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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430355

RESUMO

Background: This year has seen the emergence of two major crises, a significant increase in the frequency and severity of hurricanes and the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known as to how each of these two events have impacted the other. A rapid qualitative assessment was conducted to determine the impact of the pandemic on preparedness and response to natural disasters and the impact of past experiences with natural disasters in responding to the pandemic. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 representatives of 24 different community-based programs in southern Louisiana. Data were analyzed using procedures embedded in the Rapid Assessment Procedure-Informed Community Ethnography methodology, using techniques of immersion and crystallization and focused thematic analysis. Results: The pandemic has impacted the form and function of disaster preparedness, making it harder to plan for evacuations in the event of a hurricane. Specific concerns included being able to see people in person, providing food and other resources to residents who shelter in place, finding volunteers to assist in food distribution and other forms of disaster response, competing for funds to support disaster-related activities, developing new support infrastructures, and focusing on equity in disaster preparedness. However, several strengths based on disaster preparedness experience and capabilities were identified, including providing a framework for how to respond and adapt to COVID and integration of COVID response with their normal disaster preparedness activities. Conclusions: Although prior experience has enabled community-based organizations to respond to the pandemic, the pandemic is also creating new challenges to preparing for and responding to natural disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Pandemias , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Humanos , Louisiana
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141702, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861078

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Crisis text lines have proven to be an effective and low-cost means for delivering texting-based mental health support to youth. Yet there has been limited research examining the use of these services in capturing the psychological impact on youth affected by a weather-related disaster. OBJECTIVE: This ecologic study examined changes in help-seeking behavior for adolescents and young adults in North and South Carolina, USA, before and after Hurricane Florence (2018). DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOMES: A retrospective, interrupted time-series design was used to examine pre- and post-hurricane changes in crisis text volume among youth help seekers in the Carolinas for the following outcomes: (1) text for any reason; (2) stress & anxiety; (3) depression; and (4) suicidal thoughts. RESULTS: Results showed an immediate and sustained increase in crisis texts for stress/anxiety and suicidal thoughts in the six weeks following Florence. Overall, an immediate 15% increase in crisis texts for anxiety/stress (SE = 0.05, p = .005) and a 17% increase in suicidal thoughts (SE = 0.07, p = .02) occurred during the week of the storm. Text volume for anxiety/stress increased 17% (SE = 0.08, p = .005) and 23% for suicidal ideation (SE = 0.08, p = .01) in the 6-week post-hurricane period. Finally, forecast models revealed observed text volume for all mental health outcomes was higher than expected in the 6 weeks post-Florence. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A low-cost, crisis texting platform provided 24/7 mental health support available to young people in the Carolinas impacted by Hurricane Florence. These findings highlight a new application for text-based crisis support services to address the mental health consequences in youth following a weather-related disaster, as well as the potential for these types of crisis platforms to measure situational awareness in impacted communities.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , South Carolina , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111400, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011422

RESUMO

The US National Flood Insurance Program maps and classifies flood risk based on observed data for the frequency of flood events, using terms such as '100-year flood' and '500-year flood.' The purpose of these classifications is to convey information about the likelihood of a flood event to property owners and to inform the decision or mandate to purchase flood insurance. The flooding that followed Hurricane Harvey in 2017 brought heightened use of 100-year-flood terminology in the media. Often, the term was incorrectly used, misrepresenting the risk that is intended to be conveyed by the technical term. Misuse of flood terminology and related misperception of risk has important implications for society, including over- or under-insuring property owners and inadequate individual and collective preparedness. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted to gauge understanding of Federal Emergency Management Agency flood risk terminology and to examine links between estimating flood risk and proximity to flooding, knowledge of independent probabilities, and demographics. We found that the driving force behind correctly interpreting technical flood terminology was understanding of independent probabilities, while education and recent exposure or proximity to a severe flood event did not have a statistically significant influence.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Inundações , Probabilidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Water Res ; 188: 116470, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045638

RESUMO

Intense storms pose a serious threat to ecosystem functioning and services. However, the effects of typhoons (tropical cyclones) on the biogeochemical processes mediating risk of eutrophication in deep freshwater ecosystems remain unclear. Here, we conducted a three-year study to elucidate linkages between environmental change, stable isotopes and the stoichiometry of particulate organic matter (POM), and nutrient cycling (i.e., carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) in a subtropical deep reservoir subjected to typhoon events. The typhoons significantly changed the nutrient levels in the deep waters as well as the thermocline position. Increased typhoon-driven organic matter input, algae sinking and heterotrophic decomposition interacted with each other to cause steep and prolonged increases of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus in the bottom waters of the reservoir. Small-sized or pico-sized POM (i.e., 0.2-3 µm) showed a substantial increase in bottom waters, and it exhibited stronger response than large-sized POM (i.e., 3-20, 20-64, 64-200 µm) to the typhoons. Our results also indicated that typhoons boost the nutrient cycling in deep waters mainly through pico-sized POM.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Água Doce , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Material Particulado , Papel (figurativo)
6.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111858, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360552

RESUMO

Flash flood is one of the most dangerous hydrologic and natural phenomena and is considered as the top ranking of such events among various natural disasters due to their fast onset characteristics and the proportion of individual fatalities. Mapping the probability of flash flood events remains challenges because of its complexity and rapid onset of precipitation. Thus, this study aims to propose a state-of-the-art data mining approach based on a hybrid equilibrium optimized SysFor, namely, the HE-SysFor model, for spatial prediction of flash floods. A tropical storm region located in the Northwest areas of Vietnam is selected as a case study. For this purpose, 1866 flash-flooded locations and ten indicators were used. The results show that the proposed HE-SysFor model yielded the highest predictive performance (total accuracy = 93.8%, Kappa index = 0.875, F1-score = 0.939, and AUC = 0.975) and produced the better performance than those of the C4.5 decision tree (C4.5), the radial basis function-based support vector machine (SVM-RBF), the logistic regression (LReg), and deep learning neural network (DeepLNN) models in both the training and the testing phases. Among the ten indicators, elevation, slope, and land cover are the most important. It is concluded that the proposed model provides an alternative tool and may help for effectively monitoring flash floods in tropical areas and robust policies for decision making in mitigating the flash flood impacts.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Inundações , Mineração de Dados , Rios , Vietnã
7.
Bogotá; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; dic. 05, 2020. 7 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140276

RESUMO

A la fecha Colombia reporta 1.334.089 casos (9.297 casos nuevos en las últimas 24h) con un incremento nacional del 0,7% en las últimas 24h y 37.117 defunciones (183 las últimas 24 Horas) con un aumento nacional del 0,5% en las últimas 24h. Los departamentos y distritos que presentaron los aumentos relativos más altos de COVID-19 en los últimos 7 días fueron: Caldas 11,9% (2.070), Quindío 11,5% (1.397), Tolima 11,5% (2.445), Norte Santander 10,3% (2.075), Boyacá 9,3% (1.302), Casanare 9,0% (504), Cartagena 8,7% (2.044), Risaralda 7,8% (1.297), Santa Marta 7,3% (765), Santander 7,1% (2.658). La tasa de incidencia nacional es de 2.648,5 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes; los departamentos y/o distritos que superan la tasa nacional son en su orden: Bogotá (4.905,8), Amazonas (3.992,7), Barranquilla (3.590,0), San Andrés (3.433,7), Caquetá (3.275,8), Antioquia (3.247,0), Quindío (3.157,9), Cartagena (3.107,4), Huila (2.713,3), Meta (2.686,8). La tasa de mortalidad nacional es de 736,9 muertes por cada millón de habitantes; se observa una tasa de mortalidad mayor a la nacional en: Amazonas (1.556,6), Barranquilla (1.375,7), Caquetá (1.169,2), Bogotá (1.110,5), Santa Marta (943,2), Córdoba (904,3), Santander (893,5), Huila (870,3), Norte Santander (865,9), Quindío (831,8), Valle del Cauca (778,9).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Desastres Naturais/mortalidade , Colômbia/epidemiologia
8.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(5): 383-398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In late 2012, Hurricane Sandy struck the eastern United States. Healthcare infrastructure in New York City-including long-term care facilities (LTCFs)-was affected significantly. The authors examined the impact of the storm on LTCFs 2 years after the event, using a qualitative approach consisting of a semistructured interview focused on preparedness and response. Important insights regarding preparedness and response may be lost by quantitative analysis or outcome measurement alone. During Sandy, individuals at LTCFs experienced the event in important subjective ways that, in aggregate, could lead to valuable insights about how facilities might mitigate future risks. The authors used data from a semistructured interview to generate hypotheses regarding the preparation and response of LTCFs. The interview tool was designed to help develop theories to explain why LTCF staff and administrators experienced the event in the way they did, and to use that data to inform future policy and research. METHODS: Representatives from LTCFs located in a heavily affected area of New York City were approached for participation in a semistructured interview. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Recurrent themes were coded based on time period (before, during, or after the storm) and content. A grounded theory approach was used to identify important themes related to the participants' experiences. RESULTS: A total of 21 interviews were conducted. Several overarching themes were identified, including a perception that facilities had not prepared for an event of such magnitude, of inefficient communication and logistics during evacuation, and of lack of easily identifiable or appropriate resources after the event. Access to electrical power emerged as a key identifier of recovery for most facilities. The experience had a substantial psychological impact on LTCF staff regardless of whether they evacuated or sheltered in place during the storm. CONCLUSION: Representatives from LTCFs affected by Sandy experienced the preparation, response, and recovery phases of the event with a unique perspective. Their insights offer evidence which can be used to generate testable hypothesis regarding similar events in the future, and can inform policy makers and facility administrators alike as they prepare for extreme weather events in similar settings. Results specifically suggest that LTCFs develop plans which carefully address the unique qualities of extreme weather events, including communication with local officials, evacuation and transfer needs in geographic areas with multiple facilities, and plans for the safe transfer of residents. Emergency managers at LTCFs should consider electrical power needs with the understanding that in extreme weather events, power failures can be more protracted than in other types of emergencies.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Casas de Saúde , Atitude , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estados Unidos
9.
Nature ; 587(7833): 200-201, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177661
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 763, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196930

RESUMO

A cyclone temporarily disrupts copepod community structure of an estuary, and during the community rebuilding process, omnivorous copepods dominate. This hypothesis was tested after cyclone Fani affected the Ganges River estuary of India on 5 May 2019. Copepod assemblages and environmental parameters were collected before (25 February 2019), after (24 August 2019) and immediately after (daily between 8 and 14 May 2019) cyclone Fani from three sites of the estuary. Immediately after cyclone Fani, spatial heterogeneity of the estuarine environment was washed away, salinity and temperature levels of the estuary increased, pH level declined, while the total dissolve solids remained constant at high levels of concentration. Copepod diversity and abundance were drastically reduced by cyclone Fani with the exception of the omnivorous Bestiolina similis, which tolerated a wide variability of the environment and dominated the community. Led by small and medium-sized copepods, within days, the community recovered from its initial disruption. Immediately after cyclone Fani, medium-sized omnivorous copepod Acartiella tortaniformis became the second most abundant species replacing the small-sized herbivorous Paracalanus parvus. Changes in species composition and abundance hierarchy observed immediately after cyclone Fani lasted for a few months. The intensity of cyclones is increasing in the Indian Sundarban; therefore, following a cyclone, more severe and prolong disruptions of the copepod community are likely. Institutionalized monitoring of the cyclone-mediated ecological changes of the Ganges River estuary is therefore strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Índia , Rios , Salinidade
12.
Bogotá; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 23, 2020. 14 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129658

RESUMO

Según el reporte informativo N°170 del IDEAM la habitual temporada de lluvias que se registra cada año para esta época, sumado a la influencia del Fenómeno La Niña y a una actividad ciclónica muy activa, ha generado que las lluvias de este segundo semestre del 2020 hayan aumentado considerablemente. Estas precipitaciones han generado que departamentos como Antioquia, Bolívar, Chocó, La Guajira, Magdalena, Norte de Santander y el Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina hayan tenido situaciones de emergencia más complejas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tempestades Ciclônicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Colômbia/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085670

RESUMO

Exposure to disasters is associated with a range of posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) trajectories. However, few studies have tracked PTSS for more than a decade postdisaster, and none to our knowledge has explored the role of predisaster resources and vulnerabilities in shaping the likelihood of trajectory membership. The current study included participants from the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina Study (N = 885). Participants were originally part of a community college intervention study and were assessed prior to the hurricane (6-21 months predisaster), and approximately 1 year, 4 years, and 12 years postdisaster. Latent class growth analysis identified PTSS trajectories. Perceived social support, probable mental illness, and physical health conditions or problems-all assessed predisaster-were examined as predictors of trajectory membership at the univariate level and in multivariable models without and with adjustment for disaster exposure. Three PTSS trajectories were detected: Moderate-Decreasing (69.3%), High-Decreasing (23.1%), and High-Stable (7.6%). In the multivariable predictive model without adjustment for disaster exposure, probable predisaster mental illness was significantly associated with greater odds of the High-Decreasing and High-Stable trajectories, and physical health conditions or problems with greater odds of the High-Decreasing trajectory, relative to the Moderate-Decreasing trajectory. However, when disaster exposure was adjusted, only the association between predisaster mental illness and the odds of the High-Stable trajectory remained statistically significant. Lower predisaster perceived social support was significantly associated with membership in the High-Decreasing trajectory, relative to the Moderate-Decreasing, at the univariate level, but not in either multivariable model. Whereas predisaster mental illness confers risk for chronic postdisaster PTSS, other impacts of predisaster resources and vulnerabilities on elevated PTSS trajectories do not go beyond those of disaster exposure. The results support disaster preparedness efforts targeting those with mental and physical health conditions, and postdisaster mental health services addressing preexisting vulnerabilities in addition to disaster-related PTSS.


Assuntos
Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pobreza , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resiliência Psicológica , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 417-425, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046933

RESUMO

This case study outlines the actions of Cuba's Veterinary Service, as part of the country's disaster risk reduction and management system, in response to Hurricane Irma. The phenomenon affected ten of Cuba's 15 provinces and caused significant damage in 53 of its municipalities (29.6%). During the response effort, the pre-established measures for the various phases (warning, alert and emergency) were deployed according to the disaster reduction plans for each level. In all provinces, animals were protected by moving them to safer locations, allowing for pre-established sanitary measures and technical assistance. Nonetheless, damage was incurred, mainly to the roofs of some animal housing. The following deaths were recorded: 210,150 poultry, 2,752 cattle (of which 73.8% were calves) and 866 pigs (of which 68% were young animals). In addition, 7% of the inventory of hives was damaged and 3.3% of hives were lost. Damage to infrastructure included: 466 poultry houses, 1,422 cattle houses, 431 pig houses, 1,200 wind pumps and 13 of the country's 17 feed concentrate plants. As no major damage was reported to the Veterinary Service's facilities (laboratories and offices), its viability was guaranteed at all times. Rapid damage assessment enabled priorities for rehabilitation and recovery actions to be set, with the result that, just three months after the hurricane had struck, 67% of the poultry houses and 33% of the pig houses had been restored. This article focuses on preparedness, response and lessons learned.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Bovinos , Cuba , Abrigo para Animais , Suínos
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 686, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029673

RESUMO

The paper describes the hydrography and vertical current structure along the shelf edge of South East Arabian Sea (SEAS) during summer and winter monsoons based on current profiles from moving Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). During summer monsoon, SEAS was characterized by upwelling with low saline water at the surface along the southern sector (8° N to 11° N). During winter, thermal structure was vertically homogeneous in the upper 80 m, and intrusion of low saline Bay of Bengal waters were found up to 14° N. In the southern sector, turbidity was more than the northern sector during winter and summer seasons. ADCP-derived current profiles during summer along 200-m isobath show dominant northward flow in the south, and southeasterly in the north as part of the West India Coastal Current (WICC). A comparison between ADCP current profiles and Ekman currents during summer indicates dominance of remote forcing (coastal Kelvin waves) over the local wind forcing in the 8-9° N sector whereas a combined influence of both remote forcing and wind in the 9-15° N sector. During winter, the direction of surface current reversed and was poleward generally except at the southern sector (7-8° N) where the flow was southwestward. Sector-wise comparison of ADCP and Ekman current showed less influence of wind on current fields throughout the sector except at south; wind has a major role in the current generation, whereas along the 8-15° N sector, the remote forcing dominates over the wind.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano , Vento
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