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1.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 949-955, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638505

RESUMO

Regionalizing surgical care to high-volume centers has improved outcomes for endocrine surgery. This shift is associated with increased travel time, costs, and morbidity within certain patient populations. We examined travel time-related differences in demographics, health-care utilization, thyroid-specific disease, and cost for patients undergoing thyroid surgery at a single high-volume center. Data were extracted from the 2005 to 2014 ACS-NSQIP and clinical data repository for patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Travel times between patients' home address and the hospital were calculated using Google Earth under assumptions of standard road conditions and speed restrictions. Travel time was divided into <2 hours versus ≥2 hours. Primary outcomes were hospital cost and 30-day morbidity. Factors associated with travel time and primary outcomes were analyzed using appropriate bivariate tests and multivariable regression modeling. A total of 1046 thyroid procedures were included, with median (IQR) travel time of 68.8 (40.1-107.2) minutes. Eight hundred forty-seven (80.9%) patients traveled <2 hours compared with 199 (19.1%) traveled ≥2 hours. Patients traveling ≥2 hours were more likely to have complex thyroid disease (37.7% vs 27.6%, P = 0.005), uninsured status (31.1% vs 11.8%, P < 0.001), lower preoperative morbidity risk (2.3% vs 2.7%, P = 0.02), and longer length of stay (1.21 vs 1.07 days, P = 0.04), but similar median operative times (163 vs 165 minutes, P = 0.89). Average cost was higher for patients traveling ≥2 hours ($7300 vs $6846 [2014 USD], P = 0.05). Despite observed patient differences, hospital costs and postoperative morbidity did not differ after adjustment. Existing management practices and the nature of the disease process may be protective against the potential negative effects of regionalization.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/economia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Viagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Virginia
2.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1044-1050, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638522

RESUMO

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) may improve patients' postoperative course. Our center implemented the ERAS protocol for the colorectal service in 2016, and then expanded to multiple service lines over the course of 1.5 years. Our aim was to determine whether broad implementation of ERAS protocols across different service lines could improve patient care. All ERAS patients from 2018 were captured prospectively. For each service line using ERAS, one full year of data preceding ERAS was compared. ERAS service lines included colorectal, gynecology laparoscopic, gynecology open, hepatopancreaticobiliary, urology - nephrectomy and cystectomy, spinal fusion, cardiac surgery-coronary artery bypass grafting. ERAS and pre-ERAS services were compared based on length of stay (LOS), complications, readmission, and mortality rates. In addition, hospital costs were collected during this time frame. ERAS protocols significantly decreased LOS for colorectal, gynecology, and spine. Complications were significantly decreased in colorectal, gynecology, urology, and spine. Readmissions did not significantly increase in any service line except spine. There was no significant change in mortality. ERAS proved to save the hospital 1847 days and cost saving of almost $5 million in 2018. Implementing ERAS broadly improved patient outcomes (LOS, complications, readmission, and mortality) while providing cost savings to the hospital.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Custos Hospitalares , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 743, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an opportunistic bacterial organism resistant to first line antibiotics. Acquisition of MRSA is often classified as either healthcare-associated or community-acquired. It has been shown that both healthcare-associated and community-acquired infections contribute to the spread of MRSA within healthcare facilities. The objective of this study was to estimate the incremental inpatient cost and length of stay for individuals colonized or infected with MRSA. Common analytical methods were compared to ensure the quality of the estimate generated. This study was performed at Alberta Ministry of Health (Edmonton, Alberta), with access to clinical MRSA data collected at two Edmonton hospitals, and ministerial administrative data holdings. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with MRSA was identified using a provincial infection prevention and control database. A coarsened exact matching algorithm, and two regression models (semilogarithmic ordinary least squares model and log linked generalized linear model) were evaluated. A MRSA-free cohort from the same facilities and care units was identified for the matched method; all records were used for the regression models. Records span from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015, for individuals 18 or older at discharge. RESULTS: Of the models evaluated, the generalized linear model was found to perform the best. Based on this model, the incremental inpatient costs associated with hospital-acquired cases were the most costly at $31,686 (14,169 - 60,158) and $47,016 (23,125 - 86,332) for colonization and infection, respectively. Community-acquired MRSA cases also represent a significant burden, with incremental inpatient costs of $7397 (2924 - 13,180) and $14,847 (8445 - 23,207) for colonization and infection, respectively. All costs are adjusted to 2016 Canadian dollars. Incremental length of stay followed a similar pattern, where hospital-acquired infections had the longest incremental stays of 35.2 (16.3-69.5) days and community-acquired colonization had the shortest incremental stays of 3.0 (0.6-6.3) days. CONCLUSIONS: MRSA, and in particular, hospital-acquired MRSA, places a significant but preventable cost burden on the Alberta healthcare system. Estimates of cost and length of stay varied by the method of analysis and source of infection, highlighting the importance of selecting the most appropriate method.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/economia , Idoso , Alberta , Antibacterianos/economia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/economia , Infecção Hospitalar/economia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Meticilina/economia , Meticilina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Health Serv Res ; 54(6): 1184-1192, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of Medicare's skilled nursing facility (SNF) copayment policy, with a large increase in the daily copayment rate on the 20th day of a benefit period, on length of stay, patient outcomes, and costs. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Retrospective cohort study from 2012 to 2016 using Medicare claims and SNF assessment data, including SNF admissions for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries. STUDY DESIGN: We first estimate how changes in Medicare's SNF copayment on the 21st day of a patient's benefit period affect length of SNF stay. We then use benefit day on admission as an instrumental variable to estimate the impact of SNF length of stay related to the copayment policy on readmission and Medicare payment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2012 to 2016, we examined 291 134 SNF admissions. Higher benefit day on SNF admission was strongly associated with shorter SNF stays. A 1-day shorter SNF stay was associated with higher readmission rate within 30 days of hospital discharge (1.5 percentage points; 95% CI 1.4-1.6, P < .001) and within 30 days of SNF discharge (0.9 percentage points; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), lower total Medicare payment for the 90-day episode after hospital discharge ($396; 95% CI 361-431, P < .001), but $179 higher payment for the 90 days after SNF discharge (95% CI 149-210, P < .001), offsetting the lower payment for the shorter index SNF stay. CONCLUSIONS: Medicare's SNF copayment policy is associated with shorter lengths of stay and worse patient outcomes, suggesting the copayment policy has unintended and negative effects on patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Medicare/economia , Alta do Paciente/economia , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/economia , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
5.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1129-1133, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657308

RESUMO

Best management for acute appendicitis (AA) in adults with liver cirrhosis is controversial and needs more investigation. We aimed to examine the impact of different treatment modalities on outcomes in this complex patient population. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2012 to 2014 was queried to identify AA patients with no cirrhosis, compensated cirrhosis (CC), and decompensated cirrhosis (DC). Each cohort was further stratified according to the treatment type: nonoperative management, open appendectomy, and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Chi-square, ANOVA, and binary regression analyses were used to determine differences between groups and risk factors for mortality and complications, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. A total of 108,289 AA patients were analyzed; of those, 304 with CC and 134 with DC were identified. Compared with CC and no cirrhosis, DC patients had significantly higher mortality, higher cost, and longer hospital length of stay. LA is accompanied by higher survival, lower cost, shorter duration of hospitalization, and lower incidence of complications across all groups. We conclude that LA is the best management strategy for AA in cirrhotic patients. Even in decompensated cirrhotics, which are associated with worse clinical outcomes, LA is still a favorable option over open appendectomy and nonoperative management.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicectomia/economia , Apendicectomia/mortalidade , Apendicite/complicações , Apendicite/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Preços Hospitalares , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Laparoscopia/economia , Laparoscopia/mortalidade , Tempo de Internação/economia , Cirrose Hepática/classificação , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1399, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head injuries account for 650,000 annual deaths worldwide. The cost for treating head injury was estimated at US $200 million annually. This contributes to economic impoverishment in low income countries like Ethiopia. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the cost of Traumatic Head Injury (THI) and associated factors in the University of Gondar Specialized Referral Hospital. METHOD: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 01 to May 30, 2017. A total of 387 THI patients were included in the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Direct costs and indirect costs were measured by using the bottom-up approach. Data were entered into Epi-Info version 7 and imported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis were done to identify factors associated with cost of THI. RESULTS: The mean cost of THI per patient was 4673.43 Ethiopian Birr (ETB), 95% CI (4523.6-4823.3), and length of hospital stay averaged 1.73, 95% CI (1.63-1.82). Direct non-medical cost, like transportation fee 1896.19 ETB (±762.56 SD) and medical costs 1101.66 ETB (±534.13 SD) were account for 40.57 and 23.58% of total costs respectively. The indirect cost, loss of income by patient and their attendant due to injury, was 1675.58 ETB (+ 459.26 SD). Patients with moderate and severe levels of injury have 635.167 ETB (Standardized coefficient = 0.173, p < 0.001) and 773.621 ETB (Standardized coefficient = 0. 132, p < 0.001) increased costs, respectively, compared to mild level THI patients. Costs for patients ages 31-45 years were 252.504 ETB (Standardized coefficient = - 0.066, p = 0.046) lower than costs for those 5-14 years old. The cost of THI patients increased by 1022.853 ETB for each additional day of hospital length of stay (Standardized coefficient = 0.648, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Most expenses of the THI were from direct non-medical cost. Prior health service use, length of stay, level of injury, and age were significant predictors of cost of THI.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/economia , Hospitais Universitários/economia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 385-393, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564888

RESUMO

Background: Perioperative health care utilization and costs in patients undergoing elective fast-track vs standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) remain unclear. Methods: The fast-track EVAR group included patients treated with a 14 Fr stent graft, bilateral percutaneous access, no general anesthesia or intensive care monitoring, and next-day hospital discharge. The standard EVAR group was identified from Medicare administrative claims using a matching algorithm to adjust for imbalances in patient characteristics. Hospital outcomes included operating room time, intensive care monitoring, hospital stay, secondary interventions, and major adverse events (MAEs). Perioperative outcomes occurring from hospital discharge to 30 days postdischarge included MAE, secondary interventions, and unrelated readmissions. Results: Among 1000 matched patients (250 fast-track; 750 standard), hospital outcomes favored the fast-track EVAR group, including shorter operating room time (2.30 vs 2.83 hrs, P<0.001), shorter hospital stay (1.16 vs 1.69 d, P<0.001), less need for intensive care monitoring (4.4% vs 48.0%, P<0.001), and lower secondary intervention rate (0% vs 2.4%, P=0.01). Postdischarge outcomes also favored fast-track EVAR with a lower rate of MAE (0% vs 7.2%, P<0.001) and all-cause readmission (1.6% vs 6.8%, P=0.001). The total cost to the health care system during the perioperative period was $26,730 with fast-track EVAR vs $30,730 with standard EVAR. Total perioperative health care costs were $4000 (95% CI: $3130-$4830) lower with fast-track EVAR vs standard EVAR, with $2980 in savings to hospitals and $1030 savings to health care payers. Conclusion: A fast-track EVAR protocol using a 14 Fr stent graft resulted in shorter procedure time, lower intensive care utilization, faster discharge, lower incidence of MAE, lower readmission rates, and lower perioperative costs compared to standard EVAR.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/economia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/economia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Alta do Paciente/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Prótese Vascular/economia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Desenho de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Retratamento/economia , Stents/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(4): 540e-549e, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of free flap take-backs and successful salvages following microsurgical breast reconstruction decreases as time from surgery increases. As a result, the cost of extended inpatient monitoring to achieve a successful flap salvage rises rapidly with each postoperative day. This study introduces a simplified cost-utility model of inpatient flap monitoring and identifies when cost-utility exceeds the thresholds established for other medical treatments. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed of patients who underwent microsurgical breast reconstruction to identify flap take-back and salvage rates by postoperative day. The number of patients and flaps that needed to be kept on an inpatient basis each day for monitoring to salvage a single failing flap was determined. Quality-of-life measures and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for inpatient flap monitoring following microsurgical breast reconstruction were calculated and plotted against a $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year threshold. RESULTS: A total of 1813 patients (2847 flaps) were included. Overall flap take-back and salvage rates were 2.4 percent and 52.3 percent, respectively. Of the flaps taken back, the daily take-back and salvage rates were 56.8 and 60.0 percent (postoperative day 0 to 1), 13.6 and 83.3 percent (postoperative day 2), 11.4 and 40.0 percent (postoperative day 3), 9.1 and 25.0 percent (postoperative day 4), and 9.1 and 0.0 percent (>postoperative day 4), respectively. To salvage a single failing flap each day, the number of flaps that needed to be monitored were 121 (postoperative day 0 to 1), 363 (postoperative day 2), 907 (postoperative day 3), 1813 (postoperative day 4), and innumerable for days beyond postoperative day 4. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of inpatient flap monitoring begins to exceed a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year by postoperative day 2. CONCLUSION: The health care cost associated with inpatient flap monitoring following microsurgical breast reconstruction begins to rise rapidly after postoperative day 2.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/economia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamoplastia/economia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Microcirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1001-010, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184619

RESUMO

Background: nutritional support (NS) is a core element in the treatment of underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Objective: to analyze the adherence of NS prescriptions to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for AN patients and to compare the effectiveness, safety, and cost of NS according to adherence. Methods: this retrospective observational study included AN patients admitted to an Eating Disorders Unit between January 2006 and December 2009 and followed until December 2014. NS prescriptions were compared with guidelines published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption (SMHC). Adherence was defined as percentage of hospitalizations that followed all recommendations. Results: adherence to APA and NICE/SMHC was observed in 10.2% and 73.4%, respectively, of the total of 177 hospitalizations. Body weight and body mass index were higher at admission in the NICE/SMHC adherence versus non-adherence group (p < 0.001). Weight gain rate during hospitalization was higher (p = 0.009) in "APA adherence" (135.5 g/day) versus "non-adherence" (92.1 g/day) group. Hospital stay was significantly shorter (p = 0.025) in "NICE/SMHC adherence" (39.5 days) versus "non-adherence" group (50.0 days). NICE/SMHC adherence was associated with lower costs (p = 0.006). Conclusions: NS prescriptions for anorexic patients more frequently followed NICE/SMHC than APA recommendations. Over the short-term, APA adherence was associated with improved weight gain. Patients adhering to NICE/SMHC recommendations had shorter hospital stay and reduced costs, likely due to their more favorable nutritional status at admission


Introducción: el soporte nutricional (SN) es un elemento clave en el tratamiento de la anorexia nerviosa (AN). Objetivo: analizar la adecuación de las prescripciones de SN en pacientes con AN a las guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y comparar la efectividad, seguridad y coste según la adecuación. Métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo en pacientes con AN ingresados en una Unidad de Trastornos de Conducta Alimentaria entre enero de 2006 y diciembre de 2009. Se hizo seguimiento hasta diciembre de 2014. Se compararon las prescripciones de SN con las GPC publicadas por la Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría (APA), el Instituto Nacional de Excelencia Clínica (NICE) y el Ministerio Español de Sanidad y Consumo (MSC). Se definió adecuación como porcentaje de ingresos que cumplieron todas las recomendaciones. Resultados: el grado de adecuación a APA y NICE/MSC fue del 10,2% y 73,4%, respectivamente. El peso corporal y el índice de masa corporal al ingreso fueron mayores en el grupo "sí-adecuación" al NICE/MSC versus "no-adecuación" (p < 0,001). La tasa de ganancia ponderal fue superior (p = 0,009) en el grupo "sí-adecuación" a APA (135.5 g/día) versus "no-adecuación" (92,1 g/día). La estancia hospitalaria fue menor (p = 0,025) en "sí-adecuación" al NICE/MSC (39,5 días) versus "no-adecuación" (50,0 días). La adecuación al NICE/MSC fue asociada con menores costes (p = 0,006). Conclusiones: las prescripciones de SN se ajustaron en mayor grado al NICE/MSC que a la APA. La adecuación a APA parece relacionarse con mayor tasa de ganancia ponderal. Los pacientes que se adecuaron al NICE/MSC presentaron menores estancias hospitalarias y costes, probablemente relacionado con su estado nutricional más favorable al ingreso


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Apoio Nutricional , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adesão à Medicação , Anorexia Nervosa/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Peso Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estado Nutricional , Tempo de Internação/economia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e16814, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517812

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) versus closed reduction (CR) for mandibular condylar fractures.Patients included in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2005-2014) who were admitted to the hospital for unilateral mandibular condylar fracture were included in the analysis. Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between those who received ORIF and those receiving CR. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for each aspect of the main observed events.NIS data of 12,303 patients who underwent ORIF and 4310 patients who underwent CR were analyzed. Compared to CR, ORIF had an increased risk of longer hospital stay (adjusted OR [aOR] = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 1.51-2.09), higher total medical cost (aOR = 2.57, 95% CI = 2.17-3.05), and hematoma development (aOR = 10.66, 95% CI = 1.43-75.59), but had a lower risk of having wound complications (aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79-0.93).Patients with mandibular condylar fractures who receive ORIF have greater risk of having an extended hospital stay, higher total medical costs, and hematoma development but lower risk of experiencing wound complications compared to those who receive CR.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Côndilo Mandibular/lesões , Côndilo Mandibular/cirurgia , Fraturas Mandibulares/cirurgia , Redução Aberta , Adulto , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hematoma/epidemiologia , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Fraturas Mandibulares/economia , Fraturas Mandibulares/epidemiologia , Redução Aberta/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 671, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke remains a major global health problem. In China, stroke was the leading cause of death and imposed a large impact on the healthcare system. This study aimed to examine the hospitalization costs by five stroke types and the associated factors for inpatient costs of stroke in Guangzhou City, Southern China. METHODS: This was a prevalence-based, cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from urban health insurance claims database of Guangzhou city. Samples including all the reimbursement claims submitted for inpatient care with the primary diagnosis of stroke from 2006 to 2013 were identified using the International Classification of Diseases codes. Descriptive analysis and multivariate regression analysis based on the Extended Estimating Equations model were performed. RESULTS: A total of 114,872 hospitalizations for five stroke types were identified. The average age was 71.7 years old, 54.2% were male and 60.1% received medical treatment in the tertiary hospitals, and 92.3% were covered by the urban employee-based medical insurance. The average length of stay was 26.7 days. Among all the hospitalizations (average cost: Chinese Yuan (CNY) 20,203.1 = $3212.1), the average costs of ischaemic stroke (IS), subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and other strokes were CNY 17,730.5, CNY 62,494.2, CNY 38,757.6, CNY 10,365.3 and CNY 18,920.6, respectively. Medication costs accounted for 42.9, 43.0 and 40.4% of the total inpatient costs among patients with IS, ICH and TIA, respectively, whereas for patients with SAH, the biggest proportion of total inpatient costs was from non-medication treatment costs (57.6%). Factors significantly associated with costs were stroke types, insurance types, age, comorbidities, severity of disease, length of stay and hospital levels. SAH was linked with the highest inpatient costs, followed by ICH, IS, other strokes and TIA. CONCLUSIONS: The costs of hospitalization for stroke were high and differed substantially by types of stroke. These findings could provide economic evidence for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of different stroke types as well as useful information for healthcare policy in China.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/economia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , China , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/economia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/economia , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 86(4): 241-248, 2019.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524584

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study aims to quantify the costs of a hospital stay of patients with periprosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty throughout the period of treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The group included patients who have been treated at our department for infection as a complication of total hip replacement since 1 January 2011, who have been provided with treatment (including complications) exclusively at the departments of Nemocnice Ceské Budejovice, a.s. and whose treatment can be considered completed in 2019. The patients were included in the study regardless of the type of infection and method of treatment. The group consisted of 36 patients (16 men and 20 women). There were 3 cases of early postoperative infection, 14 cases of late postoperative infection and 19 cases of hematogenous infection. The group includes 8 patients treated by a one-stage reimplantation, 19 patients managed by a two-stage reimplantation, 6 patients treated by a revision surgery with implant retention, and 3 patients in whom only the implant removal was possible. In selected patients, all the reported points for all the hospital stays and costs incurred on a separately charged material were ascertained and the final sum was compared with the reimbursement obtained by the hospital in the DRG system valid for the respective year of treatment. The total costs were analysed and also an analysis by type of infection and method of treatment was carried out. RESULTS The average costs of managing infection as a complication of total hip arthroplasty at our department amounted to CZK 320 065 (CZK 56 995 - CZK 953 614), the reimbursement in respect of the monitored cases in the DRG system equalled CZK 220 503 (CZK 89 149 - CZK 589 974). The aforementioned suggests that the average loss per treated patient is CZK 99 562 (CZK + 63 372 - CZK -428 499). DISCUSION Care associated with infections as a complication of total hip arthroplasty is very costly and these costs are not fully covered by the reimbursement from the health insurance companies. In the Czech Republic, these costs have not been quantified as yet, therefore it is only possible to compare the costs with international publications arriving at similar conclusions and with own monitoring of the costs of periprosthetic joint infections after total hip arthroplasty. The most economically efficient is the one-stage replacement which, however, is not suitable for all the patients, and the two-stage reimplantation continues to be the gold standard. In our study, the most expensive was found to be the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty, in which also the highest financial loss is reported. CONCLUSIONS Due to the very high costs of treatment for periprosthetic joint infections after total hip arthroplasty, it is necessary to exert maximum efforts to prevent periprosthetic joint infections and to consider a change in the method of financing, particularly in centres to which patients are referred from other centres in order to make this treatment economically viable. Key words:total hip arthroplasty, PJI - periprosthetic joint infection, economic analysis.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/economia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/economia , Remoção de Dispositivo/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação/economia
13.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 29(11): 1486-1491, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486708

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the results of two- versus three-staged laparoscopic anorectoplasty (LARP) in children with rectoprostatic and bladder neck fistulas. Materials and Methods: The present study was retrospectively initiated among 32 consecutive patients who underwent two-staged LARP from October 2010 to December 2012. The associated defects, age at the operation, operative time, complications, length of the postoperative hospital stay, total hospitalization cost, and functional results (according to the Krickenbeck scoring system) were evaluated. The results were compared with those of 19 cases who underwent three-staged LARP from October 2008 to September 2010. Results: The average age at the second operation was 4.5 ± 1.2 months in the two-staged group, and 4.2 ± 1.3 months in the three-staged group. In the two-staged group, there were statistically shorter overall operative time and postoperative hospital stay duration. Also, a significantly lower total hospitalization cost was achieved. There was no anastomotic leak in either group. The rates of perineal wound infection, recurrent fistula, and rectal prolapse were 3.85% versus 0% (P = 1.000), 0% versus 5.3% (P = .422), and 11.5% versus 15.8% (P = .686), respectively (two-staged versus three-staged group). The median follow-up time was 67 (range, 54-80) months and 88 (range, 81-104) months, respectively. No significant difference in functional outcome was observed. Conclusions: Two-staged LARP is feasible, safe, and more cost-effective, with comparable incidences of complications and functional outcomes with respect to a three-staged procedure.


Assuntos
Malformações Anorretais/cirurgia , Fístula/cirurgia , Doenças Prostáticas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Fístula Retal/cirurgia , Fístula da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/economia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pescoço/cirurgia , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/economia , Prolapso Retal/etiologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
14.
Surgery ; 166(4): 632-638, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of recent preoperative opioid exposure on outcomes of colorectal surgery is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of preoperative opioid use on outcomes and opioid prescribing patterns after colorectal surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing elective resection at a single institution from 2015 to 2017. Primary outcomes included in-hospital narcotic use and cost. Secondary outcomes included postoperative surgical outcomes and discharge prescribing patterns. RESULTS: A total of 390 patients underwent elective colorectal surgery, of whom 63 (16%) had a recent history of preoperative opioid use. Opioid users had similar age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and operative indication compared with opioid-naïve patients (P > .05 for each). Postoperatively, the 30-day readmission rate was greater among opioid users (18% vs 9%, P = .03). Opioid users had greater total narcotic use (218 morphine milligram equivalents vs 111 morphine milligram equivalents, P = .04) and direct costs ($11,165 vs $8,911, P < .01). These patients were also more likely to require an opioid prescription on discharge (90% vs 68%, P < .01) and an opioid refill within 30 days (54% vs 21%, P < .01). CONCLUSION: Recent preoperative opioid exposure among colorectal surgery patients was associated with increased opioid consumption and costs. Moreover, unadjusted analysis was pertinent for more readmissions after surgery among preoperative opioid users. This work underscores the negative impact of preoperative, chronic opioid use on surgical outcomes and highlights the need for developing protocols to minimize perioperative narcotics.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Cirurgia Colorretal/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Cirurgia Colorretal/mortalidade , Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(9): 1063-1070, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474149

RESUMO

AIMS: The primary aim of the study was to perform an analysis to identify the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of robot-assisted unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (rUKA) relative to manual total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) for patients with isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Secondary aims were to assess how case volume and length of hospital stay influenced the relative cost per QALY. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Markov decision analysis was performed, using known parameters for costs, outcomes, implant survival, and mortality, to assess the cost-effectiveness of rUKA relative to manual TKA and UKA for patients with isolated medial compartment OA of the knee with a mean age of 65 years. The influence of case volume and shorter hospital stay were assessed. RESULTS: Using a model with an annual case volume of 100 patients, the cost per QALY of rUKA was £1395 and £1170 relative to TKA and UKA, respectively. The cost per QALY was influenced by case volume: a low-volume centre performing ten cases per year would achieve a cost per QALY of £7170 and £8604 relative to TKA and UKA. For a high-volume centre performing 200 rUKAs per year with a mean two-day length of stay, the cost per QALY would be £648; if performed as day-cases, the cost would be reduced to £364 relative to TKA. For a high-volume centre performing 200 rUKAs per year with a shorter length of stay of one day relative to manual UKA, the cost per QALY would be £574. CONCLUSION: rUKA is a cost-effective alternative to manual TKA and UKA for patients with isolated medial compartment OA of the knee. The cost per QALY of rUKA decreased with reducing length of hospital stay and with increasing case volume, compared with TKA and UKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1063-1070.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Osteoartrite do Joelho/economia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16718, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to explore the influence factors of hospitalization costs of treating colorectal cancer in China. And the study provides new estimates on hospitalization costs and length of hospital stay for patients with colorectal cancer in China. METHODS: Data for inpatient hospitalization associated with colorectal cancer were obtained from a 3-tier hospital in Guangdong Province and were analyzed post hoc. We conducted descriptive statistical methods, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests (for 2 groups) and the Kruskal-Wallis test (for more than 2 groups) to analyze the hospitalization costs of treating colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The analysis included 8021 patients (female: 40.54%; mean age; 61.80 ±â€Š13.28 years; male: 59.46%; mean age: 61.80 ±â€Š13.28 years). The overall mean length of hospital stay was 11.35 days. Over the 5 years, the mean length of hospital stay showed a small decrease from 12.22 days in 2012 to 10.69 days in 2016, while per-day costs showed a trend of increase between 2012 and 2015 (increase from < 1190.94 to < 1382.50). The mean length of hospital stay was statistically significant difference was found for sexes (P = .039) and insurance status (P < .001). The mean hospitalization costs were < 16,279.58. Mean hospitalization costs were different among the UEBMI, the URBMI and the Unspecified (< 17,114.58, < 15,555.05, and < 17,735.30, respectively; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The study showed that hospitalization costs increase were associated with a small decreasing length of hospital stay and increasing per-day hospitalization costs. Moreover, the proportion of the hospitalization costs reimbursed by insurances increased. For inpatients with UEBMI, it possibly lead to over treatment and the medical expense rise which result in medical resources waste and significant society costs. The rising hospitalization costs may lead to a remarkably increased financial burden in the future in China.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Hospitalização/economia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
World Neurosurg ; 131: e550-e556, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the surgical outcome of using a trepan to treat single-segment ossification of ligamentum flavum under endoscopy and the clinical value of the new surgical treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for single-segment ossification of ligamentum flavum from January 2015 to June 2018 were included in a retrospective analysis. Endoscopic visual trepan decompression was performed in 26 patients and posterior spinal canal resection and decompression was performed in 11 patients. Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores, Japanese Orthopaedic Association improvement rate, and visual analog scale scores of both groups were recorded during follow-up. Computed tomography was used to evaluate patients' residual area ratio of the vertebral canal. Operative time, length of stay, amount of bleeding, and hospital cost in both groups were recorded. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.7 months. Average operative time was 100.6 ± 35.0 minutes in the experimental group and 140.5 ± 28.3 minutes in the control group. At the final follow-up, the average improvement rate of Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was 78.3% in the experimental group and 84.2% in the control group. The average residual area ratio of the vertebral canal, which was <50% before the operation in both groups, recovered to 100% in both groups after the operation. Visual analog scale score of all patients was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at the final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The visual trepan technique using a spinal endoscope can be used to treat single-segment ossification of ligamentum flavum. Advantages include less trauma, faster recovery, and lower cost. However, more cases and long-term follow-up are required to further evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of this surgical method.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Ligamento Amarelo/cirurgia , Neuroendoscopia/métodos , Ossificação Heterotópica/cirurgia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Descompressão Cirúrgica/economia , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Japão , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroendoscopia/economia , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 1015-1023, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362544

RESUMO

AIMS: Hip fractures are associated with high morbidity, mortality, and costs. One strategy for improving outcomes is to incentivize hospitals to provide better quality of care. We aimed to determine whether a pay-for-performance initiative affected hip fracture outcomes in England by using Scotland, which did not participate in the scheme, as a control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We undertook an interrupted time series study with data from all patients aged more than 60 years with a hip fracture in England (2000 to 2018) using the Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care (HES APC) data set linked to national death registrations. Difference-in-differences (DID) analysis incorporating equivalent data from the Scottish Morbidity Record was used to control for secular trends. The outcomes were 30-day and 365-day mortality, 30-day re-admission, time to operation, and acute length of stay. RESULTS: There were 1 037 860 patients with a hip fracture in England and 116 594 in Scotland. Both 30-day (DID -1.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.0 to -1.2) and 365-day (-1.9%; 95% CI -2.5 to -1.3) mortality fell in England post-intervention when compared with outcomes in Scotland. There were 7600 fewer deaths between 2010 and 2016 that could be attributed to interventions driven by pay-for-performance. A pre-existing annual trend towards increased 30-day re-admissions in England was halted post-intervention. Significant reductions were observed in the time to operation and length of stay. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that a pay-for-performance programme improved the outcomes after a hip fracture in England. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1015-1023.


Assuntos
Fixação de Fratura/economia , Fraturas do Quadril/economia , Melhoria de Qualidade/economia , Reembolso de Incentivo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fixação de Fratura/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Escócia , Tempo para o Tratamento/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 407-419, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends not performing transfusions in African children hospitalized for uncomplicated severe anemia (hemoglobin level of 4 to 6 g per deciliter and no signs of clinical severity). However, high mortality and readmission rates suggest that less restrictive transfusion strategies might improve outcomes. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with uncomplicated severe anemia to immediate transfusion with 20 ml or 30 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight, as determined in a second simultaneous randomization, or no immediate transfusion (control group), in which transfusion with 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram was triggered by new signs of clinical severity or a drop in hemoglobin to below 4 g per deciliter. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Three other randomizations investigated transfusion volume, postdischarge supplementation with micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. RESULTS: A total of 1565 children (median age, 26 months) underwent randomization, with 778 assigned to the immediate-transfusion group and 787 to the control group; 984 children (62.9%) had malaria. The children were followed for 180 days, and 71 (4.5%) were lost to follow-up. During the primary hospitalization, transfusion was performed in all the children in the immediate-transfusion group and in 386 (49.0%) in the control group (median time to transfusion, 1.3 hours vs. 24.9 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) total blood volume transfused per child was 314±228 ml in the immediate-transfusion group and 142±224 ml in the control group. Death had occurred by 28 days in 7 children (0.9%) in the immediate-transfusion group and in 13 (1.7%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 1.36; P = 0.19) and by 180 days in 35 (4.5%) and 47 (6.0%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.15), without evidence of interaction with other randomizations (P>0.20) or evidence of between-group differences in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. The mean length of hospital stay was 0.9 days longer in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of differences in clinical outcomes over 6 months between the children who received immediate transfusion and those who did not. The triggered-transfusion strategy in the control group resulted in lower blood use; however, the length of hospital stay was longer, and this strategy required clinical and hemoglobin monitoring. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Tempo para o Tratamento , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 420-431, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anemia (hemoglobin level, <6 g per deciliter) is a leading cause of hospital admission and death in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends transfusion of 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight for anemia, regardless of hemoglobin level. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label trial, we randomly assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with a hemoglobin level of less than 6 g per deciliter and severity features (e.g., respiratory distress or reduced consciousness) to receive immediate blood transfusion with 20 ml per kilogram or 30 ml per kilogram. Three other randomized analyses investigated immediate as compared with no immediate transfusion, the administration of postdischarge micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 3196 eligible children (median age, 37 months; 2050 [64.1%] with malaria) were assigned to receive a transfusion of 30 ml per kilogram (1598 children) or 20 ml per kilogram (1598 children) and were followed for 180 days. A total of 1592 children (99.6%) in the higher-volume group and 1596 (99.9%) in the lower-volume group started transfusion (median, 1.2 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) volume of total blood transfused per child was 475±385 ml and 353±348 ml, respectively; 197 children (12.3%) and 300 children (18.8%) in the respective groups received additional transfusions. Overall, 55 children (3.4%) in the higher-volume group and 72 (4.5%) in the lower-volume group died before 28 days (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.08; P = 0.12 by log-rank test). This finding masked significant heterogeneity in 28-day mortality according to the presence or absence of fever (>37.5°C) at screening (P=0.001 after Sidak correction). Among the 1943 children (60.8%) without fever, mortality was lower with a transfusion volume of 30 ml per kilogram than with a volume of 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.69). Among the 1253 children (39.2%) with fever, mortality was higher with 30 ml per kilogram than with 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.49). There was no evidence of differences between the randomized groups in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mortality did not differ between the two transfusion strategies. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development, United Kingdom; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
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