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1.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 76(Pt 10): 483-487, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006576

RESUMO

The replication of SARS-CoV-2 produces two large polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab, that are inactive until cleavage by the viral chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease enzyme (3CL Mpro) into a series of smaller functional proteins. At the heart of 3CL Mpro is an unusual catalytic dyad formed by the side chains of His41 and Cys145 and a coordinated water molecule. The catalytic mechanism by which the enzyme operates is still unknown, as crucial information on the protonation states within the active site is unclear. To experimentally determine the protonation states of the catalytic site and of the other residues in the substrate-binding cavity, and to visualize the hydrogen-bonding networks throughout the enzyme, room-temperature neutron and X-ray data were collected from a large H/D-exchanged crystal of ligand-free (apo) 3CL Mpro.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Difração de Nêutrons , Pandemias , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Temperatura , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 691, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037483

RESUMO

Climate change is responsible for changes in the world's vegetation. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of long-term variations in the air temperature, precipitation, and dust concentration on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) variations in the spring, summer, and growing season over arid regions of Iran. The results showed that the precipitation had a positive association with the NDVI in the spring and growing seasons (ß > + 0.28; P < 0.05), while air temperature had a negative relationship with the NDVI changes in these seasons (ß > - 0.34; P = 0.013). Our results also showed a negative relationship between the accumulated dust concentration (ADC) and NDVI in the spring (ß = - 0.23; P = 0.09) and growing seasons (ß = - 0.24; P = 0.003). Spatially, the strongest linkage between NDVI and climatic variables was observed in about two-thirds of the study region. In total, our findings indicate that the use of dust concentration, air temperature, and precipitation helps us to make a more accurate approach for evaluating the impacts of climate change on vegetation variations in the arid environments.


Assuntos
Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mudança Climática , Irã (Geográfico) , Temperatura
3.
Science ; 370(6512): 37-38, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004503
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16213, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004925

RESUMO

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the COVID-19 transmission in two large metropolitan areas in Northern Italy as Milan and Florence and in the autonomous province of Trento. Milan, capital of Lombardy region, it is considered the epicenter of the virus outbreak in Italy. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation (at lesser degree). In other words, COVID-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For those reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned indoor environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(6): 1193-1204, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055409

RESUMO

In this paper, the energy transfer phenomena of a secondary facultative lagoon and its relationship with environmental conditions such as wind and solar radiation were studied. To this end, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model was constructed within a conventional facultative lagoon located in the municipality of Ginebra-Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The model included the transport of suspended solids from inlet to outlet, the penetration of incident solar radiation into the body of water, surface wind, the transfer of heat through lateral walls and the temperature profiles of the wastewater. The model was validated using tracer studies and experimental temperature data. This demonstrated that simulated data of temperature and solar radiation penetration have an acceptable degree of consistency compared with the experimental data. The model demonstrated that temperature profiles were significantly affected by the wind at 0.45 m and 1.40 m depth, while no effect on the surface was obtained.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Vento , Colômbia , Transferência de Energia , Temperatura
6.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 700-711, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016390

RESUMO

Increased phosphorus (P) availability under flooded, anaerobic conditions may accelerate P loss from soils to water bodies. Existing knowledge on P release to floodwater from flooded soils is limited to summer conditions and/or room temperatures. Spring snowmelt runoff, which occurs under cold temperatures with frequent freeze-thaw events, is the dominant mode of P loss from agricultural lands to water bodies in the Canadian Prairies. This research examined the effects of temperature on P dynamics under flooded conditions in a laboratory study using five agricultural soils from Manitoba, Canada. The treatments were (a) freezing for 1 wk at -20 °C, thawing and flooding at 4 ± 1 °C (frozen, cold); (b) flooding unfrozen soil at 4 ± 1 °C (unfrozen, cold); and (c) flooding unfrozen soil at 20 ± 2 °C (warm). Pore water and surface water were collected weekly over 8 wk and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), pH, calcium, magnesium, iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Soils under warm flooding showed enhanced P release with significantly higher DRP concentrations in pore and surface floodwater compared with cold flooding of frozen and unfrozen soils. The development of anaerobic conditions was slow under cold flooding with only a slight decrease in Eh, whereas under warm flooding Eh declined sharply, favoring reductive dissolution reactions releasing P, Fe, and Mn. Pore water and floodwater DRP concentrations were similar between frozen and unfrozen soil under cold flooding, suggesting that one freeze-thaw event prior to flooding had minimal effect on P release under simulated snowmelt conditions.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Solo , Anaerobiose , Canadá , Congelamento , Temperatura
7.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 335-345, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016435

RESUMO

Biochar is composed of carbonaceous and inorganic (ash) fractions. The structural properties of carbonaceous fractions and the composition of ash in biochar are both variable with pyrolysis temperature. However, it is unknown whether ash may play different roles in sorption of organic compounds to the carbonaceous fraction of biochars produced at different temperatures. Hence, in this study, the pristine biochars produced at 300-900°C and their corresponding deashed biochars were investigated, and the combined roles of carbonaceous fraction and ash in sorption of triclosan were compared. The results showed that the biochars produced at 300-400°C had high content of uncarbonized organic structure with dominating partition effect. The combination of uncarbonized organic structure and ash had comparable or even higher sorption coefficient (KD ) for triclosan at low concentration compared with a single uncarbonized organic structure. However, for the biochars produced at 600-900°C, which were mainly composed of carbonized or graphitized carbon structure, ash had significant effect on triclosan sorption by reducing surface adsorption and pore filling effect. The combination of carbonaceous fraction and ash decreased KD values for triclosan at any tested concentrations. In addition, the results of pH effect on sorption indicated that ash possibly decreased the electrostatic repulsion of deprotonated phenolic hydroxyl between biochars and triclosan. Accordingly, it will be more valuable to design biochars for pollutant sorption from the perspective of combined role of carbonaceous fraction and ash rather than a single role of carbonaceous fraction.


Assuntos
Triclosan , Madeira , Carvão Vegetal , Temperatura
8.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1396-1407, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016453

RESUMO

The different effects of nitrogen-flow (NF) and air-limitation (AL) pyrolysis on the characteristics and nutrient retention of biochars (BCs) are unclear. Hence, in this study, BCs derived from bamboo, corn straw, and wheat straw were produced in AL and NF atmospheres at various temperatures (300-750 °C), and their different characteristics and nutrient retention rates were compared systematically. Nitrogen-flow pyrolysis facilitates C retention and graphitic C formation, and AL pyrolysis improves the polarity and supports the formation of oxygen-containing groups. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, C retention and graphitic C formation in BCs derived from AL pyrolysis decreases more significantly compared with BCs from NF pyrolysis. At 750 °C, the polarity and oxygen-containing groups of BCs derived from AL pyrolysis increase, whereas those from BCs derived from NF pyrolysis decrease. The observations are attributable to the AL and high-temperature-enhanced oxidization and gasification of C. An AL atmosphere with a higher pyrolysis temperature supports porosity and results in a larger specific surface area. Although pyrolysis temperature and atmosphere have negligible effects on nutrient retention, a low pyrolysis temperature facilitates the formation of water-soluble Ca, Mg, and P, and AL pyrolysis facilitates the formation of water-soluble P because the high pyrolysis temperature improves the pH and mineral stability of BCs, and air limitation facilitates the oxidation of organic P into PO4 3- . This study provides a reference for selecting AL or NF pyrolysis based on various pyrolysis temperatures to produce BCs and applying these in C sequestration, contaminant sorption, and soil quantity improvement.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Temperatura
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017917

RESUMO

Prolonged measurement of total body volume variations (deltaVb) with whole-body, flow-based plethysmography (WBP) results in a drift of the signal due to changes in temperature and humidity inside the plethysmograph and to numerical integration of the flow to obtain deltaVb. This drift has been previously corrected with the application of a wavelet- based filter using visual inspection of the signal to select the optimal filter level (Uva et al. Front. Physiol. 6:411, 2016), thus introducing potential operator bias. To exclude the latter we compared this approach with a newly developed automatic method based on (1) correction for actual changes in temperature and humidity inside the plethysmograph (algorithm TH) and (2) automatic selection of the wavelet filter level based on comparison between deltaVb and intra-thoracic and abdominal pressure variations measured simultaneously (algorithm WAV). The Pearson's correlation coefficient between deltaVb and the changes in volume of the chest wall (deltaVcw) simultaneously obtained by optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) was calculated after correction of deltaVb with TH and WAV applied separately, TH and WAV applied consecutively (TH+WAV), manual selection of a wavelet filter based on visual inspection (MAN) or no correction (CTRL). The correlation between deltaVb and deltaVcw increased marginally with WAV, TH+WAV and MAN compared to CTRL (P <; 0.01). Conversely, TH alone yielded a lower correlation (P <; 0.01). It follows that while the automated wavelet filter level selection method (WAV) represents an effective, operator-independent method for the correction of deltaVb, whether or not it is combined with specific correction for changes in thermodynamic conditions inside the plethysmograph, the manual method (MAN) yields satisfactory results without the constraints of intra-thoracic and abdominal pressure measurement.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Pletismografia , Pletismografia Total , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2209-2212, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018446

RESUMO

This is a proof-of-concept study for the development of a field-deployable and low-cost PCR thermocycler (FLC-PCR) to perform Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the rapid detection of environmental E. coli. Four efficient (77.1 W) peltier modules are used as the central temperature control unit. One 250 W silicone heating pad is used for the heating lid. The PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control algorithm for the thermocycles is implemented by a low-cost 8-bit, 16 MHz microcontroller (ATMEGA328P-PU). ybbW and uidA genes from specific E. coli colonies were used as amplicons for the PCR reactions that were carried out by a commercial PCR machine (Bio-Rad) and our FLC-PCR thermocycler. The heating and cooling speeds averaged 1.11 ± 0.33°C/s which is on a par with the commercial bench-top PCR thermocycler and the efficiency of the heating lid outperformed the Bio-Rad PCR thermocycler. The overall cost of the system is lower than $200 which is more than ten times lower than commercially available units. The heating block can be customized to accommodate different PCR tubes and even microfluidic chambers. An 8000 W portable power generator will be used as the power supply for field studies.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Calefação , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Escherichia coli/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Temperatura
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2283-2286, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018463

RESUMO

In this work we evaluated the maximum temperature reached by the head tissues and transducers during TTFields treatment when the thermal parameters were changed. We used Pennes' equation to obtain the temperature distribution and we ran our studies using COMSOL Multiphysics. We observed that, among the parameters we tested, changes in the scalp thermal conductivity and grey matter blood perfusion were the ones that led to the highest temperature variations.Clinical Relevance- This work shows that the uncertainty regarding the thermal parameters of biological tissues might lead to significant changes in the temperature distribution when modeling heat transfer during TTFields therapy.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura , Condutividade Térmica , Incerteza
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2516-2519, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018518

RESUMO

RF heating has severely limited the application of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the patients with active implantable medical devices (AIMDs). Based on the finite element methods (FEMs), we study the RF heating of a lead implanted in the human body under 3.0 T MRI. The coupled simulation of electromagnetic and heat transfer is used to analyze the relationship between several factors, such as the resonance length, the implantation position, the implantation configuration, and the thermal conductivity, and RF heating. Results show that the resonance length of the lead is half of the RF wavelength, and the temperature rise exceeds the acceptable range of human body when the resonance occurs. The electromagnetic field distribution in the phantom is not uniform, so the field density around the wire may vary with different implantation positions and configurations. Temperature rise reduces with the decrease of the field density. In addition, RF heating can be reduced by increasing the thermal conductivity.


Assuntos
Calefação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Instalação Elétrica , Humanos , Próteses e Implantes , Temperatura
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 716, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083864

RESUMO

In this research, sea surface temperature (SST) variability for the summer season in the Aegean Sea was analysed over a period of 30 years by using the Landsat thermal infrared bands. A total of 88 Landsat 5, 7, and 8 thermal infrared satellite images from June, July, and August were used for each year from 1989 to 2019. To estimate SST from the thermal infrared band data, thermal infrared sensor at-sensor spectral radiance, and thermal infrared sensor top-of-atmosphere brightness temperatures were used. SST pixel values were extracted from thermal images for the 3-month summer season of each year. In order to validate the findings, regression analysis was performed between the Mediterranean Sea Ultra High Resolution SST L4 data and Landsat data for the 2008-2019 period. Regression constant R-squared values were found to be 0.9672 for June, 0.9550 for July, 0.9634 for August, and 0.9634 for all summer seasons. It was calculated that the minimum value of the average SST was 18.44 ± 2.87 °C in 1992, and the maximum value of the average SST was 23.45 ± 0.70 °C in 2018. According to the Landsat data, over the past 30 years, the annual average SST changes were estimated to be 0.11 °C, and the total changes of average SST were estimated to be 3.19 ± 1.26 °C. As a result of the analysis and the validation, we can see that there is a rising trend in sea surface temperature in the Aegean Sea. However, it is difficult to determine whether this upward trend is related to global climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
14.
Mol Cell ; 80(2): 181-182, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065019

RESUMO

Some prion-like domains and low-complexity regions provide the multivalency required to facilitate protein phase separation to regulate protein function. Jung et al. (2020) demonstrate how natural selection of the ELF3 prion-like domain gives rise to an intuitive biological switch that directly responds to temperature.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Príons , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Príons/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Temperatura , Fatores de Transcrição
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 163-171, sept. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120874

RESUMO

Objetivos: Describir resultados de los últimos 11 años en el tratamiento de neuralgia del trigémino con termocoagulación por radiofrecuencia, analizar variables relacionadas a complicaciones y resultados. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, longitudinal, comparativo y analítico. Se analizaron los resultados de los últimos 11 años de nuestro servicio evaluando las temperaturas de las lesiones armando dos grupos, de 65°C-70°C y 71°C-75°C para analizar su relación con resultados y complicaciones. Resultados: Se trataron 59 pacientes en los cuales se realizaron 74 procedimientos, la edad media fue 59.22 años (±13,45). Se observó recidiva en 23 procedimientos con una tasa global de 31%. El tiempo medio de recidiva fue de 28,19 meses (±26,21). El tiempo medio de seguimiento fue de 33,10 meses (±33,49). El tiempo medio de evolución del dolor, previo al primer procedimiento, fue de 5,35 años (±4,37). Analizando los grupos se observó que no existía relación significativamente estadística (p = 0,74) entre el grupo de pacientes de 65ºC-70ºC y el grupo de 71ºC-75ºC y recidiva. No se observó relación estadísticamente significativa entre el grupo de 65ºC-70ºC y el grupo de 71ºC-75ºC y tiempo de recidiva (p=0,12). Se observó más pacientes con hipoestesia inmediata en el grupo de pacientes de 65ºC-70ºC, sin significación estadística (p=0,47). Conclusión: La termocoagulación por radiofrecuencia de ganglio de Gasser es un procedimiento accesible, mínimamente invasivo que demostró buenos resultados y buen manejo del dolor con bajo índice de complicaciones.


Objectives: Describe results of the last 11 years in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with radiofrequency thermocoagulation, analyze variables related to complications and results. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, longitudinal, comparative and analytical study. The results of the last 11 years of our service were analyzed by assessing the temperatures of the lesions by assembling two groups, 65° C-70° C and 71 ° C-75° C to analyze their relationship with results and complications. Results: 59 patients were treated in which 74 procedures were performed; the mean age was 59.22 years (± 13.45). Recurrence was observed in 23 procedures with an overall rate of 31%. The average recurrence time was 28.19 months (± 26.21). The average follow-up time was 33.10 months (± 33.49). The average time of pain evolution, prior to the first procedure, was 5.35 years (± 4.37). Analyzing the groups, it was observed that there was no significant statistical relationship (p = 0.74) between the group of patients from 65ºC-70ºC and the group from 71ºC-75ºC and recurrence. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the 65ºC-70ºC group and the 71ºC-75ºC group and recurrence time (p = 0.12). More patients with immediate hypoaesthesia were observed in the group of patients from 65ºC-70ºC, without statistical significance (p = 0.47). Conclusion: Gasser's ganglion radiofrequency thermocoagulation is an accessible, minimally invasive procedure that demonstrated good results and good pain management with a low complication rate


Assuntos
Humanos , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Temperatura , Terapêutica , Gânglio Trigeminal , Eletrocoagulação , Manejo da Dor , Neuralgia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faced with the global pandemic of COVID-19, declared by World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11th 2020, and the need to better understand the seasonal behavior of the virus, our team conducted this systematic review to describe current knowledge about the emergence and replicability of the virus and its connection with different weather factors such as temperature and relative humidity. METHODS: The review was registered with the PROSPERO database. The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LILACS, OpenGrey and Google Scholar were examined with the searches restricted to the years 2019 and 2020. Risk of bias assessment was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist tool. The GRADE tool was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: The initial screening identified 517 articles. After examination of the full texts, seventeen studies met the review's eligibility criteria. Great homogeneity was observed in the findings regarding the effect of temperature and humidity on the seasonal viability and transmissibility of COVID-19. Cold and dry conditions were potentiating factors on the spread of the virus. After quality assessment, two studies had a high risk of bias, eleven studies were scored as moderate risk of bias, and four studies were classified as low risk of bias. The certainty of evidence was graded as low for both outcomes evaluated. CONCLUSION: Considering the existing scientific evidence, warm and wet climates seem to reduce the spread of COVID-19. However, these variables alone could not explain most of the variability in disease transmission. Therefore, the countries most affected by the disease should focus on health policies, even with climates less favorable to the virus. Although the certainty of the evidence generated was classified as low, there was homogeneity between the results reported by the included studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Temperatura , Viés , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4616, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934229

RESUMO

Para-nematic phases, induced by unwinding chiral helices, spontaneously relax to a chiral ground state through phase ordering dynamics that are of great interest and crucial for applications such as stimuli-responsive and biomimetic engineering. In this work, we characterize the cholesteric phase relaxation behaviors of ß-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils and cellulose nanocrystals confined into cylindrical capillaries, uncovering two different equilibration pathways. The integration of experimental measurements and theoretical predictions reveals the starkly distinct underlying mechanism behind the relaxation dynamics of ß-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils, characterized by slow equilibration achieved through consecutive sigmoidal-like steps, and of cellulose nanocrystals, characterized by fast equilibration obtained through smooth relaxation dynamics. Particularly, the specific relaxation behaviors are shown to emerge from the order parameter of the unwound cholesteric medium, which depends on chirality and elasticity. The experimental findings are supported by direct numerical simulations, allowing to establish hard-to-measure viscoelastic properties without applying magnetic or electric fields.


Assuntos
Lactoglobulinas/química , Cristais Líquidos/química , Amiloide/química , Coloides/química , Elasticidade , Cinética , Nanopartículas/química , Transição de Fase , Temperatura
18.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 374-378, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955217

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scabies is a contagious parasitic disease, a skin infestation caused by Scaroptes scabieri, tiny mites that burrow under the skin. Outbreaks of scabies can be difficult to control and require the implementation of appropriate control programme. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of scabies in north-east Poland, considering socio-economic and selected climatic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was based on data reports (n=26,362) obtained from the Polish National Health Fund (NFZ) for the period 2007-2014. Monthly climate data were collected from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management/National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) in Warsaw, including data on temperature and relative humidity. Additionally, the influence of socio-economic factors on the prevalence of scabies was analyzed. Data on population size, medical staff, and unemployment rate were obtained from the Central Statistical Office (GUS) in Warsaw, and analyzed using SPSS Statistics 24.0 programme. RESULTS: The age group of 10-19 years showed the highest infestation rates. Seasonality of scabies was demonstrated. The highest numbers of cases were reported during the autumn and winter months. There was a significant negative correlation (rho = -0.499; p<0.001) between air temperature and the incidence of scabies, and a positive correlation (r = 0.532; p<0.001) between relative humidity and the number of cases reported. A rise in the unemployment rate also caused an increase in the scabies incidence rate (r = 0.294; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that an improvement of socio-economic conditions may contribute to a reduction in the number of scabies infections. The possibility should be considered of monitoring the parameters, such as air temperature and humidity, particularly when scabies outbreaks occur.


Assuntos
Escabiose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Escabiose/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Temperatura , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4621, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963240

RESUMO

Arctic warming can influence tundra ecosystem function with consequences for climate feedbacks, wildlife and human communities. Yet ecological change across the Arctic tundra biome remains poorly quantified due to field measurement limitations and reliance on coarse-resolution satellite data. Here, we assess decadal changes in Arctic tundra greenness using time series from the 30 m resolution Landsat satellites. From 1985 to 2016 tundra greenness increased (greening) at ~37.3% of sampling sites and decreased (browning) at ~4.7% of sampling sites. Greening occurred most often at warm sampling sites with increased summer air temperature, soil temperature, and soil moisture, while browning occurred most often at cold sampling sites that cooled and dried. Tundra greenness was positively correlated with graminoid, shrub, and ecosystem productivity measured at field sites. Our results support the hypothesis that summer warming stimulated plant productivity across much, but not all, of the Arctic tundra biome during recent decades.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Tundra , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Solo , Temperatura
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866211

RESUMO

The San Francisco Bay outflow creates a tidally influenced low-salinity plume that affects adjacent coastal sites. In the study region, Anthopleura elegantissima (Cnidaria; Anthozoa) hosts a single symbiont, the dinoflagellate Breviolum muscatinei. Salinity, temperature, and aerial stress induce a bleaching response similar to corals where symbionts are expelled, causing further energetic stress. Using field observations of environmental conditions and symbiont abundance at sites on a gradient of exposure to estuarine outflow, along with a fully crossed multifactorial lab experiment, we tested for changes in symbiont abundance in response to various combinations of three stressors. Lab experiments were designed to mimic short term outflow events with low salinity, high temperature, and aerial exposure treatments. The lab aerial exposure treatment was a statistically significant factor in suppressing symbiont repopulation (ANOVA, p = .017). In the field, symbiont density decreased with increasing tidal height at the site closest to freshwater outflow (ANOVA, p = .007), suggesting that aerial exposure may affect symbiont density more than sea surface temperature and salinity. Unanticipated documentation of survival in 9 months of sand burial and subsequent repopulation of symbionts is reported as a six-month extension to past observations, exemplifying strong tolerance to environmental insult in this Cnidarian mutualism. The study of this symbiosis is useful in examining predicted changes in ocean conditions in tidepool communities and considering relative sources of stress.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Anêmonas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Animais , Água Doce , Temperatura Alta , São Francisco , Temperatura
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