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2.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(688): 543, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672805
4.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109470, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479937

RESUMO

Mid-scale ISB experiments were conducted in a large water-basin (20 m2 × 1 m) in order to assess the applicability of chemical herding of weathered crude oil spills on water in association with in-situ burning (ISB). A silicone-based chemical herding agent, OP-40, was used to confine, or herd, three different crude oils (Siri, Grane and Oseberg blend) at various weathering degrees. The herding agent was capable of obtaining the minimum required oil slick thickness for ignition and subsequent flame spread in most of the experiments, but not for the strongly weathered oils. Also, the herding agent was capable of re-thickening the oil slick after flame extinction. The burning efficiency results indicate that the method can be viable for ISB with herders at a larger scale, and suggest that the burning efficiency scales with the amount of crude oil. Sinking behaviour of residues was also observed and quantified, as such a behaviour can pose a serious environmental threat in real scenarios.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água , Tempo (Meteorologia)
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 1164-1172, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412512

RESUMO

Storm surges can substantially alter the water level and salinity in tidal salt marshes. Little is known about how changes experienced during storm surges affect greenhouse gas emissions (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O) from tidal salt marsh soils. Understanding how storm surges influence ecosystem processes is critical for evaluating the ecosystem's sensitivity to sea level rise. To explore how hurricane-induced changes in salinity affect GHG emissions, we exposed intact soil mesocosms (0-9 cm depth) from a Mid-Atlantic temperate salt marsh to pulse changes in salinity experienced at the site before, during, and after Hurricane Joaquin in 2015. Soil temperature, oxygen, and water level were kept constant to avoid confounding effects throughout the experiment. Automated measurements (hourly resolution) of soil GHG emissions were recorded in control (i.e., no salinity changes) and treatment mesocosms, and combined with soil pore water chemistry (i.e., SO42-, S2-, Fe2+, TNb, redox potential, pH) to characterize the biogeochemical responses. Using mixed effects models, we found that the role of different biogeochemical processes, such as sulfur cycling, changed throughout the experiment, underscoring the complex nature of GHG emissions in tidal salt marsh soils. Overall, soils subjected to a salinity decrease had greater GHG emissions than control soils, which were maintained at 17 ppt. The treatment soils had a 24% and 23% increase in global warming potential (20- and 100-year scenarios, respectively) indicating that storm surges can produce pulses of GHG emissions. However, both CH4 and N2O emissions returned to baseline values (following hysteresis responses) when initial conditions were reestablished. The results support the fact that tidal salt marshes are resilient ecosystems, as soil GHG emissions recovered relatively quickly from the pulse event.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Salinidade , Solo/química , Delaware , Movimentos da Água , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1783-1784, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438342

RESUMO

Patients' hospital length of stay (LOS) as a surgical outcome is important indicator of quality of care. We used EMR data to build artificial neural network models to better understand the impact of cold weather on outcome of first surgeries in a day in comparison to a matched cohort receiving surgical treatment in warm days. We found that LOS for first-in-a-day cardiac and orthopedic surgical cases are longer in very cold days.


Assuntos
Tempo de Internação , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 572, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420782

RESUMO

The surface water hydrochemistry of the Syr Darya River in Kazakhstan was investigated at 39 locations to analyze regional hydrochemical characteristics and evaluate the irrigation suitability of the studied regions. The cations in the surface water are mainly Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, while the anions are mainly SO42-. The main hydrochemical type is Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. From the perspective of natural factors, the hydrochemical characteristics in the study area are derived from the dual effects of rock weathering and evaporation-concentration; however, the influence of anthropogenic factors include industrial and agricultural production near the river and the inflow of urban domestic sewage on the hydrochemical characteristic is also present. The irrigation suitability evaluation of the surface water based on SAR, Na% and KI showed that the majority of the water is suitable for irrigation, and from the TDS content analysis, 71.43% of the samples are in a critical state, indicating that the influence of TDS concentration on irrigation suitability cannot be ignored. The results have practical significance for maintaining the sustainable use of water resources in the Syr Darya River.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Cazaquistão , Esgotos/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(9): 1294-1297, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427730

RESUMO

Extreme events, such as tropical cyclones, are destructive and influential forces. However, observing and recording the ecological effects of these statistically improbable, yet profound 'black swan' weather events is logistically difficult. By anticipating the trajectory of tropical cyclones, and sampling populations before and after they make landfall, we show that these extreme events select for more aggressive colony phenotypes in the group-living spider Anelosimus studiosus. This selection is great enough to drive regional variation in colony phenotypes, despite the fact that tropical cyclone strikes are irregular, occurring only every few years, even in particularly prone regions. These data provide compelling evidence for tropical cyclone-induced selection driving the evolution of an important functional trait and show that black swan events contribute to within-species diversity and local adaptation.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Agressão , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112952, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369913

RESUMO

We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of six air pollutants (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3)) in western China, including the spatiotemporal characteristics of air pollutants, their relationship with meteorological factors and emission sources, and the efficiency of emission control strategies for the region. Based hourly observations at 23 sites in western China from June 2016 to May 2017, concentrations of most pollutants were higher outside the Tibetan Plateau, lowest in summer and highest in winter, the exception being O3. This was partially because meteorological conditions in winter were found to the most unfavorable to pollutant dispersion and dilution than other seasons. Pollutant concentrations at most sites were correlated with the residential emissions which were higher in winter, but anti-correlated with the industrial emissions which were lower during the winter holiday period. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations of four pollution control strategies indicated that reduction of residential emissions is crucial to alleviate PM2.5, PM10, and CO pollution in western China, although reduction of industrial and transport emissions can reduce SO2 and NO2, respectively. Since PM2.5 and PM10 were also found to be the species most and next frequently responsible for extremely serious pollution in western China, respectively, we recommend pollution control regulations that target residential emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Habitação , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Meteorologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112946, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376598

RESUMO

Potential impacts of change in climate on Indian agriculture may be significantly adverse, if not disastrous. There are projections of potential loss in wheat yield due to the rise in daily minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperature, but only few researchers have considered the extent of such loss on a spatial scale. We therefore, systematically studied the effect of change in Tmax, Tmean (daily average temperature) and Tmin, solar radiation (Srad) and precipitation (RAIN) during wheat growing seasons (from 1986 to 2015) on wheat crop yield over five wheat growing zones across India, taking into account the effect modification by aerosol loading (in terms of aerosol optical depth, 2001-2015). We note that for the entire India, 1 °C rise in Tmean resulted a 7% decrease in wheat yield which varied disproportionately across the crop growing zones by a range of -9% (peninsular zone, PZ) to 4% (northern hills zone, NHZ). The effect of Tmean on wheat yield was identical to the marginal effect of Tmax and Tmin, while 1% increase in Srad enhance wheat yield by 4% for all India with small geographical variations (2-5%), except for the northern hill region (-4%). Rise in 1 °C Tmean exclusively during grain filling duration was noted positive for all the wheat growing regions (0-2%) except over central plain zone (-3%). When estimates of weather variables on wheat yield was combined with the estimated impact of aerosols on weather, the most significant impact was noted over the NHZ (-23%), which otherwise varied from -7% to -4%. Overall, the study brings out the conclusive evidence of negative impact of rising temperature on wheat yield across India, which we found spatially inconsistent and highly uncertain when integrated with the compounding effect of aerosols loading.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Ambiente , Triticum/fisiologia , Agricultura , Clima , Grão Comestível , Índia , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
11.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113023, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ambient particulate pollution, especially PM2.5, has adverse impacts on health and welfare. To manage and control PM2.5 pollution, it is of great importance to determine the factors that affect PM2.5 levels. Previous studies commonly focused on a single or several cities. This study aims to analyze the impacts of meteorological and socio-economic factors on daily concentrations of PM2.5 in 109 Chinese cities from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. METHODS: To evaluate potential risk factors associated with the spatial and temporal variations in PM2.5 levels, we developed a Bayesian spatio-temporal model in which the potential temporal autocorrelation and spatial autocorrelation of PM2.5 levels were taken into account to ensure the independence of the error term of the model and hence the robustness of the estimated parameters. RESULTS: Daily concentrations of PM2.5 peaked in winter and troughed in summer. The annual average concentration reached its highest value (79 µg/m3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. The city-level PM2.5 was positively associated with the proportion of the secondary industry, the total consumption of liquefied petroleum gas and the total emissions of industrial sulfur dioxide (SO2), but negatively associated with the proportion of the primary industry. A reverse U-shaped relationship between population density and PM2.5 was found. The city-level and daily-level of weather conditions within a city were both associated with PM2.5. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 levels had significant spatio-temporal variations which were associated with socioeconomic and meteorological factors. Particularly, economic structure was a determinant factor of PM2.5 pollution rather than per capita GDP. This finding will be helpful for the intervention planning of particulate pollution control when considering the environmental and social-economic factors as part of the strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Pequim , Cidades , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133567, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374504

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the variability of microbial risk associated with drinking water under various contaminant loading conditions in a drinking water source. For this purpose, a probabilistic-deterministic approach was applied to estimate the loadings of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) from fecal contamination sources during both dry and wet weather conditions. The relative importance of loads originating from various fecal contamination sources was also determined by a probabilistic approach. This study demonstrates that water resource recovery facilities were the dominant source of Giardia, yet rivers were more important with regards to Cryptosporidium. Estimated loadings were used as input to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Ontario; the fate and transport of microbial organisms were simulated at the influent of a drinking water intake. Discharge-based hydrodynamic modelling results were compared to observed concentrations. Simulated probability distributions of concentrations at the intake were used as an input to a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model such that the variability of microbial risk in the context of drinking water could be examined. Depending on wind and currents, higher levels of fecal contamination reached the intake during wet weather loading scenarios. Probability distribution functions of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and E. coli concentrations at the intake were significantly higher during wet weather conditions when compared to dry conditions (p < 0.05). For all contaminants studied, the QMRA model showed a higher risk during wet weather (over 1 order of magnitude) compared to dry weather conditions. When considering sewage by-pass scenarios, risks remained below 2.7 × 10-7 person-1 day-1 for Giardia and E. coli O157:H7. Limited data were available for Cryptosporidium in by-pass effluents and the risk is unknown; hence it is critical to obtain reliable loading data for the riskiest scenarios, such as those associated with water resource recovery facility by-passes.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Giardia , Hidrodinâmica , Lagos , Ontário , Medição de Risco , Rios , Esgotos , Recursos Hídricos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125688, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383294

RESUMO

Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is common among mammals, with males typically being larger than females, as a product of sex-specific differences in growth rate and growth duration. The Musteloidea, however, exhibit a hypo-allometric reduction in SSD with increasing body size (contrary to Rensch's rule). A variety of extrinsic factors can affect juvenile growth rates and end body size, where one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other towards a specific factor, moderating patterns and degrees of SSD. Here, we analyse how male and female European badgers (Meles meles) differ in their somatic growth patterns. We compare the sex-specific growth curves across a range of somatic parameters and investigate what extrinsic (social and environmental) factors affect cub growth rates during the first 2 years of life leading to their sexual-dimorphic adult sizes. We found that average male final size of all measurements was significantly larger than those of females. Although male and female weanling cubs had similar body sizes, growth curves diverged significantly from ca. 11 months onwards due to continuous rapid growth of males versus slowing female growth. Consequently, females always concluded growth earlier than did males. In both sexes, extremities ceased to grow at an earlier age than did body length and zygomatic arch width. All badger cubs were impacted by their social environment as well as by weather conditions; however, male cubs were more sensitive to social factors, remaining smaller in social groups with more adult males present, whereas female final size was predominantly affected by weather and associated food availability. We discuss how extrinsic parameters can moderate patterns of SSD in the context of the differential equilibrium model.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Mustelidae/anatomia & histologia , Mustelidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Razão de Masculinidade , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105249, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415995

RESUMO

This study attempts to examine the main and interaction effects of roadway and weather conditions on crash incidence, using the comprehensive crash, traffic and weather data from the Kaiyang Freeway in China in 2014. The dependent variable is monthly crash count on a roadway segment (with homogeneous horizontal and vertical profiles). A Bayesian spatio-temporal model is proposed to measure the association between crash frequency and possible risk factors including traffic composition, presence of curve and slope, weather conditions, and their interactions. The proposed model can also accommodate the unstructured random effect, and spatio-temporal correlation and interactions. Results of parameter estimation indicate that the interactions between wind speed and slope, between precipitation and curve, and between visibility and slope are significantly correlated to the increase in the freeway crash risk, while the interaction between precipitation and slope is significantly correlated to the reduction in the freeway crash risk, respectively. These findings are indicative of the design and implementation of real-time traffic management and control measures, e.g. variable message sign, that could mitigate the crash risk under the adverse weather conditions.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , China , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 945-954, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426242

RESUMO

This study uses multivariate statistics to analyze hydrochemical spatial-temporal variations in the Maowei Sea of Beibu Gulf, South China Sea and evaluates its susceptibility to nutrient enrichment by a risk model. The seasonal variations of sea surface temperature (T), salinity (S), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand, transparency, total suspended particulate (TSP), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), NO2-, and SiO32- were mainly driven by the meteorological factors (precipitation and air temperature), while NO3-, NH4+, and PO43- content were more likely related to the point-source factors. The spatial and seasonal variations of T, DO, TSP, PHCs, and SiO32- might also be affected by sea-source factors such as thermal water discharge from adjacent parts of the Beibu Gulf. The sea's susceptibility to nutrient enrichment was moderate, and is mainly affected by precipitation, temperature, and high irradiation. The results present the complexity of natural and anthropogenic influences on a small subtropic estuary.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Eutrofização , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
16.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109338, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382193

RESUMO

Revegetating cleared land with native trees and shrubs is increasingly used as a means of addressing loss of biodiversity, degraded soil and water resources and sequestration of carbon. However, revegetation also brings a potential to alter fire risk due to changing fuel types across the landscape. Previous research has found that increasing the area of revegetation does not increase the risk of fire at a landscape scale, but it remains unclear whether the design of revegetation can be optimised to minimise risk. We evaluated if size and arrangement of revegetation affects fire size and intensity within an agricultural setting using a simulation modelling approach. Three revegetation planting designs were assessed, including small (3.2 ha) dispersed plantings, small (3.2 ha) plantings clustered into one third of the landscape, and large (29.2 ha) dispersed plantings, all resulting in the same overall percentage of revegetation (approximately 10% of the landscape). We simulated fires using Phoenix Rapidfire under varying planting design, weather, surrounding pasture conditions, and fire suppression. Planting design had little effect on fire sizes across the landscape, with larger plantings resulting in slightly larger fire sizes. Fires were smaller in landscapes with all planting designs compared with current landscape patterns. There was no significant influence of planting design on fire intensity. Weather and suppression had the strongest influence on both fire size and intensity, with larger and more intense fires under extreme weather conditions, with higher adjacent pasture loads and with no simulated suppression. Management of fuel loads in the pasture surrounding revegetation, weather and suppression are far greater risk factors for fire in these landscapes than planting design.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Árvores , Biodiversidade , Plantas , Tempo (Meteorologia)
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 263-277, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323572

RESUMO

The carbon (C) dynamics of desert steppes play an important role in the C budget of temperate steppes. Using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Regional model (TECO-R) model for desert steppes, we examined the dynamics and potential driving mechanisms for C stocks at different temporal and spatial scales from 2000 to 2017 in northern China. The ecosystem C density averaged 2.73 kg C m-2 and soil organic C accounted for 91.6%. The grassland biome stored 2.85 kg C m-2, which is higher than the shrub biome (2.19 kg C m-2). The ecosystem storage increased by an average of 27.75 g C m-2 yr-1, with the fastest increase in the southeastern part of the study area. The grassland biome storage increased by an average of 33.54 g C m-2 yr-1, versus 25.74 g C m-2 yr-1 for the shrub biome. The desert steppe C stock totaled 288.29 Tg C, and increased at 3.09 Tg C yr-1. An average of >45% of the aboveground biomass was browsed by livestock. The growing season precipitation was significantly positively correlated with changes in the C stock. Increasing temperature was negatively correlated with the C stock, especially for soil carbon. Precipitation was an important driving factor, but warming interacted with precipitation to affect C sequestration during the growing season. Outside the growing season, the increased precipitation and temperature stabilized C sequestration in the desert steppe. This improved understanding of feedbacks between the desert steppe's C cycle and climate will improve predictions of C dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems and of the impacts of climate change.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , China , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
J Environ Manage ; 247: 499-508, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255964

RESUMO

Climate change has been led to the increasing magnitude of frequency and severity of extreme weather, causing serious damage to overall economy of a country and individual economy of enterprises. Only relying on government subsidy to combat the impact of climate change, the work could be in vain. This study tries to use recycling action as mitigation strategies of climate change, and analyze the dominant influencing factors that affect recycling intention. This study stands in the perspective of green education in universities, regards the recycling intentions in response to climate change as pro-environmental behaviors, and revises and verifies the citizen pro-environmental behavior model. The green educations programs can communicate, promote, active and internalize the environmental citizenship through resource recycling intentions. Students learn about the importance of advocacy and activism to environmental citizenship, then generate environmentally sustainable and recycling intentions, and achieve the goal of improving the environment and mitigating to climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Intenção , Humanos , Motivação , Reciclagem , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 49-60, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302402

RESUMO

Carbonaceous aerosols (CAs) scatter and absorb incident solar radiation in the atmosphere, thereby influencing the regional climate and hydrological cycle, particularly in the Third Pole (TP). Here, we present the characteristics of CAs at 19 observation stations from the Atmospheric Pollution and Cryospheric Change network to obtain a deep understanding of pollutant status in the TP. The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations decreased noticeably inwards from outside to inland of the TP, consistent with their emission load and also affected by transport process and meteorological condition. Urban areas, such as Kathmandu, Karachi, and Mardan, exhibited extremely high OC and EC concentrations, with low and high values occurring in the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, respectively. However, remote regions inland the TP (e.g., Nam Co and Ngari) demonstrated much lower OC and EC concentrations. Different seasonal variations were observed between the southern and northern parts of the TP, suggesting differences in the patterns of pollutant sources and in distance from the sources between the two regions. In addition to the influence of long-range transported pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), the TP was affected by local emissions (e.g., biomass burning). The OC/EC ratio also suggested that biomass burning was prevalent in the center TP, whereas the marginal sites (e.g., Jomsom, Dhunche, and Laohugou) were affected by fossil fuel combustion from the up-wind regions. The mass absorption cross-section of EC (MACEC) at 632 nm ranged from 6.56 to 14.7 m2 g-1, with an increasing trend from outside to inland of the TP. Urban areas had low MACEC values because such regions were mainly affected by local fresh emissions. In addition, large amount of brown carbon can decrease the MACEC values in cities of South Asia. Remote sites had high MACEC values because of the coating enhancement of aerosols. Influenced by emission, transport process, and weather condition, the CA concentrations and MACEC presented decreasing and increasing trends, respectively, from outside to inland of the TP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Ásia , Atmosfera/química , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Cidades , Clima , Poluição Ambiental , Combustíveis Fósseis , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Vento
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