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1.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021094, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 is a persistent and ongoing global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Non-anthropogenic factors, such as weather conditions and air quality are possible predictors of respiratory diseases, such as COVID-19. Weather conditions may also be a direct cause of biological interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and humans and vary widely between regions. The course of an epidemic is determined by several factors, including demographic and environmental parameters, many of which have an unknown correlation with COVID-19. The goal of this study is to access the influence of ground surface particulate matter and weather parameters on the dissemination of COVID-19 in Ljubljana, Slovenia. METHODS: Spearman rank correlation was used to investigate the association between new daily COVID-19 cases and weather data. RESULTS: The current study has found correlations between weather variables and PM particles with new cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The correlations observed are highly dependent on the local policies that were in force during the period under study. The interaction between weather conditions and human behaviour may also be an important factor in understanding the relationship between weather and the spread of COVID -19.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021094, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 is a persistent and ongoing global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Non-anthropogenic factors, such as weather conditions and air quality are possible predictors of respiratory diseases, such as COVID-19. Weather conditions may also be a direct cause of biological interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and humans and vary widely between regions. The course of an epidemic is determined by several factors, including demographic and environmental parameters, many of which have an unknown correlation with COVID-19. The goal of this study is to access the influence of ground surface particulate matter and weather parameters on the dissemination of COVID-19 in Ljubljana, Slovenia. METHODS: Spearman rank correlation was used to investigate the association between new daily COVID-19 cases and weather data. RESULTS: The current study has found correlations between weather variables and PM particles with new cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The correlations observed are highly dependent on the local policies that were in force during the period under study. The interaction between weather conditions and human behaviour may also be an important factor in understanding the relationship between weather and the spread of COVID -19.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo (Meteorologia)
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 424, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132904

RESUMO

The low ionic concentration meltwaters of the rivers originating from the Himalayan glaciers play a significant role in diluting the high solute load emanating from Ganga plain catchments. Hence, any change in the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the Himalayan tributaries of River Ganga under the changing climatic scenario will impact the hydrochemical parameters of River Ganga as well. Hydrochemical investigations have been carried out in the River Alaknanda, a tributary of River Ganga during the period September 2016-May 2018 and revealed that TSS and COD values were observed above the prescribed criteria limit of 10 mg/L for drinking purpose for river as prescribed by CPCB. The anions for all sampling sites and seasons were observed to be in decreasing order of HCO3- > SO42- > Cl- > NO3- and cations Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+. The weathering of rock forming minerals of drainage basin is responsible for the chemical composition of river water. HCO3- being the dominant anion in the study area accounts for its presence due to carbonate and silicate weathering. Ion exchange process controls the major ion chemistry of the river water. The assessment and management of non-point sources (NPS) pollution are difficult by any deterministic method and require a vast amount of data to compensate for their extent of contamination, in the account of their prevailing nature in response to hydrological processes and land use patterns. In the present investigation, the application of a simple chemical mass balance approach based on law of conservation of mass/matter has been applied on River Alaknanda, a tributary of River Ganga for measuring the chemical mass loadings of some selected water quality constituents, viz., major cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and ammonium) and major anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate) at upstream and downstream of different point source locations for examining the contribution made by non-point sources of pollution to the river. Time series analysis of various ion concentrations at point source sites and upstream/downstream sites inferred that the fluvial variations pertaining to ion concentration and flux are strongly dependent on the seasonal changes. More contribution (> 30-50%) for almost all constituents from uncharacterized sources was observed in the months of November to February, which may be attributed to intensified agricultural activities during the winter months particularly cereals and vegetables.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Índia , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Tempo (Meteorologia)
4.
Behav Processes ; 189: 104433, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090953

RESUMO

We evaluated the influences of workload intensity, bath handling and environmental conditions in the rolling behaviour of horses and mules. For this purpose, animals were observed after being exposed to different levels of workload and the rolling behaviour was recorded and described. During all testing procedures, the weather condition (temperature and humidity) was registered by a Black globe and Wet Bulb apparatus. Horses frequently rolled after intense exercise and after bath handling, independently of the weather condition. Mules frequently rolled after control (no exercise) and intense exercise in warmer and wetter days and after bath handlings in colder and drier days. Rolling behaviour characteristics were slightly different between species. While mules exhibited more frequently the behaviours of rest, self-care, yawn, tail swishing, complete spins, snort vocalization and use of the same spot to roll, horses exhibited more frequently the behaviours of paw, sniff, head and neck rubbing movements and incomplete spins to the right and left. This findings evidence that rolling is an important and frequently exhibited behaviour by domestic horses and mules, but animals may express it differently and may have their own motivations. In this sense, we believe that domestic equines, mainly those raised in more intensive livestock, should have the opportunities to freely express the rolling, as a way to improve their welfare conditions and with agreement with a more rational handling practice.


Assuntos
Equidae , Carga de Trabalho , Animais , Cavalos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
5.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(179): 20201006, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129785

RESUMO

Transmission of dengue fever depends on a complex interplay of human, climate and mosquito dynamics, which often change in time and space. It is well known that its disease dynamics are highly influenced by multiple factors including population susceptibility to infection as well as by microclimates: small-area climatic conditions which create environments favourable for the breeding and survival of mosquitoes. Here, we present a novel machine learning dengue forecasting approach, which, dynamically in time and space, identifies local patterns in weather and population susceptibility to make epidemic predictions at the city level in Brazil, months ahead of the occurrence of disease outbreaks. Weather-based predictions are improved when information on population susceptibility is incorporated, indicating that immunity is an important predictor neglected by most dengue forecast models. Given the generalizability of our methodology to any location or input data, it may prove valuable for public health decision-making aimed at mitigating the effects of seasonal dengue outbreaks in locations globally.


Assuntos
Dengue , Epidemias , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Tempo (Meteorologia)
6.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(179): 20210250, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129791

RESUMO

Climate change effects on UK winter wheat grain yield are complex: warmer temperature, negative; greater carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, positive; but other environmental variables and their timing also affect yield. In the absence of long-term experiments where temperature and CO2 concentration were manipulated separately, we applied the crop simulation model Sirius with long-term daily meteorological data (1892-2016) for Rothamsted, Hertfordshire, UK (2007-2016 mean growing season temperature 1.03°C warmer than 1892-1991), and CO2 concentration over this period, to investigate the separate effects of historic CO2 and weather on simulated grain yield in three wheat cultivars of the modern era. We show a slight decline in simulated yield over the period 1892-2016 from the effect of weather (daily temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours) at fixed CO2 (294.50 ppm, 1892 reference value), but a maximum 9.4% increase when accounting for increasing atmospheric CO2 (from 294.50 to 404.21 ppm), differing slightly among cultivars. Notwithstanding considerable inter-annual variation, the slight yield decline at 294.50 ppm CO2 over this 125-year period from the historic weather simulations for Rothamsted agrees with the expected decline from temperature increase alone, but the positive yield trend with actual CO2 values does not match the recent stagnation in UK wheat yield.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Triticum , Mudança Climática , Reino Unido , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071641

RESUMO

This systematic review of reviews was conducted to examine housing precarity and homelessness in relation to climate change and weather extremes internationally. In a thematic analysis of 15 reviews (5 systematic and 10 non-systematic), the following themes emerged: risk factors for homelessness/housing precarity, temperature extremes, health concerns, structural factors, natural disasters, and housing. First, an increased risk of homelessness has been found for people who are vulnerably housed and populations in lower socio-economic positions due to energy insecurity and climate change-induced natural hazards. Second, homeless/vulnerably-housed populations are disproportionately exposed to climatic events (temperature extremes and natural disasters). Third, the physical and mental health of homeless/vulnerably-housed populations is projected to be impacted by weather extremes and climate change. Fourth, while green infrastructure may have positive effects for homeless/vulnerably-housed populations, housing remains a major concern in urban environments. Finally, structural changes must be implemented. Recommendations for addressing the impact of climate change on homelessness and housing precarity were generated, including interventions focusing on homelessness/housing precarity and reducing the effects of weather extremes, improved housing and urban planning, and further research on homelessness/housing precarity and climate change. To further enhance the impact of these initiatives, we suggest employing the Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA).


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Habitação , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3652, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275918

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing mass disruption to our daily lives. We integrate mobility data from mobile devices and area-level data to study the walking patterns of 1.62 million anonymous users in 10 metropolitan areas in the United States. The data covers the period from mid-February 2020 (pre-lockdown) to late June 2020 (easing of lockdown restrictions). We detect when users were walking, distance walked and time of the walk, and classify each walk as recreational or utilitarian. Our results reveal dramatic declines in walking, particularly utilitarian walking, while recreational walking has recovered and even surpassed pre-pandemic levels. Our findings also demonstrate important social patterns, widening existing inequalities in walking behavior. COVID-19 response measures have a larger impact on walking behavior for those from low-income areas and high use of public transportation. Provision of equal opportunities to support walking is key to opening up our society and economy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Política de Saúde , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/instrumentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Telefone Celular , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Recreação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transportes , Estados Unidos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259240

RESUMO

In the vein of recent empirical literature, we reassessed the impact of weather factors on Covid-19 daily cases and fatalities in a panel of 37 OECD countries between 1st January and 27th July 2020. We considered five different meteorological factors. For the first time, we used a dynamic panel model and considered two different kinds of channels between climate and Covid-19 virus: direct/physical factors related to the survival and durability dynamics of the virus on surfaces and outdoors and indirect/social factors through human behaviour and individual mobility, such as walking or driving outdoors, to capture the impact of weather on social distancing and, thus, on Covid-19 cases and fatalities. Our work revealed that temperature, humidity and solar radiation, which has been clearly under considered in previous studies, significantly reduce the number of Covid-19 cases and fatalities. Indirect effects through human behaviour, i.e., correlations between temperature (or solar radiation) and human mobility, were significantly positive and should be considered to correctly assess the effects of climatic factors. Increasing temperature, humidity or solar radiation effects were positively correlated with increasing mobility effects on Covid-19 cases and fatalities. The net effect from weather on the Covid-19 outbreak will, thus, be the result of the physical/direct negative effect of temperature or solar radiation and the mobility/indirect positive effect due to the interaction between human mobility and those meterological variables. Reducing direct effects of temperature and solar radiation on Covid-19 cases and fatalities, when they were significant, were partly and slightly compensated for positive indirect effects through human mobility. Suitable control policies should be implemented to control mobility and social distancing even when the weather is favourable to reduce the spread of the Covid-19 virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migração Humana , Modelos Biológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo (Meteorologia) , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3602, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267997

RESUMO

Improved understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for COVID-19 disease, is needed. Here, we estimate the relationship between air temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation and SARS-CoV-2 transmission in 2669 U.S. counties with abundant reported cases from March 15 to December 31, 2020. Specifically, we quantify the associations of daily mean temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation with daily estimates of the SARS-CoV-2 reproduction number (Rt) and calculate the fraction of Rt attributable to these meteorological conditions. Lower air temperature (within the 20-40 °C range), lower specific humidity, and lower ultraviolet radiation were significantly associated with increased Rt. The fraction of Rt attributable to temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation were 3.73% (95% empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 3.66-3.76%), 9.35% (95% eCI: 9.27-9.39%), and 4.44% (95% eCI: 4.38-4.47%), respectively. In total, 17.5% of Rt was attributable to meteorological factors. The fractions attributable to meteorological factors generally were higher in northern counties than in southern counties. Our findings indicate that cold and dry weather and low levels of ultraviolet radiation are moderately associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, with humidity playing the largest role.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Conceitos Meteorológicos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Umidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187879

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is heterogeneous throughout Africa and threatening millions of lives. Surveillance and short-term modeling forecasts are critical to provide timely information for decisions on control strategies. We created a strategy that helps predict the country-level case occurrences based on cases within or external to a country throughout the entire African continent, parameterized by socioeconomic and geoeconomic variations and the lagged effects of social policy and meteorological history. We observed the effect of the Human Development Index, containment policies, testing capacity, specific humidity, temperature, and landlocked status of countries on the local within-country and external between-country transmission. One-week forecasts of case numbers from the model were driven by the quality of the reported data. Seeking equitable behavioral and social interventions, balanced with coordinated country-specific strategies in infection suppression, should be a continental priority to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , África/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287856

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is heterogeneous throughout Africa and threatening millions of lives. Surveillance and short-term modeling forecasts are critical to provide timely information for decisions on control strategies. We created a strategy that helps predict the country-level case occurrences based on cases within or external to a country throughout the entire African continent, parameterized by socioeconomic and geoeconomic variations and the lagged effects of social policy and meteorological history. We observed the effect of the Human Development Index, containment policies, testing capacity, specific humidity, temperature, and landlocked status of countries on the local within-country and external between-country transmission. One-week forecasts of case numbers from the model were driven by the quality of the reported data. Seeking equitable behavioral and social interventions, balanced with coordinated country-specific strategies in infection suppression, should be a continental priority to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , África/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3960, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172727

RESUMO

The Greenland Ice Sheet harbours a wealth of microbial life, yet the total biomass stored or exported from its surface to downstream environments is unconstrained. Here, we quantify microbial abundance and cellular biomass flux within the near-surface weathering crust photic zone of the western sector of the ice sheet. Using groundwater techniques, we demonstrate that interstitial water flow is slow (~10-2 m d-1), while flow cytometry enumeration reveals this pathway delivers 5 × 108 cells m-2 d-1 to supraglacial streams, equivalent to a carbon flux up to 250 g km-2 d-1. We infer that cellular carbon accumulation in the weathering crust exceeds fluvial export, promoting biomass sequestration, enhanced carbon cycling, and biological albedo reduction. We estimate that up to 37 kg km-2 of cellular carbon is flushed from the weathering crust environment of the western Greenland Ice Sheet each summer, providing an appreciable flux to support heterotrophs and methanogenesis at the bed.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Carbono/análise , Ciclo do Carbono , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Groenlândia , Hidrologia , Camada de Gelo/química , Tempo (Meteorologia)
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086744

RESUMO

In the vein of recent empirical literature, we reassessed the impact of weather factors on Covid-19 daily cases and fatalities in a panel of 37 OECD countries between 1st January and 27th July 2020. We considered five different meteorological factors. For the first time, we used a dynamic panel model and considered two different kinds of channels between climate and Covid-19 virus: direct/physical factors related to the survival and durability dynamics of the virus on surfaces and outdoors and indirect/social factors through human behaviour and individual mobility, such as walking or driving outdoors, to capture the impact of weather on social distancing and, thus, on Covid-19 cases and fatalities. Our work revealed that temperature, humidity and solar radiation, which has been clearly under considered in previous studies, significantly reduce the number of Covid-19 cases and fatalities. Indirect effects through human behaviour, i.e., correlations between temperature (or solar radiation) and human mobility, were significantly positive and should be considered to correctly assess the effects of climatic factors. Increasing temperature, humidity or solar radiation effects were positively correlated with increasing mobility effects on Covid-19 cases and fatalities. The net effect from weather on the Covid-19 outbreak will, thus, be the result of the physical/direct negative effect of temperature or solar radiation and the mobility/indirect positive effect due to the interaction between human mobility and those meterological variables. Reducing direct effects of temperature and solar radiation on Covid-19 cases and fatalities, when they were significant, were partly and slightly compensated for positive indirect effects through human mobility. Suitable control policies should be implemented to control mobility and social distancing even when the weather is favourable to reduce the spread of the Covid-19 virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migração Humana , Modelos Biológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo (Meteorologia) , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069421

RESUMO

An ongoing epidemic of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) afflicts large parts of Central America and is hypothesized to be linked to heat stress at work. Mortality rates from CKDu appear to have increased dramatically since the 1970s. To explore this relationship, we assessed trends in maximum and minimum temperatures during harvest months between 1973 and 2014 as well as in the number of days during the harvest season for which the maximum temperature surpassed 35 °C. Data were collected at a weather station at a Nicaraguan sugar company where large numbers of workers have been affected by CKDu. Monthly averages of the daily maximum temperatures between 1996 and 2014 were also compared to concurrent weather data from eight Automated Surface Observing System Network weather stations across Nicaragua. Our objectives were to assess changes in temperature across harvest seasons, estimate the number of days that workers were at risk of heat-related illness and compare daily maximum temperatures across various sites in Nicaragua. The monthly average daily maximum temperature during the harvest season increased by 0.7 °C per decade between 1973 and 1990. The number of days per harvest season with a maximum temperature over 35 °C increased by approximately five days per year between 1974 and 1990, from 32 days to 114 days. Between 1991 and 2013, the number of harvest days with a maximum temperature over 35 °C decreased by two days per year, and the monthly average daily maximum temperature decreased by 0.3 °C per decade. Comparisons with weather stations across Nicaragua demonstrate that this company is located in one of the consistently hottest regions of the country.


Assuntos
Clima , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , América Central , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia)
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3652, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135325

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing mass disruption to our daily lives. We integrate mobility data from mobile devices and area-level data to study the walking patterns of 1.62 million anonymous users in 10 metropolitan areas in the United States. The data covers the period from mid-February 2020 (pre-lockdown) to late June 2020 (easing of lockdown restrictions). We detect when users were walking, distance walked and time of the walk, and classify each walk as recreational or utilitarian. Our results reveal dramatic declines in walking, particularly utilitarian walking, while recreational walking has recovered and even surpassed pre-pandemic levels. Our findings also demonstrate important social patterns, widening existing inequalities in walking behavior. COVID-19 response measures have a larger impact on walking behavior for those from low-income areas and high use of public transportation. Provision of equal opportunities to support walking is key to opening up our society and economy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Política de Saúde , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/instrumentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Telefone Celular , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Recreação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transportes , Estados Unidos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068938

RESUMO

Understanding periods of the year associated with higher risk for falling and less physical activity may guide fall prevention and activity promotion for older adults. We examined the relationship between weather and seasons on falls and physical activity in a three-year cohort of older adults with glaucoma. Participants recorded falls information via monthly calendars and participated in four one-week accelerometer trials (baseline and per study year). Across 240 participants, there were 406 falls recorded over 7569 person-months, of which 163 were injurious (40%). In separate multivariable regression models incorporating generalized estimating equations, temperature, precipitation, and seasons were not significantly associated with the odds of falling, average daily steps, or average daily active minutes. However, every 10 °C increase in average daily temperature was associated with 24% higher odds of a fall being injurious, as opposed to non-injurious (p = 0.04). The odds of an injurious fall occurring outdoors, as opposed to indoors, were greater with higher average temperatures (OR per 10 °C = 1.46, p = 0.03) and with the summer season (OR = 2.69 vs. winter, p = 0.03). Falls and physical activity should be understood as year-round issues for older adults, although the likelihood of injury and the location of fall-related injuries may change with warmer season and temperatures.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Glaucoma , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1952): 20210508, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074120

RESUMO

Change in body size is one of the universal responses to global warming, with most species becoming smaller. While small size in most species corresponds to low individual fitness, small species typically show high population growth rates in cross-species comparisons. It is unclear, therefore, how climate-induced changes in body size ultimately affect population persistence. Unravelling the relationship between body size, ambient temperature and individual survival is especially important for the conservation of endangered long-lived mammals such as bats. Using an individual-based 24-year dataset from four free-ranging Bechstein's bat colonies (Myotis bechsteinii), we show for the first time a link between warmer summer temperatures, larger body sizes and increased mortality risk. Our data reveal a crucial time window in June-July, when juveniles grow to larger body sizes in warmer conditions. Body size is also affected by colony size, with larger colonies raising larger offspring. At the same time, larger bats have higher mortality risks throughout their lives. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the link between warmer weather and body size as a fitness-relevant trait for predicting species-specific extinction risks as consequences of global warming.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Estudos Longitudinais , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
J Water Health ; 19(3): 512-533, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152303

RESUMO

Highly populated coastal environments receive large quantities of treated and untreated wastewater from human and industrial sources. Bivalve molluscs accumulate and retain contaminants, and their analysis provides evidence of past contamination. Rivers and precipitation are major routes of bacteriological pollution from surface or sub-surface runoff flowing into coastal areas. However, relationships between runoff, precipitation, and bacterial contamination are site-specific and dependent on the physiographical characteristics of each catchment. In this work, we evaluated the influence of precipitation and river discharge on molluscs' Escherichia coli concentrations at three sites in Central Italy, aiming at quantifying how hydrometeorological conditions affect bacteriological contamination of selected bivalve production areas. Rank-order correlation analysis indicated a stronger association between E. coli concentrations and the modelled Pescara River discharge maxima (r = 0.69) than between E. coli concentration and rainfall maxima (r = 0.35). Discharge peaks from the Pescara River caused an increase in E. coli concentration in bivalves in 87% of cases, provided that the runoff peak occurred 1-6 days prior to the sampling date. Precipitation in coastal area was linked to almost 60% of cases of E. coli high concentrations and may enhance bacterial transportation offshore, when associated with a larger-scale weather system, which causes overflow occurrence.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Escherichia coli , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Rios , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071083

RESUMO

Fatal injury and accidents in the construction industry occur under the influence of outdoor weather conditions such as temperature, humidity and wind speed in all four seasons. Previous research in this area has focused on hot and cold weather conditions: hot weather causes heat rash, heat cramps and heat fainting, while cold weather causes fatigue, lumbago, and cold finger sensations. However, other weather conditions are also associated with, and cause, fatal injury and accidents. Accordingly, this study analyzes injury and fatal accidents in the construction industry based on the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) as it pertains to thermal comfort using an uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, using a neural network, relative importance is analyzed considering injury and fatal accidents. This study is conducted in five steps: (i) Establishment of the database, (ii) Classification of accident types and weather conditions, (iii) Calculation of thermal comfort, (iv) Analysis of injury and fatal accidents based on thermal comfort, and (v) Calculation of the relative importance of thermal comfort during injury and fatal accidents. Via the research process, 5317 fatal incidents and 207,802 injuries are analyzed according to 18 accident types in all seasons. It was found that 'falls', were the most frequent fatal incident and injury (2804 fatal incidents and 71,017 injuries), with most of these occurring during the autumn season. The probabilities of injury and fatal accidents in the 'fall' category are 86.01% and 85.60%, respectively, in the outside comfort ranges. The contribution of this study can provide data for a database on safety management considering weather conditions.


Assuntos
Sensação Térmica , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Umidade , Temperatura , Incerteza
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