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1.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 18: 1-18, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534122

RESUMO

This review considers two themes. The first section describes the influence of two temperamental biases detectable in infants that render children vulnerable to maladaptive behavior if the rearing environment invites such responses. Infants who display high levels of limb activity and crying in response to unexpected events are likely to be shy and fearful as children and are at risk for an anxiety disorder. Infants who display little limb movement and crying are susceptible to assuming risks and vulnerable to asocial behavior if the rearing environment invites these actions. The second section criticizes three common research practices: failure to examine patterns of measures for predictors and outcomes, an indifference to the power of the setting on the evidence recorded, and the distortions that semantic terms in questionnaires impose on replies.


Assuntos
Psicologia Clínica , Temperamento , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Medo , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade , Temperamento/fisiologia
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(17): e143, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone use patterns may predict daily life efficacy and performance improvements in sports. Additionally, personal characteristics may be associated with smartphone overuse. METHODS: We investigated the correlation between the temperament and character inventory (TCI) and academic performance using smartphone log data. We hypothesized that the elite and general groups, divided based on academic performance, differed according to the TCI and downloadable smartphone apps (applications). Additionally, we hypothesized a correlation between smartphone app usage patterns and TCI. A total of 151 students provided smartphone log data of the previous four weeks. They also completed the TCI and provided academic records of the previous year. RESULTS: The first and second most frequently used apps by both groups of students were social networking and entertainment, respectively. Elite students scored higher on novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and self-transcendence than general students. In all participants, the usage time of serious apps was correlated with the scores for novelty seeking (r = 0.32, P < 0.007), reward dependence (r = 0.32, P < 0.007), and self-transcendence (r = 0.35, P < 0.006). In the elite group, the usage time of serious apps was correlated with the scores for novelty seeking (r = 0.45, P < 0.001), reward dependence (r = 0.39, P = 0.022), and self-transcendence (r = 0.35, P = 0.031). In the general group, the usage time of serious apps was correlated only with self-transcendence (r = 0.32, P < 0.007). CONCLUSION: High usage time of serious apps can help sports majors to excel academically. Particularly among sports majors, serious apps are related to activity, the desire for rewards and recognition, and the tendency to transcend themselves.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Aplicativos Móveis , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Estudantes , Temperamento , Universidades
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266026, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417495

RESUMO

Age and gender differences are prominent in the temperament literature, with the former particularly salient in infancy and the latter noted as early as the first year of life. This study represents a meta-analysis utilizing Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R) data collected across multiple laboratories (N = 4438) to overcome limitations of smaller samples in elucidating links among temperament, age, and gender in early childhood. Algorithmic modeling techniques were leveraged to discern the extent to which the 14 IBQ-R subscale scores accurately classified participating children as boys (n = 2,298) and girls (n = 2,093), and into three age groups: youngest (< 24 weeks; n = 1,102), mid-range (24 to 48 weeks; n = 2,557), and oldest (> 48 weeks; n = 779). Additionally, simultaneous classification into age and gender categories was performed, providing an opportunity to consider the extent to which gender differences in temperament are informed by infant age. Results indicated that overall age group classification was more accurate than child gender models, suggesting that age-related changes are more salient than gender differences in early childhood with respect to temperament attributes. However, gender-based classification was superior in the oldest age group, suggesting temperament differences between boys and girls are accentuated with development. Fear emerged as the subscale contributing to accurate classifications most notably overall. This study leads infancy research and meta-analytic investigations more broadly in a new direction as a methodological demonstration, and also provides most optimal comparative data for the IBQ-R based on the largest and most representative dataset to date.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Lactente , Temperamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 94, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dentists are prone to professional burnout due to the nature of their work but this phenomenon could be prevented. Professional burnout has a great impact on different aspects of human life. No study has been published on determination of professional job burnout and temperament (Mizaj) from the viewpoint of Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). The current study intends to touch upon this issue for the first time. METHODS: In order to conduct this Cross-Sectional study based on a randomized sampling method, 145 dentists completed the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires (MBI), and the 20-item Salmannejad Mizaj questionnaire. The study started since February, 2020 and ended in August, 2020 in Yazd, Iran. A total of 120 valid questionnaires were collected, with a response rate of 82.76%. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, analytical tests (including student t-test, one-way analysis of variance) by Spss17 (Chicago, USA) software. RESULTS: Overall, 8.3% of responders had high emotional exhaustion, while 65.8% and 33.3% had moderate depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment, respectively. With respect to the results, dentists with cold and dry temperaments experienced a higher level of burnout in emotional exhaustion while dentists with warm and wet temperaments had a higher level of burnout in depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment dimensions. There was an insignificant difference between age, gender, work experience, number of working days per week, number of patients per day with the dimensions of burnout. Pearson correlation coefficient indicated there was a positive correlation between avoidance job and emotional exhaustion (r = - 0.22, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Based on the findings, it may conclude there was no significant difference in professional burnout between different temperaments among dentists.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Temperamento , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos/psicologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Satisfação no Emprego , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Stress ; 25(1): 156-165, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389301

RESUMO

Elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol have been found in toddlers in childcare. Measuring cortisol may provide an indication of children's experiences in childcare and help to adjust practices better to their needs. To the best of our knowledge, toddlers' cortisol levels in childcare have not yet been investigated longitudinally. Furthermore, it is unclear which child and childcare factors contribute to cortisol elevation in toddlers. Using linear mixed model analyses, we investigated the full-day cortisol activity (10.00 h, 15.00 h, 18.00 h) of 156 toddlers (81 female, 56 male) during a year in childcare (September, January, June). We also investigated child cortisol levels at home in January. In addition, we tested the relation between cortisol activity and changes in cortisol activity across the year and childcare quality, temperament, well-being in childcare, and maternal education. We found increasing evening cortisol levels through the year while controlling for age. Afternoon cortisol levels were stable, but above morning cortisol levels in September and January and only slightly below morning cortisol levels in June. At home in January, afternoon levels were significantly below morning levels. Higher well-being in childcare was associated with lower overall cortisol levels and less increase in evening cortisol levels through the year in childcare. Further, less active toddlers seemed to accumulate some stress during the childcare day, indicated by higher evening cortisol levels. Rising evening cortisol levels may indicate accumulating stress across the year. Results point toward childcare being demanding for toddlers and their need for consideration from caregivers and parents, also after a longer period of childcare attendance. The findings underline the importance of observing, promoting, and further researching children's well-being in childcare.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Temperamento , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico
6.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(4): e22275, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452540

RESUMO

The prospect of surgery is a unique psychologically threatening context for children, often leading to experiences of preoperative anxiety. Recent research suggests that individual differences in children's temperament may influence responses to the surgical setting. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in shyness were related to differences in frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) delta-beta correlation, a proposed neural correlate of emotion regulation and dysregulation, among children anticipating surgery. Seventy-one children (36 boys, Mage  = 10.3 years, SDage  = 1.7 years) undergoing elective surgery self-reported on their own shyness, and their parents also reported on their child's shyness. Using a mobile, dry sensor EEG headband, frontal EEG measures were collected and self- and observer-reported measures of state anxiety were obtained at the children's preoperative visit (Time 1) and on the day of surgery (Time 2). A latent cluster analysis derived classes of low shy (n = 37) and high shy (n = 34) children using the child- and parent-reported shyness measures. We then compared the two classes on frontal EEG delta-beta correlation using between- and within-subjects analyses. Although children classified as high versus low in shyness had higher self- and observer-reported state anxiety across both time periods, frontal EEG delta-beta correlation increased from T1 to T2 only among low shy children using a between-subjects delta-beta correlation measure. We discuss the interpretation of a relatively higher delta-beta correlation as a correlate of emotion regulatory versus dysregulatory strategies for some children in a "real-world," surgical context.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Timidez , Ansiedade , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Temperamento
7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 220: 105421, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358742

RESUMO

Executive functioning, composed of higher-order cognitive skills, rapidly develops in early childhood and is foundational for school readiness and school-age academic achievement. Identifying constellations of factors that are related to the development of executive functioning may inform interventions that prepare children for academic success. This study examined sleep disturbances as a moderator of the association between effortful control, defined as temperament-based self-regulation, and executive functioning among young children. Multiple regressions controlling for child gender and age and caregiver education tested the study research question. Participants were 54 children (Mage = 4.25 years, SD = 0.98; 56% male, 85% White) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers reported on children's effortful control and sleep disturbances via questionnaire, and executive functioning was objectively measured using two well-validated assessment tools. Results showed that high effortful control was associated with better performance on both executive functioning tasks for children with few sleep disturbances. Effortful control was not related to executive functioning in the context of high levels of sleep disturbances. Thus, children whose caregivers observed them to have a temperamental predisposition for higher self-regulation as well as fewer sleep disturbances had the highest executive functioning, suggesting that better-quality sleep may enhance the association between high effortful control and children's executive functioning. Self-regulation and sleep both are responsive to intervention and may be useful targets to improve executive functioning and in turn academic preparedness and success.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Comportamento Infantil , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Temperamento/fisiologia
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 226: 103557, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306271

RESUMO

The paper explores the hierarchical structure of temperament with the inclusion of a wide catalog of temperamental constructs derived from eight different theoretical models. Analyses were conducted on a group of 412 participants aged from 16 to 79 (Mage = 28.49, SDage = 11.64), administrating nine well-established measures of temperament, with a representation of 34 different constructs. An eight-level hierarchical structure of temperament was obtained using a top-down procedure. The results are discussed twofold: (1) relating the subsequent levels of the obtained structure to the existing theories and models of temperament, and (2) regarding possible identification of the most general dimensions of temperament, that percolate the abundant catalogs of its specific constructs. The latter-considering both an empirical and theoretical perspectives-resulted in the emergence of the Big Two broad factors, being recognized as two fundamental dimensions of temperament. The first factor (Neuroticism/Emotionality) refers to general (negative) emotionality and susceptibility to react with negative affect, whereas the second (Extraversion/Sensation Seeking) is expressed in broadly understood activity and its diversity, as well as high stimuli value of functioning.


Assuntos
Temperamento , Humanos , Neuroticismo
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 105, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292624

RESUMO

Microglia play critical roles in healthy brain development and function, as well as the neuropathology underlying a range of brain diseases. Despite evidence for a role of microglia in affective regulation and mood disorders, little is known regarding how variation in microglia status relates to individual differences in emotionality. Using a selective breeding model, we have generated rat lines with unique temperamental phenotypes that reflect broad emotional traits: bred low responder rats (bLRs) are novelty-averse and model a passive coping style, whereas bred high responder rats (bHRs) are highly exploratory and model an active coping style. To identify a functional role of microglia in these phenotypes, we administered minocycline, an antibiotic with potent microglia inhibiting properties and observed shifts in forced swim, sucrose preference, and social interaction behaviors in bLRs. Using detailed anatomical analyses, we compared hippocampal microglia profiles of bHRs and bLRs and found that although the lines had similar numbers of microglia, selective breeding was associated with a shift in the morphological features of these cells. Specifically, microglia from bLRs were characterized by a hyper-ramified morphology, with longer processes and more complicated branching patterns than microglia from bHRs. This morphology is thought to reflect an early stage of microglia activation and suggests that bLR microglia are in a reactive state even when animals are not overtly challenged. Taken together, our results provide novel evidence linking variation in inborn temperament with differences in the baseline status of microglia and implicate a role for microglia in shaping enduring emotional characteristics.


Assuntos
Microglia , Temperamento , Animais , Emoções/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas , Ratos , Seleção Artificial
10.
Neuroscience ; 488: 96-101, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227833

RESUMO

Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted the role of the prefrontal-subcortical circuits in personality trait of novelty seeking (NS), thought to be mediated by the dopaminergic system. However, it remains largely unknown whether cortico-basal-cerebellar connections, heavily influenced by dopamine, are implicated in this temperament dimension as well. The present study aimed to further investigate the relationship between the NS trait and the cortico-basal-cerebellar pathways by using structural covariance network analysis. Ninety-five healthy female volunteers were included in this work, and NS was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Our results showed that NS scores were associated with structural connections between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia, substantiating the implication of the cortico-basal-cerebellar circuits in the NS construct. In addition, structural connections between visual and sensorimotor regions were also associated with NS scores, indicating that sensory and motor information processing may contribute to NS-related behaviors. Overall, the current findings may deepen our understanding of brain structural circuits related to this temperament dimension.


Assuntos
Caráter , Comportamento Exploratório , Gânglios da Base , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dopamina , Feminino , Humanos , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento
11.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 163, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colic and sleep problems are common among infants, constitute challenges and distress for parents, and are often reasons for seeking help from health professionals. The literature debates whether infant colic and sleep problems are linked together or not. Further, limited evidence exists on how colic impacts on child temperament and sleep during early childhood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the characteristics of infants with a history of colic compared to infants without, and to study how infant colic is associated with the development of child temperament and sleep over time. METHODS: The study is based on The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a population-based cohort study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. This sample contains 88,186 mothers and children. Data was retrieved from questionnaires distributed to mothers at recruitment (in pregnancy) and when the child was 6 months, 18 months, 3 years, and 5 years. Data was analysed using linear mixed models and GLM models for repeated measures. RESULTS: At 6 months, infants with reported colic are described as fussier, present more sleeping problems, are breastfed less, and the families visit the child health centre more often when compared to the non-colic group. Mothers of children with reported colic perceive their children's temperament significantly more challenging from the age of 6 months to 5 years. Further, children with reported colic were more likely to sleep less than recommended (22%) and to have more frequent night awakenings (14%) than usual for their age (6 months to 5 years). CONCLUSION: Infant colic often occurs together with other signs of regulatory problems which may amplify the load on the parents. Moderate differences in temperament and sleep-problems across time, between those with colic and those without, indicate that the diagnosis of colic is moderately associated with later behavioural difficulties. However, it is demanding for the parents, and important to be aware of and act upon symptoms of colic in the child health centres to reduce the parents' load and prevent adverse long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Cólica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cólica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães , Gravidez , Sono , Temperamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329135

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the temperament and impulsiveness profile of short track athletes. Professional athletes (juniors and seniors), under training in the Polish National Team (Nfemale = 21, Nmale = 19, Mage = 20), completed The Temperament and Character Inventory- Revised (TCI-R (56)) and a shortened version of the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation-Seeking, Positive Urgency, Impulsive Behavior Scale (S-UPPS-P). The results proved that skaters obtain higher scores than the general population on the temperamental scales i.e., persistence, harm avoidance and novelty seeking and impulsivity scales i.e., sensation seeking and positive urgency. After the cluster analysis, two homogeneous profiles of short track athletes were determined. The first profile includes athletes with high scores on the reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, temperamental and sensation-seeking impulsiveness scales coupled with low scores on the temperamental scale, harm avoidance and impulsiveness scales: positive urgency, negative urgency and the lack of perseverance. The second profile is the reverse of the first profile for the short track athletes.


Assuntos
Caráter , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Temperamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 36, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptomatology is prevalent among female university students with adverse effects on their quality of life and academic performance. Previous research suggested associations between depressive symptomatology and oxytocin levels and between depressive symptomatology and Temperament Traits. Despite this evidence, to the best of our knowledge no research has studied the effects fboth oxytocin serum levels and temperament dimensions on depressivesymptoms in a healthy sample. The present study aimed to analyse the effect of oxytocin levels and temperament traits on depressive symptomatology in healthy female university students. METHODS: All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Blood samples were collected between 8 and 8H30 a.m. after 12 h of fasting and between 5 and 8 day of the menstrual cycle and serum oxytocin levels were quantified using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A hierarchical multiple regression model using a stepwise method was conducted to identify predictors of depression. RESULTS: Forty-five women aged between 18 and 25 years old (19.37 ± 1.32 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Depressive symptomatology was negatively associated with oxytocin serum levels and "Negative affect" and positively associated with "Effortful control" and "Activation Control". In the final regression model, only oxytocin level was a predictor (B = - 0.090, p < 0.0001), the model explaining 65.2% of the depression variation. Oxytocin played a mediation role between "Negative affects" and Depressive symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that oxytocin level, rather than personality dimensions, was associated with depressive symptomatology. These results highlight the relevance of the discussion on the use of oxytocin as a biological marker of emotional and social symptoms that characterize depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Ocitocina , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina/sangue , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Anim Sci ; 100(3)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143671

RESUMO

Chute (CS) and exit (ES) scores are common subjective methods used to evaluate temperament in cattle production systems. A pen test, which allows behavior to be observed in a non-restrained setting, may also be an effective method to evaluate temperament by allowing more variation among animals to be expressed. The merit of pen scores in assisting producers in evaluating temperament is equivocal. The objectives of this study were to validate the usefulness of a pen score in delineating temperamental cattle and to determine whether these behavioral scores change under repeated and routine management. Over 3 consecutive years, a factorial design of two measurement protocols (frequent [F], infrequent [IN]) and three recording periods was used. The F measurements were collected over 3 consecutive days and IN measurements only on day 1 within a recording period. Each year, 20 mostly Angus commercial Bos taurus heifers were randomly assigned to each protocol. Behavior was measured using a CS, ES, and exit velocity. Body temperature and heart rate also were recorded. A fecal and blood sample were collected and analyzed for levels of various metabolites including glucose concentration and serum cortisol. Following routine handling, each heifers' response to 30 s of exposure to a human stressor was recorded both individually and in groups of four. An individual (IPS) and group (GPS) pen scores were assigned from 1 (docile) to 6 (aggressive). For all heifers, protocol, event, and their interaction, were compared on the first day of an event. For F heifers, event and day within event were instead used. Body weight was included as a covariate, with sire and year fitted as random effects. Reliability of IPS and GPS were determined using a kappa (K) coefficient. Both IPS and GPS were reliably assigned (K = 0.64 and 0.44 for IPS and GPS, respectively) and positively correlated with body temperature, heart rate, glucose, and serum cortisol (r = 0.28 to 0.37). Furthermore, F heifers acclimated to repeated handling in an individual pen setting (P < 0.05) while acclimation to handling within groups was not evident (P > 0.14). IPS provides a reliable evaluation of temperament in a non-restrained setting that is indicative of an animal's response to stress and may be useful when attempting to make phenotypic selection decisions. However, temperamental heifers became calmer with repeated gentle handling.


Chute and exit scores are common subjective methods used to evaluate temperament in cattle production systems. A pen test, which allows behavior to be observed in a non-restrained setting, may also be an effective method to evaluate temperament by allowing more variation among animals to be expressed. However, the merit of pen scores in assisting producers in evaluating temperament has yet to be discerned. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to validate the usefulness of pen scores in delineating temperamental cattle and to determine whether these behavioral scores change under repeated and routine management. Pen scores collected on heifers either individually or as a group could be assigned reliably and were indicative of an animal's response to stress during normal handling practices. Temperamental heifers, when handled more frequently, acclimated to repeated handling in an individual pen setting but not in a group. Therefore, regardless of method, when cattle are excitable during their first handling experience, more than one observation of temperament may be beneficial before assessing temperament.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Temperamento , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperamento/fisiologia
15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 25(4): 258-263, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213256

RESUMO

Excessive use of technology has become a worldwide problem due to its high prevalence, fast growth rate, and undesirable consequences. However, little is known about underlying psychological mechanisms that maintain excessive use of technology. We investigated the mediating role of self-esteem, novelty seeking, and persistence on the relationship between attachment dimensions and technology addiction among young adults. Data were collected from 727 young adults (females, N = 478; 66.3 percent), aged 23.44 ± 3.02 years. Participants completed self-report measures of secure and insecure attachment dimensions, personality, and temperament characteristics (i.e., self-esteem, novelty seeking, and persistence), technology addiction and frequency of technology use (i.e., own technology use, perceived use by peers and parents). The mediation model was tested through a path analysis. The effects of attachment insecurity on technology addiction were partially mediated by the levels of persistence and self-esteem, whereas the effects of attachment security on technology addiction were fully mediated. The effects remained robust even after controlling for the frequency of technology use. The model was gender and age invariant, suggesting that the mediation worked in a similar way for both men and women and across ages. Findings suggest that attachment dimensions exert not only a direct but also an indirect effect on technology addiction through self-esteem and persistence. Such findings may help to develop psychosocial interventions that are sensitive to young adults' attachment, personality, and temperament characteristics.


Assuntos
Temperamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sch Psychol ; 91: 178-194, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190075

RESUMO

Relatively few studies have focused on relational factors within the school environment that could moderate the associations between temperament and behavior problems. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine whether student-teacher relationship quality (i.e., Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency) moderated longitudinal associations between child temperament (i.e., Negative Affectivity, Surgency/Extraversion, and Effortful Control) and externalizing and internalizing problems. The participants were 744 elementary school students (mean age 8.4 years at study entry) followed over 3 years (four measurement times). Parents assessed their child's temperament at study entry (T1) and the children reported their self-perceptions of problems 3 years later (T4). Student-teacher relationship quality was constructed as a latent variable based on ratings from three different teachers over 3 years (T1, T2, T3). Latent moderated structural equations revealed that a low level of Surgency/Extraversion was associated with less internalizing problems but only for children experiencing a high level of Closeness with their teachers. A high level of Negative Affectivity was associated with more internalizing problems, but only for children experiencing a high level of Conflict or a high level of Dependency with their teachers. Student-teacher relationship quality did not moderate the associations between temperament and externalizing problems. Improving student-teacher relationship quality through focused interventions thus represents a useful strategy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Professores Escolares , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudantes , Temperamento
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 148: 52-60, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between the gut microbiota and temperament can provide new insights for the regulation of behavioral intervention in children, which is still lacking research. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the gut microbiota and temperament in a cohort of children in 1 year and 2 years old. METHODS: This study included a total of 37 children with completed information, in which 51 samples at age 1 and 41 samples at age 2 were received respectively. We collected birth and demographic information. Parents reported their child's temperament characteristics using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-revised (IBQ-R) and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ). Fecal samples were collected from each child at 1 and 2 years old and sequenced with MiSeq sequencer. Multiple linear regressions and linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the relationship between the temperament and their microbiota composition as well as the diversity and effect of gender or age on this relationship. RESULTS: At age of year 2, Faecalibacterium was negatively associated with high-intensity pleasure and surgency. Bifidobacterium was negatively correlated with Perceptual sensitivity. Results showed no difference about three domains between year 1 and year 2, while gut microbiota showed diversity difference and genera difference. There was no gender and age difference on the relationship between temperament and the gut microbiota. CONCLUSIONS: Temperament was associated with the gut microbiota over time. The temperament remained stable and the relationship between the gut microbiota and temperament wasn't associated with age and gender.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Behav Res Ther ; 151: 104039, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139437

RESUMO

Eating disorders (ED) are highly impairing and dangerous conditions that typically onset in adolescence. However, very few prospective studies have examined early childhood risk factors for ED pathology. Given well-established links between temperament and psychopathology, examination of these factors could inform prevention efforts. The current multi-method, multi-informant prospective longitudinal study tested whether laboratory-observed and parent-reported temperament and psychiatric disorders at ages 3 and 6 (N = 609) predict body dissatisfaction at ages 12 and 15 and dimensional symptoms of EDs (anorexia nervosa [AN] and bulimia nervosa [BN]) at age 15 (n = 458) in a community sample. Results indicated that early childhood temperament (positive and negative emotionality, perceptual sensitivity, impulsivity, less shyness) and childhood psychopathology (anxiety, oppositional defiant, attention deficit/hyperactivity, and depressive disorders), predicted body dissatisfaction in adolescence. In addition, childhood perceptual sensitivity and oppositional defiant and depressive disorders predicted AN symptoms. Demographic characteristics (female sex, lower levels of fathers' education, and parental marital status) in childhood predicted body dissatisfaction and AN symptoms. No temperament or psychopathology variables predicted BN symptoms. This study is an important first step toward continuing to identify areas of focus for future research on early childhood risk factors for ED symptoms and body dissatisfaction.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Temperamento
19.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(2): 287-299, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156723

RESUMO

There is limited research regarding the continuity, stability, and role of country of origin in preterm infant temperament across the first year of life. This prospective longitudinal study examined patterns of mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of select scales of temperament at 6 and 12 months in preterm infants from three countries, Chile (n = 47), United Kingdom (n = 44), and United States (n = 50). Temperament was assessed with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire and observed using the Bayley Behavior Rating Scale. Continuity and stability across infant age, country effects, and interactions of country and age on preterm infant temperament were examined. Chilean mothers rated infants higher in soothability, duration of orienting, and orientation/engagement compared with mothers from the United Kingdom and/or United States. Continuity of temperament from 6 to 12 months varied by country: Chilean mothers reported increasing smiling and laughter and activity level from 6 to 12 months, and mothers from the United Kingdom reported decreasing smiling and laughter and increasing fear from 6 to 12 months. Infant temperament was stable in all three countries. Correlations evidenced low concordance between maternal reports and examiner observations of infant temperament at 12 months. However, among Chilean infants, higher maternal reported activity level was associated with higher examiner observed orientation/engagement score.


Hay una limitada investigación acerca de la continuidad, la estabilidad y el papel del país de origen en el temperamento de infantes nacidos prematuramente a lo largo del primer año de vida. Este potencial estudio longitudinal examinó patrones de continuidad en el promedio de nivel y las diferencias individuales en cuanto a la estabilidad de selectas escalas de temperamento a los 6 y 12 meses en infantes prematuros de tres países, Chile (n = 47), Reino Unido (n = 44) y Estados Unidos (n = 50). El temperamento se evaluó con el Cuestionario de Comportamiento del Infante y el mismo se observó usando la Escala de Puntuación del Comportamiento de Bayley. Se examinaron la continuidad y la estabilidad a lo largo de la edad del infante, los efectos del país, así como las interacciones entre país y edad en el temperamento de los infantes prematuros. Las madres chilenas evaluaron a sus infantes con más altos puntajes en cuanto a posibilidad de tranquilizarlos, duración de orientarlos y la orientación/participación en comparación con madres del Reino Unidos y/o de Estados Unidos. La continuidad de temperamento de los 6 a 12 meses varió según el país: las madres chilenas reportaron aumento en la sonrisa y la risa, y el nivel de actividad de los 6 a 12 meses, y las madres del Reino Unido reportaron una disminución en la sonrisa y la risa, y un aumento en el temor de los 6 a 12 meses. El temperamento del infante fue estable en los tres países. Las correlaciones son evidencia de la concordancia entre los reportes maternos y las observaciones del examinador del temperamento del infante a los 12 meses. Sin embrago, entre los infantes chilenos, el más alto nivel de actividad reportado por las madres se asoció con un más alto puntaje del examinador en cuanto a la observada orientación/participación.


Nous n'avons que des recherches limitées sur la continuité, la stabilité et le rôle du pays d'origine dans le tempérament du bébé prématuré au fil de la première année de la vie. Cette étude longitudinale prospective a examiné les modèles de continuité au niveau moyen et la stabilité des différences individuelles de certaines échelles de tempérament à 6 et à 12 mois chez les enfants prématurés de trois pays, le Chili (n = 47), le Royaume Uni (n = 44) et les Etats-Unis d'Amérique (n = 50). Le tempérament a été évalué au moyen du Questionnaire du Comportement du Nourrisson et observé en utilisant l'Echelle de Bailey d'Evaluation du Comportement du Nourrisson. La continuité et la stabilité au travers de l'âge du nourrisson, les effets du pays et les interactions du pays et de l'âge sur le tempérament du bébé prématuré ont été examinés. Les mères chiliennes ont évalué leurs bébés plus haut pour ce qui concernait la capacité à être calmé, la durée de l'orientation et l'orientation/l'engagement par comparaison aux mères du Royaume Uni et/ou des Etats-Unis. La continuité du tempérament de 6 à 12 mois a varié par pays: les mères chiliennes ont fait état de plus de sourires et de rires et d'un niveau d'activité plus élevé de 6 à 12 mois et les mères du Royaume Uni ont fait état d'une décroissance des sourires et des rires et d'une plus grande peur de 6 à 12 mois. Le tempérament du nourrisson était stable dans les trois pays. Les corrélations ont montré une concordance faible entre les rapports maternels et les observations de l'examinateur du tempérament du nourrisson à 12 mois. Cependant, chez les enfants chiliens, un niveau d'activité plus élevé rapporté par la mère était lié à un score d'orientation/d'engagement observé plus élevé de la part de l'examinateur.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Temperamento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 44(1): 94-102, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine personality/temperament features and mental health vulnerability in offspring of mothers with bipolar disorders (BD), including dimensions which may impact psychological characteristics or therapeutic measures. METHODS: A systematic review, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, was conducted to search for original articles that investigated personality/temperament features of offspring of women with BD and emotional factors involved in the mother-child relationship. The electronic search was performed in the PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from February 2010 to February 2017. RESULTS: Ten quantitative studies were included in the analysis: seven from the United States, two from Brazil, and one from Canada. The narrative synthesis was categorized into three dimensions: 1) reliability of instruments for prediction of future psychopathology in offspring; 2) environmental risk factors for offspring; and 3) early interventions. The findings showed impairments in the offspring's lives, high rates of behavior and temperament problems, and psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSION: BD is a frequent psychiatric disorder, and the offspring of mothers with this condition are exposed to complex family relationships and psychosocial difficulties. If they are to ensure a good provision of mental health and psychosocial care to this unique population, early interventions must not neglect their contextual specificities. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD-42017039010.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Transtornos da Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperamento
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