficult infant temperament. Psychological interventions are required, since these women may require assistance with emotional adaptation in the transition to motherhood.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , México , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Psicologia da Criança , Adulto Jovem
9.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(8): 690-700, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical levels of a social anxiety disorder (SAD) often appear during childhood and rise to a peak during late adolescence. The temperament trait behavioral inhibition (BI), evident early in childhood, has been linked to increased risk for SAD. Functional and structural variations in brain regions associated with the identification of, and response to, fear may support the BI-SAD relation. Whereas relevant functional studies are emerging, the few extant structural studies have focused on adult samples with mixed findings. METHODS: A moderated-mediation model was used to examine the relations between BI, SAD symptoms, and brain-volume individual differences in a sample of children at risk for anxiety (ages 9-12; N = 130, 52 BI). RESULTS: Our findings indicate that at higher levels of BI, children with smaller anterior insula volumes showed stronger correlations between BI and SAD. In addition, larger ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) volumes were associated with fewer SAD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support previous reports linking SAD levels with variations in volume and reactivity in both limbic (insula) and prefrontal (vlPFC) regions. These findings set the foundation for further examination of networks of neural structures that influence the transition from BI to SAD across development, helping further clarify mechanisms of risk and resilience.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Lobo Límbico/fisiopatologia , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lobo Límbico/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Risco
10.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(5): 635-644, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of the study was to investigate the association between sex and the level of information stress, as mediated by affective temperaments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 231 healthy Caucasian adults (150 women and 81 men) recruited from a general population. The participants' age ranged 18-56 years (M±SD = 25.07±6.36). Affective temperaments were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). To assess the level of information stress, the Information Stress Questionnaire (ISQ) was used. RESULTS: Information stress displayed low to medium positive correlations with depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments, and a negative correlation with the hyperthymic temperament. The female group was characterized with significantly higher age, information stress, and anxious temperament values, and with a significantly lower irritable temperament value, when compared to males. Cyclothymic temperament, anxious temperament and hyperthymic temperament were found to be significant predictors of information stress. The mediation analysis showed a significant direct effect of sex on information stress. The anxious temperament was a significant mediator of the relationship between sex and information stress. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed the relationship between sex and information stress, including the role of anxious temperament as a mediator. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(5):635-44.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382474

RESUMO

This paper presents the study on the association between in-vehicle music listening, physiological and psychological response, and driving performance, using the driving simulator approach, with which personality (temperament) was considered. The performance indicators considered were the standard deviation of speed, lane crossing frequency, perceived mental workload, and mean and variability of heart rate. Additionally, effects of the presence of music and music genre (light music versus rock music) were considered. Twenty participants of different personalities (in particular five, four, seven, and four being choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, and melancholic, respectively) completed a total of 60 driving simulator tests. Results of mixed analysis of variance (M-ANOVA) indicated that the effects of music genre and driver character on driving performance were significant. The arousal level perceived mental workload, standard deviation of speed, and frequency of lane crossing were higher when driving under the influence of rock music than that when driving under the influence of light music or an absence of music. Additionally, phlegmatic drivers generally had lower arousal levels and choleric drivers had a greater mental workload and were more likely distracted by music listening. Such findings should imply the development of cost-effective driver education, training, and management measures that could mitigate driver distraction. Therefore, the safety awareness and safety performance of drivers could be enhanced.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Música , Temperamento , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0212244, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295256

RESUMO

Two dimensions of temperament, namely, (high levels of) novelty seeking and (low levels of) harm avoidance are related to substance addictions. However, their implications for smartphone addiction remain unexplored. Medical students are heavy smartphone users. Accordingly, screening for the risk of smartphone addiction based on individual differences in temperament can facilitate the identification of the best possible prevention strategy. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship between temperament and the vulnerability to smartphone addiction among medical students in Jakarta, Indonesia. The research study adopted a cross-sectional research design and used a simple random sampling technique. The Indonesian versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Smartphone Addiction Scale were used to measure the study variables. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between demographic factors, patterns of smartphone use, temperament, and vulnerability to smartphone addiction. A majority of the 185 participants were found to have the following temperament profile: low levels of novelty seeking and high levels of reward dependence and harm avoidance. The average duration of daily smartphone use was 7.83 hours (SD = 4.03) and the age at first smartphone use was 7.62 years (SD = 2.60). The respondents used smartphone to communicate with other people and access social media. A high level of harm avoidance was significantly associated with the risk of smartphone addiction (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12, 3.70). The findings suggest that smartphone addiction is comparable to other addictive behaviors. Further, harm avoidance increases the risk of smartphone addiction. Therefore, the risk of smartphone addiction among medical students must be ascertained based on their temperament profiles.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Smartphone , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Temperamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(2): 399-417, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the research was to verify whether a child's "difficult" temperamental traits: low flexibility, low perseverance, low good mood and high bad mood are related to parental discrepancy (defined as the distance between parental goals, i.e. the features that parents want to shape in the child and the level of child development in terms of the shaped features) and the difficulties parents experience in their relationship with child (parental stress). METHODS: The study hypothesized that the child's "difficult" temperamental traits are related to parenting discrepancies and the experienced parental stress. The study involved 319 parents of children aged 3-6 years old (144 girls and 175 boys). A Generalized k-Means Cluser Analysis conducted by data mining algorithms was used for the analysis. RESULTS: The study revealed, that: (a) higher parental stress is related to the negative mood of the children and the higher temperamental flexibility, (b) the lower parental stress is related to the higher positive mood in children. This relation occurs both in the group of parents raising boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Parental stress is associated with the temperamental feature of mood. The lower the positive mood of the child, the more the parent experiences stress in relationship with their child.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Temperamento
14.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(7): 857-867, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318271

RESUMO

We examined implications of within-person fluctuations in maternal sensitivity on child behaviors during mother-child interaction and assessed child temperament as a moderator. Mother-toddler dyads (N = 64, Mage = 27.20 months, SDage = 5.18) were observed interacting in a series of tasks over the course of a 1-hr laboratory visit, and maternal and child behaviors were rated in 60-s intervals. Parents also reported on child temperamental pleasure and anger proneness. Above and beyond between-person associations and controlling for systematic changes across tasks, associations between fluctuations in maternal sensitivity and child behaviors emerged and were moderated by child temperament. Specifically, temperamental pleasure buffered momentary decreases in maternal sensitivity. For children low (vs. high) on temperamental pleasure, decreases in maternal sensitivity in a given 60-s interval were more strongly associated with decreases in child attention to task, decreases in positive engagement with mother, and increases in child negative affect in the same interval. Additionally, for children with high (vs. low) on anger proneness, increases in maternal sensitivity in a given 60-s interval were more strongly associated with increases in child positive engagement and decreases in negative affect, and these interaction patterns provided partially support for anger proneness as a differential susceptibility factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
15.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(2): 118-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264634

RESUMO

AIM: This study explores the association between sleep quality and emotional regulation, and investigates the genetic and environmental bases of this association. METHODS: Three-hundred-eighty-two adolescent twins, from the Italian Twin Registry, and their parents filled the Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist questionnaires, from which the construct of Effortful Control (EC) was derived as a measure of emotional regulation. Twins were identified as "good" or "non-good" sleepers based on answers to the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire. EC levels were compared between same-sex sleep discordant twins. RESULTS: A significant association was detected between EC scores and sleep quality. When controlling for shared (fetal or early life) environmental factors and genetic background in the discordant twin analysis, this association weakened in dizygotic twins and disappeared in monozygotic twins. CONCLUSION: Results support the association between sleep quality and EC in adolescence; furthermore, they suggest that sleep quality and emotional regulation may depend on common genetic or environmental factors.


Assuntos
Psicologia do Adolescente , Sono/genética , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Atenção , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Autorrelato , Autocontrole , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
16.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(7): 841-850, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328944

RESUMO

Guided by a domain-specific approach to parenting framework, this research examined differential associations among three domains of parenting (e.g., guided learning, reciprocity, control) and children's executive function. The second aim was examine whether child surgency and negative emotionality temperament traits moderated associations among the parenting domains and children's executive function in a manner consistent with differential susceptibility theory. The sample consisted of 160 mothers and their 5-year-old children. Results showed that guided learning was positively and uniquely associated with children's executive function, even after controlling for the other parenting and covariate variables. Child surgency only moderated the association between guided learning and children's executive function, and it was in a manner that was consistent with differential susceptibility theory. Unexpectedly, child negative emotionality selectively moderated the association between the control domain and children's executive function in alignment with the vantage sensitivity model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331102

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Suicide is the leading cause of death in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). In particular, the high mortality rate is due to violent suicide attempts. Several risk factors associated with suicide attempts in patients with BD have been identified. Affective temperaments are associated with suicidal risk, but their predictive role is still understudied. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between affective temperaments and personal history of violent suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 74 patients with Bipolar Disorder type I (BD-I) or II (BD-II) were included. All patients filled in the short version of Munster Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (short TEMPS-M) and the Temperament and Character Inventory, revised version (TCI-R). The sample was divided into two groups on the basis of a positive history for suicidal attempts and the suicidal group was further divided into two subgroups according to violent suicide attempts. Results: Violent suicide attempts were positively associated with the cyclothymic temperament and inversely to the hyperthymic one. BD-I patients and patients with a clinical history of rapid cycling were significantly more represented in the group of patients with a history of violent suicide attempts. Conclusions: Our study highlights that several clinical and temperamental characteristics are associated with violent suicide attempts, suggesting the importance of affective temperaments in the clinical management of patients with BPI.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8175-8183, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301840

RESUMO

The use of multi-trait across-country evaluation (MACE) and the exchange of genomic information among countries allows national breeding programs to combine foreign and national data to increase the size of the training populations and potentially increase accuracy of genomic prediction of breeding values. By including genotyped and nongenotyped animals simultaneously in the evaluation, the single-step genomic BLUP (GBLUP) approach has the potential to deliver more accurate and less biased genomic evaluations. A single-step genomic BLUP approach, which enables integration of data from MACE evaluations, can be used to obtain genomic predictions while avoiding double-counting of information. The objectives of this study were to apply a single-step approach that simultaneously includes domestic and MACE information for genomic evaluation of workability traits in Canadian Holstein cattle, and compare the results obtained with this methodology with those obtained using a multi-step approach (msGBLUP). By including MACE bulls in the training population, msGBLUP led to an increase in reliability of genomic predictions of 4.8 and 15.4% for milking temperament and milking speed, respectively, compared with a traditional evaluation using only pedigree and phenotypic information. Integration of MACE data through a single-step approach (ssGBLUPIM) yielded the highest reliabilities compared with other considered methods. Integration of MACE data also helped reduce bias of genomic predictions. When using ssGBLUPIM, the bias of genomic predictions decreased by half compared with msGBLUP using domestic and MACE information. Therefore, the reliability and bias of genomic predictions for both traits improved substantially when a single-step approach was used for evaluation compared with a multi-step approach. The use of a single-step approach with integration of MACE information provides an alternative to the current method used in Canadian genomic evaluations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperamento
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8221-8233, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279559

RESUMO

The number of dairy cows milked in automatic milking systems (AMS) is steadily increasing in Norway. Capacity and efficiency of AMS are highly dependent on the individual cow's milking efficiency, such as milking speed and occupation time in the milking robot. Cows meet new challenges in herds utilizing AMS. Consequently, new or revised traits may be needed for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle. The AMS records relevant information on an individual cow basis. The aims of this study were to estimate genetic parameters of new automatically recorded milkability and temperament traits. Data from 77 commercial herds with Norwegian Red dairy cattle were analyzed by mixed linear animal models. The final data set contained 1,012,912 daily records from 4,883 cows in first to ninth lactation. For variance component estimation, univariate and bivariate models were used. Daily records of box time (BT), average flow rate (FR), kilograms of milk per minute of box time (MEF), handling time (HT), log-transformed HT, milking frequency, and milking interval were analyzed with repeatability models. Among these traits, FR, BT, and MEF showed the highest heritabilities of 0.48, 0.27, and 0.22, respectively, whereas heritability of log-transformed HT, HT, milking frequency, and milking interval was low (0.02-0.07). Unsuccessful milkings expressed as rejected milkings, incomplete milkings (IM), milkings with kick-offs (KO), and teat not found also showed low heritabilities (0.002-0.06). Due to low frequency, KO, rejected milkings, IM, and teat not found were also analyzed as proportions per lactation, which resulted in slightly higher heritability estimates. Genetic correlations were favorable and intermediate to strong between BT, HT, MEF, and FR with absolute values above 0.50. Intermediate and favorable correlations were found for IM and KO with BT, HT, MEF, and FR. Cow milkability in AMS can be improved by selection for reduced number of unsuccessful milkings, faster FR, increased MEF, and shorter BT and HT. Our results confirm that automatically recorded data on milkability and temperament can be valuable sources of information for routine genetic evaluations and that milking efficiency in AMS can be genetically improved.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Lactação/genética , Temperamento , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Leite , Noruega , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 39(7): 969-974, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303094

RESUMO

ABSRACT We aimed to investigate the relationship between affective temperaments and the severity of nausea and vomiting symptoms in early pregnancy (NVP). The pregnant women who did (n = 187) or did not report (n = 71) any nausea and vomiting at three consecutive assessments with the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis Scoring Index (PUQE) (n = 71) were examined. Affective temperamental traits were assessed by Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). The anxious (p < .0001), depressive (p = .003), cyclothymic (p = .03) and irritable (p = .021) temperament traits in NVP patients were significantly higher than in controls. There were significant correlations between the PUQE scores and depressive (p = .002), cyclothymic (p = .001), irritable (p = .001) and anxious (p = .001) traits. Anxious temparement (p = .004) and being a housewife (p = .012) were significantly associated with NVP. Our results suggest that women with a predominantly anxious temperament are more vulnerable to developing somatic complaints such as nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. IMPACT STATEMENT What is already known on this subject? Although some studies have examined the link between NVP and some psychiatric disorders, to our knowledge the relationship between NVP and affective temperament has not been well investigated. What do the results of this study add? Predominantly anxious temperament make the individuals vulnerable to develop some somatic complaints such as nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The association of temperament and NVP might be linked to a psychosomatic process in pregnancy. Future research are required to examine the associations of temperament with NVP by including several other biological, social and psychological variables.


Assuntos
Êmese Gravídica/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Êmese Gravídica/etiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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