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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 960-964, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484261

RESUMO

Objective: To study the lag effect of temperature and the source of heterogeneity on other infectious diarrhea (OID) in Zhejiang province, so as to identify related vulnerable populations at risk. Methods: Data on OID and meteorology in Zhejiang province from 2014 to 2016 were collected. A two-stage model was conducted, including: 1) using the distributed lag non-linear model to estimate the city-specific lag effect of temperature on OID, 2) applying the multivariate Meta- analysis to pool the estimated city-specific effect, 3) using the multivariate Meta-regression to explore the sources of heterogeneity. Results: There were 301 593 cases of OID in Zhejiang province during the study period. At the provincial level, temperature that corresponding to the lowest risk of OID was 16.7 ℃, and the temperature corresponding to the highest risk was 6.2℃ (RR=2.298, 95%CI: 1.527- 3.459). 16.7 ℃ was recognized as the reference temperature. P(5) and P(95) of the average daily temperature represented low and high temperature respectively. When the temperature was cold, the risk was delayed by 2 days, with the highest risk found on the 5(th) day (RR=1.057, 95%CI: 1.030-1.084) before decreasing to the 23(rd) day. When the temperature got hot, the risk of OID occurred on the first day (RR=1.081, 95%CI: 1.045-1.118) and gradually decreasing to the 8(th) day. Differences on heterogeneous sources related to the risks of OID in different regions, presented on urban latitude and the rate of ageing in the population. Conclusions: Both high or low temperature could increase the risk of OID, with a lag effect noticed. Prevention program on OID should be focusing on populations living in the high latitude and the elderly population at the low temperature areas.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , China , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3066-3074, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529882

RESUMO

The differentiation characteristics of landscape pattern affect the urban thermal environment. In this study, temperature characteristics of nine types of landscape in a national forest city, Longquan City, were analyzed by temperature inversion method and spatial analysis. The landscape pattern analysis method was used to explore the correlation of landscape metrics and the thermal environment from 1 km to 3.5 km. The results showed that the high and sub-high temperature zones of Longquan City were distributed in northeast-southwest, mainly composed of urban and rural residential areas. The low and sub-low temperature zone were mainly distributed in the northwest and southeast areas, mainly composed of public welfare forests. By calculating the mean land surface temperature of each landscape type in the area below 700 m above sea level, the temperature of coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, conifer-broadleaf forest, bamboo forest and water was relatively low, whereas that of shrub land, other forest land, cultivated land and construction land was relatively high. Through the analysis of landscape pattern and thermal environment, it was found that the class pattern index was more practical than the landscape pattern index. The correlation between thermal environment effect and construction land distribution reached 0.835, coniferous forest land, broadleaf forest land, coniferous-broadleaf forest land and water were the second, up to -0.5 to -0.4. The cooling effects of different forest types vaied across different spatial scales. Broadleaved forests and coniferous-broadleaved forests were more conducive to cooling at large scales. The larger the area and volume stock of forest land, the more likely it had the lowest land surface temperature.


Assuntos
Clima , Florestas , Temperatura Ambiente , China , Cidades
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10624-10636, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483633

RESUMO

The freshness and color quality of postharvest tea leaves can be markedly prolonged and retained by proper preservation measures. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes of chlorophyll and its derivatives in postharvest tea leaves under different low-temperature treatments using natural withering as a control. Chlorophyll decomposition was found closely related with chlorophyllide, pheophorbide, and pheophytin. Low-temperature withering could slow chlorophyll degradation in postharvest tea leaves via significant inhibition on the enzyme activity and gene expression of Mg-dechelatase, chlorophyllase, and pheophorbide a oxygenase. At the initial stage of withering, a significant increase was observed in the chlorophyll content, expression of chlorophyll-synthesis-related enzymes (such as glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, etc.), and chlorophyll synthase activity in newly picked tea leaves. Moreover, an obvious decrease was found in the content of l-glutamate as the foremost precursor substance of chlorophyll synthesis. Hence, our findings revealed that the chlorophyll synthesis reaction was induced by the light-dehydration-stress in the initial withering of tea leaves. This study provides a theoretical basis for exploring preservation technology in actual green tea production.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cor , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553366

RESUMO

Candida haemulonii complex (C. haemulonii, C. haemulonii var. vulnera and C. duobushaemulonii) consists of emergent multidrug-resistant pathogens that cause bloodstream and deep-seated infections. However, little is known about their virulence factors. Herein, we evaluated the presence of extracellular serine peptidases in this fungal complex. Serine peptidase activity was measured by spectrophotometry using chromogenic peptide substrates to the S1 family. Chymotrypsin-, trypsin- and elastase-like activities were detected in all fungal isolates. Since higher chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities were observed from the cleavage of N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNa and N-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pNa, respectively, these substrates were selected for further experiments. Overall, pHs 7.0 and 9.0 were those in which higher chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities were observed, respectively, displaying higher hydrolytic activities at 37-45°C. Additionally, the serine peptidases produced by C. haemulonii complex were inhibited by PMSF and AEBSF in a typically concentration-dependent manner. Although the Michaelis constant (Km) values obtained for chymotrypsin-like peptidases were similar, greater differences were observed for trypsin-like enzymes secreted by the different fungal isolates. This is the first time that peptidases belonging to the S1 family are described in the C. haemulonii species complex. Thus, these data open the doors for more detailed studies into potential roles of these peptidases in fungal virulence.


Assuntos
Candida/enzimologia , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla , Tripsina/metabolismo , Candida/classificação , Meios de Cultura , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122039, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476562

RESUMO

An anaerobic ammonium oxidation-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (anammox-UASB) reactor was operated without temperature control during the four seasons and was therefore subjected to natural periodic temperature variations between 9 and 28 ℃. The anammox reactor had a high nitrogen removal ability at intermediate and low temperatures. The total nitrogen (TN) concentration of the influent increased from 200 to 1200 mg/L, the nitrogen removal efficiency was maintained at 90%, and the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) increased to 9.15 ±â€¯0.35 kg N/m3/d. The enrichment of anammox bacteria in the UASB granular sludge reached 53.8%, and the dominant bacteria changed from Candidatus Brocadia to Candidatus Kuenenia after several seasons of cultivation. Dynamics analysis revealed that the maximum reaction rate of the anammox-UASB sludge was 62.5 kg N/m3/d, reflecting the high potential nitrogen removal ability of the reactor.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122087, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493729

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of torrefaction on the gasification reactivity of chars from raw and torrefied biomass was investigated. Three torrefaction temperatures and four pyrolysis temperatures were taken into consideration. It was found that the severe torrefaction (300 °C) would reduce the char gasification reactivity by at least 19% according to the normalized gasification rate. Moreover, the reduction of gasification reactivity appeared after the midterm stage. The gasification reaction were further analyzed by nucleation/growth model and model-free method. The activation energy increased by ~80 kJ/mol with conversion, indicating an enhancement of the reaction resistance. Furthermore, 800 °C pyrolysis was found to be a turning point, beyond which the gasification reactivity reduced significantly. These reactivity changes were implied by the bio-char structure evolution and active alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) contents variations. The research results provide insights into the effect of torrefaction on biomass gasification.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Biomassa , Cinética , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122056, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514117

RESUMO

Aiming at optimizing the adsorption process of Chlorella vulgaris and cationic starch, the adsorption thermodynamic characteristics were evaluated. Different from inorganic calcium salt adsorbent, the adsorption nature of organic polymer cationic starch is exothermic (ΔH°â€¯< 0) and spontaneous (ΔG°â€¯< 0). Besides, the adsorption capacity and rate can be well described by Langmiur isotherm and pseudo second kinetic models. As results of exothermic nature and great driving force of lower temperature, the adsorption capacity and rate declined with the rising temperature. The maximal values of them were obtained at 278.15 K, which were 9148.14 mg microalgae (g cationic starch)-1 and 8.74 × 10-6 mg g-1 min-1. Additionally, with insufficient adsorbent, the highest adsorption efficiency (96.37%) was achieved at 278.15 K for stirring 150 min. For 288.15, 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K, the adsorption efficiency decreased to 93.77%, 86.75%, 83.32% and 81.57% and the time consumed were at least 40 min longer.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Polímeros , Amido , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122021, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514121

RESUMO

The intrinsic reason determining digestion performance of 100-160 °C preheated food waste after recovering floatable oil (FO-recovered FW) was investigated using two-dimensional correlated infrared spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that thermal temperature significantly affected CH4 production of FO-recovered FW due to different structural alteration degree of starch, protein, cellulose and lipid components. Fragmentation of starch mainly occurred at 100 °C. The hydrolytic and acidogenic rate of starch was promoted and accordingly induced rapid growth of carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria, which resulted in severe acidification. Protein hydrolysis and cellulose H-bonds cleavage occurring at 120-160 °C accelerated the accessible sites interacting with microbial hydrolytic enzymes, and growth of Cloacimonetes and Syntrophomonas enhanced CH4 production. Non-degradable humic acid-like organics remarkably formed at 160 °C caused a carbon loss and digestion inhibiting/deteriorating. Pretreatment at 120 °C was feasible for promoted methane production based on energy assessment.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Metano , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122066, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557641

RESUMO

This work investigated the effects of different temperatures on methane production, kinetics, and microbial communities during solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) using rice straw. The results indicated that thermophilic anaerobic digestion led to the faster methane production (13.74 L/kg) and a shorter biogas production cycle (34 days) than mesophilic anaerobic digestion (5.48 L/kg, 58 days). SS-AD under thermophilic conditions resulted in more intense lignocellulose degradation and better fitting results. The species of microorganisms did not differ when the temperature was altered; however, the abundances of various phyla, particularly Firmicutes, differed. Overall, the findings suggested that thermophilic SS-AD had higher methanogenic efficiency and dramatically altered the structure of the microbial community during solid-state anaerobic digestion. Moreover, a potential effective strategy for agricultural waste management by SS-AD was proposed.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Oryza , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Waste Manag ; 99: 49-59, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472440

RESUMO

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Animal By-Products (ABP) is a promising technology for their recycling and disposal. Different operating parameters have been studied to determine their influence on the process. Higher heating values of biocrudes ranging between 35 and 39 MJ/kg have been obtained showing a maximum yield of 61% at 225 °C. At low HTL temperature, the products are similar to those of rendering process and the biocrude is mainly formed by triglycerides and fatty acids in a 90:10 ratio, approximately. By increasing temperature, the free fatty acid yield increases, as well as amides and heterocyclic compounds as a result of the triglycerides and protein reactions. Between 250 and 290 °C a great difference in the composition of the biocrude obtained is observed. Water content also showed significant effects on the product yields. Large amounts of foams were obtained at low water contents that were minimised when it is increased. This is a very important feature to be considered for scaling up the phase separation process. Glycerine amount in the aqueous phase was remarkable, as a consequence of fat hydrolysis. Increasing pH to 9 increases the extraction of organics into the aqueous phase, whereas operating at pH 5 yields similar amounts of biocrude as compared with neutral pH, with a higher percentage of fatty acids. Reusing of the aqueous phase is necessary for the viability of the process and leads to increasing amounts of dissolved organics in the aqueous phase with the number of cycles, reaching a saturation level after three-four recycling rounds.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4895-4909, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456636

RESUMO

Introduction: Insulin is given by injection, because when administered orally, it would be destroyed by enzymes in the digestive system, hence only about 0.1% reaches blood circulation. The purpose of the present study was to use pH sensitive polyelectrolyte methyl methacrylate (MMA)/itaconic acid (IA) nanogels as carriers in an attempt to improve absorption of insulin administered orally. Methods: Insulin (Ins) was incorporated into the MMA/IA nanogels (NGs) using the polyelectrolyte complexation (PEC) method to form Ins/NGs-PEC. Several parameters, including Ins:NGs ratio, pH, incubation time and stirring rate were optimized during preparation of InsNGs-PEC. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential (ZP) and percent entrapment efficiency (% EE). Results: The optimized InF12 nanogels had a PS, PdI, ZP and %EE of 190.43 nm, 0.186, -16.70 mV and 85.20%, respectively. The InF12 nanogels were lyophilized in the presence of different concentrations of trehalose as cryoprotectant. The lyophilized InF12 containing 2%w/v trahalose (InF12-Tre2 nanogels) was chosen as final formulation which had a PS, PdI, ZP and %EE of 430.50 nm, 0.588, -16.50 mv and 82.10, respectively. The in vitro release of insulin from InF12-Tre2 nanogels in the SGF and SIF were 28.71% and 96.53%, respectively. The stability study conducted at 5±3°C for 3 months showed that lnF12-Tre2 nanogels were stable. The SDS-PAGE assay indicated that the primary structure of insulin in the lnF12-Tre2 nanogels was intact. The in-vivo study in the diabetic rats following oral administration of InF12-Tre2 nanogels at a dose of 100 IU/kg body weight reduced blood glucose level significantly to 51.10% after 6 hours compared to the control groups. Conclusions: The pH sensitive MMA/IA nanogels are potential carriers for oral delivery of insulin as they enhanced the absorption of the drug.


Assuntos
Liofilização , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Polieletrólitos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoimina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ponto Isoelétrico , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121857, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377511

RESUMO

In the present work, a complete study of the sewage sludge (SS) biodrying technology was conducted at bench-scale, aiming at assessing its performance and providing a valuable insight into the different gaseous emission patterns found for greenhouse gases (GHG) and odorant pollutants. As process key parameters, temperature, specific airflow, dynamic respiration index, final moisture content and Lower Calorific Value (LCV) were evaluated. At the end of the biodrying, a product with a 35.9% moisture content and a LCV of 7.1 MJ·kg-1product was obtained. GHGs emission factor was 28.22 kgCO2eq per Mg of initial mass of dry matter in the SS (DM0-SS). During the biodrying process, maximum odour concentration measured was 3043 ou·m-3 and the estimated odour emission factor of the biological treatment was 3.10E + 07 ou per Mg DM0-SS. Finally, VOCs were completely identified and quantified. The most abundant VOCs found in the biodrying gaseous emissions were terpenes, sulphur-compounds and ketones.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa/química , Odorantes , Esgotos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(8): 806-811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the predictive significance of exhaled breath temperature (EBT) for airway inflammation changes in children with asthma. METHODS: A total of 60 children with asthma who met the inclusion criteria at the first visit were chosen as the asthma group, and 60 healthy children were selected as the control group. The EBT level was measured by the latest third-generation product (X-halo). The Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) score was recorded. EBT level and C-ACT score were compared between the asthma and control groups. At the subsequent visit one month later, the children were divided into well-controlled, partially-controlled, and uncontrolled groups according to their C-ACT scores. The EBT level and the FeNO level of the three groups were measured. EBT level and C-ACT score were compared among the three groups. The correlation between EBT and FeNO was analyzed. The data of initial diagnosis were reviewed, the EBT level and C-ACT score at the first visit were compared among the three groups, and the differences in EBT level and C-ACT score among the three groups at the second and first visits were evaluated. RESULTS: At the first visit, the asthma group had a significantly higher EBT and a significantly lower C-ACT score compared with the control group (P<0.05). At the time of the subsequent visit, there was a significant difference in EBT level between the three groups, i.e., uncontrolled group > partially-controlled group > well-controlled group (P<0.05), and there was also a significant difference in C-ACT score between the three groups, i.e., well-controlled group > partially-controlled group > uncontrolled group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in EBT level and C-ACT score at the first visit between the three groups. From the first visit to the subsequent visit, EBT level was significantly decreased in the well-controlled group (P<0.05), but significantly increased in both partially-controlled group uncontrolled groups (P<0.05); C-ACT score was significantly increased in the well-controlled and partially-controlled groups (P<0.05), but significantly decreased in the uncontrolled group (P<0.05). EBT and FeNO levels at the subsequent visit were positively correlated with each other in the uncontrolled group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EBT has predictive significance for the changes in airway inflammation in children with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , Humanos , Inflamação , Óxido Nítrico , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121834, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371157

RESUMO

In present study, lipids were extracted from unbroken microalga Chlorella vulgaris with high water content (50% microalgal solution) through three-phase partitioning (TPP). The method was found to extract around 15.9% of total lipid transformable to methyl esters (LTMEs) from unbroken microalgal cells which is two times of Bligh and Dyer method. We investigated the effects of various parameters on TPP performance and were optimised through response surface methodology. The results indicated that incubation duration, temperature and extraction time were positively correlated with LTME extraction efficiency. The optimum temperature was 60 °C, incubation duration was 120 min, extraction time was 60 min, ratio of solvent to DKP was 1:1. The FAME yield was calculated as 12.05% and major fatty acids together accounted for 71.33% which indicated the great potential of the proposed lipid extraction procedure for microalga-based biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Microalgas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Solventes , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
15.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 29(3): 030701, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379459

RESUMO

Introduction: Complement functional analyses provide insight into the integrity of the entire complement reaction cascade. These tests are suitable for investigating suspected complement deficiencies. Falsely reduced test outcomes may result from preanalytical instabilities of individual complement components. To generate rationale for this or potential alternative practices, this study aimed to extend the knowledge on the preanalytical stability of widely used tests to screen the complement system. We assessed the influence of time, temperature and EDTA on classical (CH50) and alternative pathway (AP50) functional assay test results. Materials and methods: We used nephelometric (C3d) and immunofixation (C3c) techniques to support the investigation of the preanalytical phase of basic complement system activity tests. Quantitative determination of classical and alternative pathway function was performed with a haemolytic activity assay and a C5b-9 neo-epitope ELISA-based assay respectively. Blood of five healthy volunteers was sampled and complement components allowed to degrade under different conditions. Results: CH50 and AP50 remain stable for approximately one week in serum samples incubated on ice. CH50 activity decreased almost twice as fast in EDTA plasma compared to serum at room temperature. AP50 activity contrastingly, decreased twice as slow in EDTA plasma compared to serum at room temperature. Conclusion: Serum on ice remains the preferred specimen for functional complement analyses. In the absence of serum transported on ice, serum kept at room temperature (not exceeding 24h) is suitable for classical and alternative pathway analyses. For alternative pathway analyses specifically, the C3-stabilising effect of EDTA allows for the extended use of EDTA plasma (not over 4 days). In these conditions, at least 85% of baseline complement activity remains.


Assuntos
Via Alternativa do Complemento , Via Clássica do Complemento , Fase Pré-Analítica/normas , Complemento C3/análise , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/análise , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hemólise , Humanos , Soro/química , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125689, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383298

RESUMO

Heterorhabditis nematodes are parasites of a wide range of soil-dwelling insect species. Although these nematodes have been exploited as biological control agents since the last half of the 20th century, much research remains to be done to understand how these organisms function in agricultural and other ecosystems. In this study, we present some ecological traits of Heterorhabditis sonorensis, a natural parasite of the cicada Diceroprocta ornea, from the Sonoran Desert. Specifically, we evaluated its infectivity across a diverse panel of insect groups and assessed its fitness (infectivity and reproduction) considering different temperatures, and soil moisture levels. Three other Heterorhabditis species served as points of comparison for temperature and soil moisture assays. Host range experiments indicate that H. sonorensis, although isolated from seasonal cicada nymphs, is more virulent and reproductively fit in the lepidopteran hosts tested. This nematode has an optimum temperature range at 25-30 °C but can also successfully reproduce at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 °C. Additionally, this nematode is adapted to a variety of soil moisture conditions with successful infections across the tested moisture range (3%-20%). Finally, we demonstrate that H. sonorensis infective juveniles have a high survival rate (over 80%) at various storage temperatures (10-25 °C) after 24 weeks of storage and remain infective as revealed by the post-storage infection assays.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Meio Ambiente , Nematoides , Animais , Hemípteros/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Solo/química , Solo/parasitologia , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Pharm Res ; 36(10): 144, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392417

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential to become a viable cancer treatment modality, but its clinical translation requires sufficient tumor boron delivery while minimizing nonspecific accumulation. METHODS: Thermal sensitive liposomes (TSLs) were designed to have a stable drug payload at physiological temperatures but engineered to have high permeability under mild hyperthermia. RESULTS: We found that TSLs improved the tumor-specific delivery of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and boronated 2-nitroimidazole derivative B-381 in D54 glioma cells. Uniquely, the 2-nitroimidazole moiety extended the tumor retention of boron content compared to BPA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show the delivery of boronated compounds using TSLs for BNCT, and these results will provide the basis of future clinical trials using TSLs for BNCT.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/química , Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro , Lipossomos/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Compostos de Boro/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Boro/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Glioma/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Camundongos Nus , Nitroimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Nitroimidazóis/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Fenilalanina/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Science ; 365(6454)2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416935

RESUMO

Free et al (Reports, 1 March 2019, p. 979) linked sea surface temperature (SST) to surplus production and estimated a 4% decline in maximum sustainable yield (MSY) since 1930. Changes in MSY are expected when fitting production models to age-structured data, so attributing observed changes to SST is problematic. Analyses of recruitment (a metric of productivity in the same database) showed increases in global productivity.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Peixes , Animais , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Science ; 365(6454)2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416936

RESUMO

Szuwalski argues that varying age structure can affect surplus production and that recruitment is a better metric of productivity. We explain how our null model controlled for age structure and other processes as explanations for the temperature-production relationship. Surplus production includes growth, recruitment, and other processes and provides a more complete description of food production impacts than does recruitment alone.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 136, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432249

RESUMO

Volatile phenols such as 4-ethylphenol are produced from hydroxycinnamic acids by Dekkera bruxellensis, an important yeast contaminating alcoholic fermentations. 4-ethylphenol results from the decarboxylation and reduction of p-coumaric acid, a compound found in sugarcane musts. In wine, volatile phenols are responsible by sensorial alterations whereas in the context of bioethanol fermentation, little is known about their effects on the main yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we evaluated the interaction of 4-ethylphenol and pH, sucrose and ethanol on the growth and fermentation capacity of the industrial strain of S. cerevisiae PE-2. A central compound rotational design was utilized to evaluate the effect of 4-ethylphenol, pH, ethanol and sucrose concentration on the yeast maximum specific growth rate (µmax) in microplate experiments in YPS medium (Yeast extract-Peptone-Sucrose), at 30 °C. Following, single-cycle fermentations in YPS medium, pH 4.5, 17% sucrose, at 30 °C, with 4-ethylphenol in concentrations of 10 and 20 mg L-1 being added at the start or after 4 h of fermentation, were carried out. 4-ethylphenol affected µmax of S. cerevisiae in situations that resemble the conditions of industrial bioethanol production, especially the low pH of the fermentation medium and the high ethanol concentration because of the anaerobic sucrose uptake. The addition of 4-ethylphenol on fermentation resulted in significant effect on the cell yeast concentration, pH and alcohol production, with significant decrease from 86% to the range of 65-74% in the fermentative efficiency. The industrial yeast S. cerevisiae PE-2 growth and fermentative capacity were affected by the presence of 4-ethylphenol, a metabolite produced by D. bruxellensis, which may contribute to explain the impact of this yeast on bioethanol industrial production.


Assuntos
Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Fenóis/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Inibidores do Crescimento/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Ambiente
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