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1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(1): e20200940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to discuss in the scientific literature the strategies used to prevent hypothermia in newborns undergoing surgical procedures. METHODS: this is an integrative literature review, with structured search in April and May 2020 in 08 databases, using the descriptors: Hypothermia; Surgical Procedures, Operative; Infant, Newborn; Protocols. Four primary studies were selected and analyzed using three instruments to assess the methodological quality of the Joanna Briggs Institute and content analysis. RESULTS: Among the strategies used, the following stand out: room temperature control; establishment of humidification and quality of air conditioning cleanliness; use of a heated incubator or cradle; use of thermal mattress; use of caps and blanket; heated fluids; temperature monitoring and abdominal organ coverage. CONCLUSION: good hypothermia prevention strategies were identified, despite the small number of publications on this topic; thus, it points out the need for research with strong evidence.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido
2.
Curr Protoc ; 1(9): e239, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495576

RESUMO

Advanced immunohistochemical (IHC) protocols aim to visualize different molecules in situ simultaneously. These techniques are of utmost importance as a first step in studying possible interactions of proteins at the subcellular level. Colocalized stains in tissue sections indicate proximity of two proteins of interest. Frequently, double staining protocols are restricted by the lack of primary antibodies generated in different animal species for indirect IHC visualization. Here, we present a detailed protocol for mouse inner ear tissue using two different primary rabbit antibodies directed against transmembrane ion channel proteins of cochlear neurons. The two antibodies are combined for fluorescence (confocal) as well as dual multiplex colorimetric visualization in two sequential single IHC stainings. A heat-denaturation step is performed in between. Primary antibody specificity is tested by preadsorption with the immunogenic peptide, and positive and negative tissue controls are performed to confirm the reliability of the antibody detection. We describe the whole procedure in detail beginning with tissue extraction of the mouse inner ear and continuing with chemical fixation, cryoembedding, and preparation for manual and fully automated immunostaining, including steps for heat-induced antigen retrieval. The potential to use antibodies from the same host species for single and double IHC staining opens up multiple possibilities for detecting different targets in the same tissue section using resources and materials that are widely available. © 2021 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Tissue preparation, cryoembedding, and sectioning Basic Protocol 2: Double colorimetric immunostaining with an automatic immunostainer Basic Protocol 3: Double manual fluorometric immunostaining with fluorescence.


Assuntos
Cóclea , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Coelhos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Coloração e Rotulagem
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502689

RESUMO

During military operations in high-temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions, the physiological state and combat capability of pilots are affected severely. In a fighter cockpit, experiments were conducted on thirteen voluntary subjects wearing pilot suits at 21 °C/30%, 30 °C/45%, and 38 °C/60% RH, respectively, in order to examine the physiological changes of pilots in combat thoroughly. The target strike performance, core and skin temperatures, pulse rate, and other parameters were measured and investigated. Significant inter-condition differences were noted in the pulse rate, core temperature, mean skin temperatures, and sweat amount, which increased markedly with elevating temperature and RH. Contrastively, blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) dropped with such elevations. Concerning the skin temperature, the chest and back skin temperatures remained stable, while the temperatures at the hands, feet, and lower arms underwent larger changes with the increasing temperature and humidity. At 38 °C/60% RH, the sweat amount was 3.7 times that at 21 °C/30% RH. The subjects' operational error rates increased as the core temperatures rose, showing high correlations (r2 = 0.81). The results could serve as a theoretical basis for the design of pilot protective equipment and the control of aircraft cockpit temperature.


Assuntos
Pilotos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Umidade , Temperatura Cutânea , Temperatura
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502822

RESUMO

Monitoring core body temperature (Tc) during training and competitions, especially in a hot environment, can help enhance an athlete's performance, as well as lower the risk for heat stroke. Accordingly, a noninvasive sensor that allows reliable monitoring of Tc would be highly beneficial in this context. One such novel non-invasive sensor was recently introduced onto the market (CORE, greenTEG, Rümlang, Switzerland), but, to our knowledge, a validation study of this device has not yet been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CORE sensor. In Study I, 12 males were subjected to a low-to-moderate heat load by performing, on two separate occasions several days apart, two identical 60-min bouts of steady-state cycling in the laboratory at 19 °C and 30% relative humidity. In Study II, 13 males were subjected to moderate-to-high heat load by performing 90 min of cycling in the laboratory at 31 °C and 39% relative humidity. In both cases the core body temperatures indicated by the CORE sensor were compared to the corresponding values obtained using a rectal sensor (Trec). The first major finding was that the reliability of the CORE sensor is acceptable, since the mean bias between the two identical trials of exercise (0.02 °C) was not statistically significant. However, under both levels of heat load, the body temperature indicated by the CORE sensor did not agree well with Trec, with approximately 50% of all paired measurements differing by more than the predefined threshold for validity of ≤0.3 °C. In conclusion, the results obtained do not support the manufacturer's claim that the CORE sensor provides a valid measure of core body temperature.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Golpe de Calor , Exercício Físico , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1631, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hot weather leads to increased illness and deaths. The Heatwave Plan for England (HWP) aims to protect the population by raising awareness of the dangers of hot weather, especially for those most vulnerable. Individuals at increased risk to the effects of heat include older adults, particularly 75+, and those with specific chronic conditions, such as diabetes, respiratory and heart conditions. The HWP recommends specific protective actions which relate to five heat-health alert levels (levels 0-4). This study examines the attitudes to hot weather of adults in England, and the protective measures taken during a heatwave. METHODS: As part of a wider evaluation of the implementation and effects of the HWP, a survey (n = 3153) and focus groups, a form of group interview facilitated by a researcher, were carried out after the June 2017 level 3 heat-health alert. Survey respondents were categorised into three groups based on their age and health status: 'vulnerable' (aged 75+), 'potentially vulnerable' (aged 18-74 in poor health) and 'not vulnerable' (rest of the adult population) to hot weather. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors associated with these groups taking protective measures. In-person group discussion, focused on heat-health, were carried out with 25 people, mostly aged 75 + . RESULTS: Most vulnerable and potentially vulnerable adults do not consider themselves at risk of hot weather and are unaware of the effectiveness of important protective behaviours. Only one-quarter of (potentially) vulnerable adults reported changing their behaviour as a result of hearing hot weather-related health advice during the level 3 alert period. Focus group findings showed many vulnerable adults were more concerned about the effects of the sun's ultra-violet radiation on the skin than on the effects of hot temperatures on health. CONCLUSIONS: Current public health messages appear to be insufficient, given the low level of (potentially) vulnerable adults changing their behaviour during hot weather. In the context of increasingly warmer summers in England due to climate change, public health messaging needs to convince (potentially) vulnerable adults of all the risks of hot weather (not just effects of sunlight on the skin) and of the importance of heat protective measures.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Atitude , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
6.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(8): 656-62, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of internal heat-type acupuncture needle on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) rabbits, so as to explore its mechanisms in relieving KOA. METHODS: Thirty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into control, model and treatment groups, with 10 rabbits in each group. The KOA model was established by using Hulth method. The rabbits of the treatment group received internal heat-type acupuncture needles (42 ℃) on the left hind limb 20 min, once a week for 4 weeks. The behavioral scores were assessed according to the pain severity, gait, joint motion range and articular swelling severity in reference to the modified Lequesne's methods. Toluidine Blue staining was performed to observe the structure of the subchondral bone and to analyze the difference of morphometric parameters. The protein and mRNA expressions of OPG, RANKL and RANK were detected by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the Lequesne total score, the separation degree of trabecular bone, the protein and mRNA expressions of RANKL and RANK in subchondral bone tissues were significantly increased in the model group, while the percentage of trabecular bone area, number of trabecular bone, the expression of OPG protein and mRNA were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The above indexes were all reversed in the treatment group relevant to those of the model group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The internal heat-type acupuncture needle therapy can improve the motor function of rabbits with KOA, which may be related to its effects in up-regulating the expression of OPG and down-regulating the RANKL and RANK in subchondral bone tissue.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Temperatura Alta , Ligantes , Agulhas , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Coelhos , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 404, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica carinata (A) Braun has recently gained increased attention across the world as a sustainable biofuel crop. B. carinata is grown as a summer crop in many regions where high temperature is a significant stress during the growing season. However, little research has been conducted to understand the mechanisms through which this crop responds to high temperatures. Understanding traits that improve the high-temperature adaption of this crop is essential for developing heat-tolerant varieties. This study investigated lipid remodeling in B. carinata in response to high-temperature stress. A commercial cultivar, Avanza 641, was grown under sunlit-controlled environmental conditions in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Research (SPAR) chambers under optimal temperature (OT; 23/15°C) conditions. At eight days after sowing, plants were exposed to one of the three temperature treatments [OT, high-temperature treatment-1 (HT-1; 33/25°C), and high-temperature treatment-2 (HT-2; 38/30°C)]. The temperature treatment period lasted until the final harvest at 84 days after sowing. Leaf samples were collected at 74 days after sowing to profile lipids using electrospray-ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Temperature treatment significantly affected the growth and development of Avanza 641. Both high-temperature treatments caused alterations in the leaf lipidome. The alterations were primarily manifested in terms of decreases in unsaturation levels of membrane lipids, which was a cumulative effect of lipid remodeling. The decline in unsaturation index was driven by (a) decreases in lipids that contain the highly unsaturated linolenic (18:3) acid and (b) increases in lipids containing less unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic (18:1) and linoleic (18:2) acids and/or saturated fatty acids such as palmitic (16:0) acid. A third mechanism that likely contributed to lowering unsaturation levels, particularly for chloroplast membrane lipids, is a shift toward lipids made by the eukaryotic pathway and the channeling of eukaryotic pathway-derived glycerolipids that are composed of less unsaturated fatty acids into chloroplasts. CONCLUSIONS: The lipid alterations appear to be acclimation mechanisms to maintain optimal membrane fluidity under high-temperature conditions. The lipid-related mechanisms contributing to heat stress response as identified in this study could be utilized to develop biomarkers for heat tolerance and ultimately heat-tolerant varieties.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura Alta
8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(15): 2482-2505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374585

RESUMO

Starch is a versatile and a widely used ingredient, with applications in many industries including adhesive and binding, paper making, corrugating, construction, paints and coatings, chemical, pharmaceutical, textiles, oilfield, food and feed. However, native starches present limited applications, which impairs their industrial use. Consequently, starch is commonly modified to achieve desired properties. Chemical treatments are the most exploited to bring new functionalities to starch. However, those treatments can be harmful to the environment and can also bring risks to the human health, limiting their applications. In this scenario, there is a search for techniques that are both environmentally friendly and efficient, bringing new desired functionalities to starches. Therefore, this review presents an up-to-date overview of the available literature data regarding the use of environmentally friendly treatments for starch modification. Among them, we highlighted an innovative chemical treatment (ozone) and different physical treatments, as the modern pulsed electric field (PEF), the emerging ultrasound (US) technology, and two other treatments based on heating (dry heating treatment - DHT, and heat moisture treatment - HMT). It was observed that these environmentally friendly technologies have potential to be used for starch modification, since they create materials with desirable functionalities with the advantage of being categorized as clean label ingredients.


Assuntos
Calefação , Amido , Eletricidade , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360484

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have quantified the association between ambient temperature and diarrhoea. However, to our knowledge, no study has quantified the temperature association for severe diarrhoea cases. In this study, we quantified the association between mean temperature and two severe diarrhoea outcomes, which were mortality and hospital admissions accompanied with dehydration and/or co-morbidities. Using a 12-year dataset of three urban districts of the National Capital Region, Philippines, we modelled the non-linear association between weekly temperatures and weekly severe diarrhoea cases using a two-stage time series analysis. We computed the relative risks at the 95th (30.4 °C) and 5th percentiles (25.8 °C) of temperatures using minimum risk temperatures (MRTs) as the reference to quantify the association with high- and low-temperatures, respectively. The shapes of the cumulative associations were generally J-shaped with greater associations towards high temperatures. Mortality risks were found to increase by 53.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 29.4%; 81.7%)] at 95th percentile of weekly mean temperatures compared with the MRT (28.2 °C). Similarly, the risk of hospitalised severe diarrhoea increased by 27.1% (95% CI: 0.7%; 60.4%) at 95th percentile in mean weekly temperatures compared with the MRT (28.6 °C). With the increased risk of severe diarrhoea cases under high ambient temperature, there may be a need to strengthen primary healthcare services and sustain the improvements made in water, sanitation, and hygiene, particularly in poor communities.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Temperatura
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 545, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is effective for the treatment of nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux (NERD), but long-term use of PPI is prone to have complications and recurrence after withdrawal. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can relieve the symptoms of reflux and improve the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Hewei Jiangni recipe (HWJNR) in the treatment of NERD with cold-heat complex syndrome, and clarify the mechanism of HWJNR on NERD based on the correlation analysis of intestinal flora and metabolites. METHODS: This is a single-center, randomized controlled, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 72 eligible participants with NERD and TCM syndrome of intermingled heat and cold will be randomly allocated in the ratio of 1:1 to two groups: TCM group and western medicine group. The TCM group will receive HWJNR with omeprazole enteric-coated tablets placebo, while the western medicine group will receive omeprazole enteric-coated tablets with HWJNR placebo. Each group will be treated for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the score of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) health-related quality of life questionnaire (GERD-Q). Secondary outcomes include SF-36 quality of life scale (SF-36), patient-reported outcomes (PRO) self-rating scale score, syndrome score of TCM, and adverse events. Mechanistic outcome is the correlation analysis of intestinal flora and metabolites from healthy individuals and NERD participants before and after the treatment respectively. DISCUSSION: The goal of this trial is to investigate the efficacy and safety of HWJNR in the treatment of NERD with cold-heat complex syndrome, and to study the composition structure and metabolite expression profile of intestinal flora in patients with NERD through 16SrRNA sequencing and metabolomic correlation analysis of fecal flora, which makes us identify the dominant links of treatment and reveal the potential mechanism of HWJNR. ChiCTR2000041225 . Registered on 22 December 2020.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Qualidade de Vida , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9419-9433, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374283

RESUMO

Usage of sprouted grains is an increasing trend in thermally processed foods. Sprouting alters the composition of sugars and amino acids, which are Maillard reaction precursors. Free asparagine, total free amino acids, and sugars were monitored during sprouting and yeast and sourdough fermentations. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were analyzed in heated samples. The asparagine concentration decreased up to 40% after 24-36 h of sprouting, except for buckwheat, and then increased to the initial concentration after 48 h and several folds after 72 h. The increased amount of reducing sugars after sprouting caused higher acrylamide and HMF formation even if the asparagine concentration was lower. Acrylamide and HMF formation decreased after fermentation of sprouted wholemeal because sugars and asparagine were consumed by yeast. A pH drop of 3 units by sourdough fermentation decreased acrylamide formation but increased HMF formation. Results indicated that sprouted cereal products should be produced under controlled conditions to be used in heated foods.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Hordeum , Acrilamida , Asparagina , Avena , Fermentação , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard , Secale , Açúcares , Triticum
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(3): 538-551, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388118

RESUMO

In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed with the aim of predicting fouling resistance for heat exchanger, the network was designed and trained by means of 375 experimental data points that were selected from the literature. These data points contain six inputs, including time, volumetric concentration, heat flux, mass flow rate, inlet temperature, thermal conductivity and fouling resistance as an output. The experimental data are used for training, testing and validation of the ANN using multiple layer perceptron (MLP). The comparison of statistical criteria of different networks shows that the optimal structure for predicting the fouling resistance of the nanofluid is the MLP network with 20 hidden neurons, which has been trained with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. The accuracy of the model was assessed based on three known statistical metrics including mean square error (MSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The obtained model was found with the performance of {MSE = 6.5377 × 10-4, MAPE = 2.40% and R2 = 0.99756} for the training stage, {MSE = 3.9629 × 10-4, MAPE = 1.8922% and R2 = 0.99835} for the test stage and {MSE = 5.8303 × 10-4, MAPE = 2.57% and R2 = 0.99812} for the validation stage. In order to control the fouling procedure, and after conducting a sensitivity analysis, it found that all input variables have strong effect on the estimation of the fouling resistance.


Assuntos
Óxido de Magnésio , Água , Cobre , Temperatura Alta , Redes Neurais de Computação
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148334, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412381

RESUMO

Intensity of urban heat island (UHII) is a key indicator to quantify the magnitude of UHI effect. Change in UHII, however, can be affected by change in urban or rural temperature, or both. Numerous studies have investigated the change of UHII, but how it relates to change in urban and rural temperature is poorly understood. Here we present a continental scale analysis on the change in UHII from 2000 to 2015 in 31 major cities in China, and further explored whether such change was caused by urban warming. We used time series analysis based on MODIS land surface temperature product (MOD11A2) in summer. We found: (1) A majority of the cities (25 out of 31) had an increasing trend in UHII from 2000 to 2015, among which 44% were significant, suggesting a significantly intensified UHI effects. (2) Intensified UHII does not necessarily mean deterioration of urban thermal environment, and vice versa. For the 25 cities with an increasing trend in UHII, 11 cities had a decreasing trend of LST in both urban and rural areas. Meanwhile, for the 6 cities with a decreasing trend in UHII, three had warming trend in both urban and rural areas. (3) The attribution of changes in UHII to that of urban and rural LST indicated that it is necessary to quantify the change of LST in both urban and rural areas to fully quantify the impact of urbanization on UHI effect.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Alta , China , Cidades , Temperatura
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148236, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412391

RESUMO

Anthropogenic infrastructures in the shallow subsurface, such as heated basements, tunnels or shallow geothermal systems, are known to increase ground temperatures, particularly in urban areas. Numerical modelling helps inform on the extent of thermal influence of such structures, and its potential uses. Realistic modelling of the subsurface is often computationally costly and requires large amounts of data which is often not readily available, necessitating the use of modelling simplifications. This work presents a case-study on the city centre of Cardiff, UK, for which high resolution data is available, and compares modelling results when three key modelling components (namely ground elevation, hydraulic gradient distribution and basement geometry) are implemented either 'realistically', i.e. with high resolution data, or 'simplified', utilising commonly accepted modelling assumptions. Results are presented at a point (local) scale and at a domain (aggregate) scale to investigate the impacts such simplifications have on model outputs for different purposes. Comparison to measured data at individual locations shows that the accuracy of temperature outputs from numerical models is largely insensitive to simplification of the hydraulic gradient distribution implemented, while changes in basement geometry affect accuracy of the mean temperature predicted at a point by as much as 3.5 °C. At the domain scale, ground temperatures within the first 20 m show a notable increase (approximately 1 °C volume-averaged and 0.5 °C surface-averaged), while the average heat flux over the domain is about 0.06 W/m2 at 20 m depth. These increased temperatures result in beneficial conditions for shallow geothermal utilisation, producing drilling cost savings of around £1700 per typical household system or about 9% increase in thermal energy potential. Simplifications of basement geometry and (to a lesser degree) the hydraulics can result in an overestimation of these temperatures and therefore over-predict geothermal potential, while the elevation simplification showed little impact.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Alta , Cidades , Temperatura
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148407, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412394

RESUMO

The combined trends of urban heat island (UHI) intensification and global warming led to an increased tendency towards on the greening of cities as a tool for UHI mitigation. Our study examines the range of research approaches and findings regarding the role of green roofs in mitigating urban heat and enhancing human comfort. This review provides an overview of 89 studies conducted in three main climate types (hot-humid, temperate, and dry), from 2000 till 2020. All of the reviewed studies confirm the cooling effect of green roofs and its contribution to reduced heat island intensity regardless of the background climatic condition. However, dry climate has the highest (3 °C) median cooling effect of green roofs among all the climates investigated. Hot-humid climate presents the lowest cooling potential (median = 1 °C) of green roofs among all the climate types. Moreover, green roofs contribute a median surface temperature reduction of 30 °C in hot-humid cities. This value is relatively low for temperate climates (28 °C). Notably, no study has examined the impact of green roofs on surface temperature reduction in dry climates. This review can benefit urban planners and various stakeholders.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Cidades , Clima , Humanos , Transição de Fase
16.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(7): 815-820, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effect of Jiedu Limai decoction in septic patients with syndrome of heat-toxin exuberance. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. From March 2019 to April 2020, septic patients with syndrome of heat-toxin exuberance admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Shanghai General Hospital and Songjiang Branch of Shanghai General Hospital were enrolled as the research objects, and they were divided into routine treatment group and Jiedu Limai decoction group by the random number table method. Patients in both groups were given standard treatment in accordance with the guidelines, and patients in the Jiedu Limai decoction group were given Jiedu Limai decoction in addition to the standard treatment, once a day for 14 days. The 28-day survival of patients of the two groups were recorded, the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, coagulation indexes, infection indexes, inflammatory cytokines and organ function indicators before treatment and 7 days after treatment in both groups were recorded, and the prognosis of the two groups were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 259 patients with infection or clinical diagnosis of infection admitted during the experimental observation period were included, and those who did not meet the Sepsis-3 diagnostic criteria, more than 80 years old or less than 18 years old, with multiple tumor metastases, autoimmune system diseases, with length of ICU stay less than 24 hours, with acute active gastrointestinal bleeding and with incomplete data were excluded. One hundred patients were finally enrolled, with 50 patients in the routine treatment group and 50 patients in the Jiedu Limai decoction group. There were no statistically significant differences in coagulation indexes, infection indicators, inflammatory cytokines and organ function indicators before treatment between the two groups. After 7 days of treatment, the coagulation indexes, infection biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines in the Jiedu Limai decoction group were significantly lower than those in the routine treatment group [D-dimer (mg/L): 2.2 (1.8, 8.5) vs. 4.0 (1.5, 8.7), fibrinogen (Fib, g/L): 3.7 (3.4, 4.3) vs. 4.2 (3.7, 4.3), fibrinogen degradation product (FDP, mg/L): 7.2 (5.4, 10.2) vs. 13.2 (9.2, 15.2), procalcitonin (PCT, µg/L): 0.4 (0.2, 2.9) vs. 0.5 (0.2, 0.9), C-reactive protein (CRP, mg/L): 50.1 (9.5, 116.0) vs. 75.1 (23.5, 115.2), interleukin-6 (IL-6, ng/L): 31.6 (21.6, 81.0) vs. 44.1 (14.0, 71.3), all P < 0.05], and the levels of B-type brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were significantly lowered [BNP (ng/L): 261.1 (87.5, 360.3) vs. 347.3 (128.8, 439.4), KIM-1 (µg/L): 0.86 (0.01, 1.40) vs. 1.24 (1.05, 1.57), both P < 0.05]. Compared with the routine treatment group, the number of new organ failure in the Jiedu Limai decoction group was decreased (30.0% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between the two groups (P > 0.05), the 28-day mortality in the Jiedu Limai decoction group was lower than that in the routine treatment group (18.0% vs. 24.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Combining Jiedu Limai decoction to the sepsis guideline in treating syndrome of heat-toxin exuberance can effectively improve patients' coagulation function, the situation of heart and renal injury, reduce the level of inflammatory cytokines, and fewer people develop new organ failure after treatment.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Sepse , Adolescente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Humanos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Biomater Sci ; 9(17): 5762-5780, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351340

RESUMO

Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely used in solar energy utilization, industrial waste heat recovery and building temperature regulation. However, there have been few studies on the application of PCMs in the field of biomedicine. In recent years, some scholars have carried out research in the biomedicine field using the characteristics of PCMs. It was observed that the excellent properties of PCMs enhance the quality of a variety of biomedical applications with many advantages over existing applications, which provide new methods for the treatment of disease. PCMs have broad application prospects in the field of biomedicine. Therefore, a timely review of relevant research progress is of great significance for the continuous development of new methods. Innovatively, from the unique perspective of the biomedical field, this paper systematically reviews the application and related research progress of PCMs from four aspects: cold chains for vaccines and medicines, drug delivery systems, thermotherapy/cold compress therapy and medical dressings. In addition, we summarize and discuss the general principles of the design and construction of PCMs in the biomedical field. Finally, existing problems, solutions and future research directions are also put forward in order to provide a basis for guidance and promote the future applications of phase change materials in the biomedicine field.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Hipertermia Induzida , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101338, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358951

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was developed to model performance depression in heat stress (HS), to analyze the influence of HS type (cyclic or constant), and to assess the correlation between dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and HS in broilers. Two databases (Dat) with performance and temperature were constructed (initial phase - up to 21 d of age - 14 articles, 7,667 animals, average replicate number treatment-ARN/T, 5 and growing phase - over 21 d of age - 74 articles and 25,145 broilers, ARN/T, 7). The criteria for article selection were (1) experiments using at least 2 temperatures (thermoneutral and high temperature); (2) results of ADFI and ADG; (3) feed and water ad libitum during the experiment. Each treatment was classified as cyclic or constant HS and the HS group response was calculated relative to the thermoneutral group. Performance was evaluated as raw data or as relativized information (indicated as "HS effect or ≠"), expressed as a percentage of the difference between results. The models to predict "HS effect" showed that for the initial phase, only ADG was influenced by HS, while for the grower phase, prediction equations were created for ADFI and ADG. Considering the simplest models, there was a reduction of 1.4% in ADFI and 2.1% in ADG for each unit (°C) above the upper critical temperature for broilers older than 21 d. Feed conversion (FC) was not affected by HS in any of the studied phases. Constant HS proved to be more negative than cyclic HS to broiler performance after 21 d of age. The relation between DEB and performance of broilers under HS was analyzed considering broilers over 21 d of age, and very weak correlations were observed. It was concluded that HS affects broilers over 21 d more, although FC is not affected. ADFI is the most important variable affected by HS and the relation between the DEB of the diet and HS is very weak. The empirical models generated in this study accurately predicted ADG and ADFI of broilers exposed to HS and can be used to minimize those effects on poultry production.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431868

RESUMO

Color change associated with significative positive improve in physical properties is a challenge in wood research. This study investigated the changes in the color of the Gmelina arborea wood which underwent a thermomechanical densification process. The process was performed by applying three different temperatures (140 °C, 160 °C and 180 °C) with thickness reduction of 20% and 40% using 2.5 MPa equivalent pressure. The color change of the pieces was analyzed through the CIEL * a * b * system. The relationship between the color and the equilibrium moisture content of the densified material was also analyzed. The process reduced the lightness and yellow hue of the wood, with increased red pigment resulting in darker coloration of the treated pieces. The higher temperature used resulted in more significant changes in wood tone and lower equilibrium moisture. The process proved to be effective to change the color and significantly reduce the equilibrium moisture content in wood samples where the density was increase by 20% and 50% compared to natural wood.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Madeira , Cor
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme temperatures have negative consequences on the environment, ecosystem, and human health. With recent increases in global temperatures, there has been a rise in the burden of heat-related illnesses, with a disproportionate impact on low- and middle-income countries. Effective population-level interventions are critical to a successful public health response. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aims to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of population-level heat-related interventions and serve as a potential guide to the implementation of these interventions. METHODS: Studies that evaluated the effectiveness of community-based interventions to mitigate or reduce the impact of extreme heat on heat-related mortality and morbidity were sought by searching four electronic databases. Studies published in the English language and those that had quantifiable, measurable mortality, morbidity or knowledge score outcomes were included. RESULTS: The initial electronic search yielded 2324 articles, and 17 studies were included. Fourteen studies were based in high-income countries (HICs) (Europe, US, Canada) and discussed multiple versions of (1) heat action plans, which included but were not limited to establishing a heat monitoring system, informative campaigns, the mobilization of health care professionals, volunteers, social workers and trained caregivers in the surveillance and management of individuals with known vulnerabilities, or stand-alone (2) education and awareness campaigns. Multi-pronged heat action plans were highly effective in reducing heat-related mortality and morbidity, especially among vulnerable populations such as the elderly and those with chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The heat action plans covered in these studies have shown promising results in reducing heat-related mortality and morbidity and have included instituting early warning systems, building local capacity to identify, prevent or treat and manage heat-related illnesses, and disseminating information. Nevertheless, they need to be cost-effective, easy to maintain, ideally should not rely on a mass effort from people and should be specifically structured to meet the local needs and resources of the community.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Canadá , Cuidadores , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
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