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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866181

RESUMO

After perceiving cognitive conflicts or errors, children as well as adults adjust their performance in terms of reaction time slowing on subsequent actions, resulting in the so called post-conflict slowing and post-error slowing, respectively. The development of these phenomena has been studied separately and with different methods yielding inconsistent findings. We aimed to assess the temporal dynamics of these two slowing phenomena within a single behavioral task. To do so, 9-13-year-old children and young adults performed a Simon task in which every fifth trial was incongruent and thus induced cognitive conflict and, frequently, also errors. We compared the reaction times on four trials following a conflict or an error. Both age groups slowed down after conflicts and did so even more strongly after errors. Disproportionally high reaction times on the first post-error trial were followed by a steady flattening of the slowing. Generally, children slowed down more than adults. In addition to highlighting the phenomenal and developmental robustness of post-conflict and post-error slowing these findings strongly suggest increasingly efficient performance adjustment through fine-tuning of cognitive control in the course of development.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Conflito Psicológico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0226122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853238

RESUMO

Essential for successful interaction with the environment is the human capacity to resolve events in time. Typical event timing paradigms are judgements of simultaneity (SJ) and of temporal order (TOJ). It remains unclear whether SJ and TOJ are based on the same underlying mechanism and whether there are fixed thresholds for resolution. The current study employed four visual event timing task versions: horizontal and vertical SJ and TOJ. Binary responses were analysed using multilevel binary regression modelling. Modulatory effects of potential explanatory variables on event timing perception were investigated: (1) Individual factors (sex and age), (2) temporal factors (SOA, trial number, order of experiment, order of stimuli orientation, time of day) and (3) spatial factors (left or right stimulus first, top or bottom stimulus first, horizontal vs. vertical orientation). The current study directly compares for the first time, performance on SJ and TOJ tasks using the same paradigm and presents evidence that a variety of factors and their interactions selectively modulate event timing functions in humans, explaining the variance found in previous studies. We conclude that SJ and TOJ are partially independent functions, because they are modulated differently by individual and contextual variables.


Assuntos
Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Orientação , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4057, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792523

RESUMO

Mammalian cortex has both local and cross-area connections, suggesting vital roles for both local and cross-area neural population dynamics in cortically-dependent tasks, like movement learning. Prior studies of movement learning have focused on how single-area population dynamics change during short-term adaptation. It is unclear how cross-area dynamics contribute to movement learning, particularly long-term learning and skill acquisition. Using simultaneous recordings of rodent motor (M1) and premotor (M2) cortex and computational methods, we show how cross-area activity patterns evolve during reach-to-grasp learning in rats. The emergence of reach-related modulation in cross-area activity correlates with skill acquisition, and single-trial modulation in cross-area activity predicts reaction time and reach duration. Local M2 neural activity precedes local M1 activity, supporting top-down hierarchy between the regions. M2 inactivation preferentially affects cross-area dynamics and behavior, with minimal disruption of local M1 dynamics. Together, these results indicate that cross-area population dynamics are necessary for learned motor skills.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Animais , Eletrofisiologia , Masculino , Neurofisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Ratos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4014, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782303

RESUMO

Perception reflects not only sensory inputs, but also the endogenous state when these inputs enter the brain. Prior studies show that endogenous neural states influence stimulus processing through non-specific, global mechanisms, such as spontaneous fluctuations of arousal. It is unclear if endogenous activity influences circuit and stimulus-specific processing and behavior as well. Here we use intracranial recordings from 30 pre-surgical epilepsy patients to show that patterns of endogenous activity are related to the strength of trial-by-trial neural tuning in different visual category-selective neural circuits. The same aspects of the endogenous activity that relate to tuning in a particular neural circuit also correlate to behavioral reaction times only for stimuli from the category that circuit is selective for. These results suggest that endogenous activity can modulate neural tuning and influence behavior in a circuit- and stimulus-specific manner, reflecting a potential mechanism by which endogenous neural states facilitate and bias perception.


Assuntos
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletrocorticografia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
5.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 744-764, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744855

RESUMO

In most attentional-control tasks, incongruent trials (i.e., trials with a conflict between two responses) are intermixed with congruent trials (i.e., trials without conflict). Typically, performance is slower and more error-prone on incongruent trials than on congruent trials. This congruency effect has been found to be smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. This finding-labeled the congruency sequence effect (CSE)-has been assumed to reflect a dynamic adjustment of attentional control, which enables participants to enhance goal-relevant features and to inhibit irrelevant features. Only a few studies have investigated the impact of aging on the CSE, and their results are mixed. Compared to young adults, older adults were found to show a similar CSE, no CSE, a larger CSE, or a smaller CSE. This discrepancy in results has been interpreted as the consequence of using different tasks. To test for this, we conducted new analyses on 9 tasks-the color Stroop, number Stroop, arrow flanker, letter flanker, Simon, global-local, positive compatibility, and negative compatibility task-from our previous study (Rey-Mermet, Gade, & Oberauer, 2018). Both a null-hypothesis significance testing approach and a Bayesian hypothesis testing approach showed a similar CSE in both age groups for most tasks. Only in the Stroop tasks, the CSE was larger for older adults. These results are incompatible with the hypothesis of a general age-related deficit in attentional control. At the same time, they question the construct validity of the CSE. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000841, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833962

RESUMO

The integration of normative and descriptive analyses of decision processes in humans struggles with the fact that measuring preferences by different procedures yields different rankings and that humans appear irrationally impulsive (namely, show maladaptive preference for immediacy). Failure of procedure invariance has led to the widespread hypothesis that preferences are constructed "on the spot" by cognitive evaluations performed at choice time, implying that choices should take extra time in order to perform the necessary comparisons. We examine this issue in experiments with starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and show that integrating normative and descriptive arguments is possible and may help reinterpreting human decision results. Our main findings are that (1) ranking alternatives through direct rating (response time) accurately predicts preference in choice, overcoming failures of procedure invariance; (2) preference is not constructed at choice time nor does it involve extra time (we show that the opposite is true); and (3) starlings' choices are not irrationally impulsive but are instead directly interpretable in terms of profitability ranking. Like all nonhuman research, our protocols examine decisions by experience rather than by description, and hence support the conjecture that irrationalities that prevail in research with humans may not be observed in decisions by experience protocols.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Estorninhos/fisiologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Psychol Aging ; 35(6): 881-893, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816506

RESUMO

The present study investigated age-related differences in the ability to constrain attention to the current task, without contamination (bleeding) from an upcoming decision. Each experiment included two blocks of trials. During Block 1, participants initially incidentally encoded a list of high- and low-frequency words, after which they pronounced aloud the studied words intermixed with a new set of words during a test phase. Block 2 was identical to Block 1 with the exception that after pronouncing each word aloud, participants made an additional decision (episodic recognition decision in Experiments 1 and 2 and animacy decision in Experiment 3). In the first two experiments, older adults showed disproportionate slowing in their response times to pronounce the words when they additionally had to make a recognition judgment afterward (Block 2) compared to when they only pronounced the words aloud (Block 1). Importantly, the difference between high-frequency and low-frequency words (the word frequency effect) was disproportionately attenuated for older adults in Block 2 compared to Block 1 and compared to younger adults. These results suggest that older adults experience greater cross-task bleeding than younger adults because word frequency has opposing effects in pronunciation and recognition tasks. As predicted, this age modulation of the word frequency effect in pronunciation performance was not replicated in Experiment 3 when participants made an animacy judgment, wherein word frequency effects act in concert with those of the pronunciation task. Discussion focuses on age-related differences in the ability to constrain attention to a current task. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Idioma , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649696

RESUMO

Online experiments are growing in popularity. This study aimed to determine the timing accuracy of web technologies and investigate whether they can be used to support high temporal precision psychology experiments. A dynamic sinusoidal grating and flashes were produced by setInterval, CSS3, and requestAnimationFrame (hereafter, rAF) technologies. They were run at normal or real-time priority processing in Chrome, Firefox, Edge, and Internet Explorer on Windows, macOS, and Linux. Timing accuracies were compared with that of Psychtoolbox which was chosen as gold standard. It was found that rAF with real-time priority had the best timing accuracy compared to the other web technologies and had a similar timing accuracy as Psychtoolbox in traditional experiments in most cases. However, rAF exhibited poor timing accuracy on Linux. Therefore, rAF can be used as technical basis for accuracy of millisecond timing sequences in online experiments, thereby benefiting the psychology field.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Psicologia Experimental/instrumentação , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Navegador , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649720

RESUMO

Although unintended acceleration caused by pedal misapplication is a cause of traffic accidents, fatal accidents may be avoided if drivers realize their error immediately and quickly correct how they are stepping on the pedal. This correction behavior may decline with age because the rate of fatal accidents is fairly higher for older adults than for younger adults. To investigate this possibility, the present study recruited older adults (n = 40, age range = 67-81 years) as well as younger adults (n = 40, age range = 18-32 years). In this study, they performed a pedal stepping task during which they were required to stop the simulated vehicle as quickly as possible when a red signal was presented on a monitor. During most trials, the vehicle decelerated/stopped when the brake pedal was applied in a normal manner. In a few trials, however, stepping on the brake pedal resulted in sudden acceleration of the vehicle (i.e., the occurrence of the unintended acceleration); when this occurred, the participants had to release the pedal and re-step on another pedal to decelerate/stop the vehicle as quickly as possible. We focused on the age-related differences of the reaction latencies during three time periods: from the appearance of the red signal on the screen until stepping on the pedal (Period 1), from stepping on the pedal until the release of the pedal (Period 2), and from the release of the pedal until re-stepping of another pedal (Period 3). The results showed that there was no age-related difference in the latency of Period 1, p = .771, whereas those of Periods 2 and 3 were longer for the older adults (ps < .001). The results suggest that there are age-related differences in error detection and correction abilities under unintended situations with foot pedal manipulation.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3341, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620746

RESUMO

The oculomotor system keeps the eyes steady in expectation of visual events. Here, recording microsaccades while people performed a tactile, frequency discrimination task enabled us to test whether the oculomotor system shows an analogous preparatory response for unrelated tactile events. We manipulated the temporal predictability of tactile targets using tactile cues, which preceded the target by either constant (high predictability) or variable (low predictability) time intervals. We find that microsaccades are inhibited prior to tactile targets and more so for constant than variable intervals, revealing a tight crossmodal link between tactile temporal expectation and oculomotor action. These findings portray oculomotor freezing as a marker of crossmodal temporal expectation. Moreover, microsaccades occurring around the tactile target presentation are associated with reduced task performance, suggesting that oculomotor freezing mitigates potential detrimental, concomitant effects of microsaccades and revealing a crossmodal coupling between tactile perception and oculomotor action.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Oculomotores/inervação , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3524, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665559

RESUMO

Eye movements are inhibited prior to the onset of temporally-predictable visual targets. This oculomotor inhibition effect could be considered a marker for the formation of temporal expectations and the allocation of temporal attention in the visual domain. Here we show that eye movements are also inhibited before predictable auditory targets. In two experiments, we manipulate the period between a cue and an auditory target to be either predictable or unpredictable. The findings show that although there is no perceptual gain from avoiding gaze-shifts in this procedure, saccades and blinks are inhibited prior to predictable relative to unpredictable auditory targets. These findings show that oculomotor inhibition occurs prior to auditory targets. This link between auditory expectation and oculomotor behavior reveals a multimodal perception action coupling, which has a central role in temporal expectations.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235964, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697771

RESUMO

Simon tasks reveal implicit processing conflicts that arise when the abstract coding of stimulus position is incongruent with coding for location of the output response. Participants were tested with two versions of a Simon task in a counterbalanced order to examine a potential female bias for attending to object characteristics versus object location. Both tasks used a triangle pointing to the left or right. A simple version presented the triangle in an inner or outer position relative to central fixation. A more complex version included a frame surrounding the inner-outer triangle presentation area in order to introduce additional visual elements for left/right visual processing. When the No Frame version was the first presented, there were no sex differences in the Simon effect in either version, which is consistent with results from other studies that did not provide feedback regarding accuracy. When the initial test was the Frame version, we observed a reverse Simon effect for incongruent triangles presented in the left inner position, with females faster than males to identify the incongruent condition versus the congruent (-59 vs -5 msec). In the No Frame condition that followed, females showed a carryover effect from the previous Frame condition, exhibiting positive Simon effects that were two fold larger than males for identifying incongruent stimuli presented in the left and right outer positions. Similar to previous Simon studies, females showed longer overall reaction times than males (~15%). The difference was not related to the Simon effect and is also found in other types of tasks involving early visual processing of objects with location. Based on sex differences in the Simon effect that emerged following initial experience of the triangle adjoining the frame, the present results support a female bias toward broader integration of objects within the context of location.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychol Aging ; 35(6): 831-849, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658539

RESUMO

The diffusion decision model (DDM) has been used to investigate the effects of aging on information processing in simple response time (RT) tasks. These analyses have consistently shown that the age-related slowing of RTs can be accounted for by slower processing speed in sensorimotor systems and more cautious responding. However, previous DDM assessments of aging have ignored conflict tasks (e.g., the flanker task), the dominant paradigm for investigating age-related differences in executive control, as the DDM is unable to combine task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimulus information. Our study used two recently developed extensions of the DDM-the diffusion model for conflict tasks (DMC) and the shrinking spotlight diffusion model (SSP)-to provide the first model-based assessment of age-related differences in a flanker task featuring a manipulation of the spacing between target and flanking letters. Consistent with previous findings, older adults were globally slower than younger adults, and the magnitude of the flanker effect was larger for older than younger adults only when the spacing between the target and flanking letters was small. Fits of the models to data revealed a superiority of the DMC over the SSP. The DMC accounts for experimental findings with a 62-ms slowing of the nondecision component of RT for older compared to younger adults, a more cautious decision criterion, and enhanced processing of the target and flanking letters in the near periphery, suggesting a stronger attentional engagement in the task. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Psychol Aging ; 35(6): 850-865, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718157

RESUMO

We investigated aging effects in a task-switch paradigm with degraded stimuli administered to college students, 61-74 year olds, and 75-89 year olds. We studied switch costs (the performance difference between task-repeat and task-switch trials) in terms of accuracy and mean reaction times (RTs). Previous aging research focused on switch costs in terms of mean RTs (with accuracy at ceiling). Our results emphasize the importance of distinguishing between switch costs indexed by accuracy and by RTs because these measures lead to different interpretations. We used the Diffusion Decision Model (DDM; Ratcliff, 1978) to study the cognitive components contributing to switch costs. The DDM decomposed the cognitive process of task switching into multiple components. Two parameters of the model, the quality of evidence on which decisions were based (drift rate) and the duration of processes outside the decision process (nondecision time component), indexed different sources of switch costs. We found that older participants had larger switch costs indexed by nondecision time component than younger participants. This result suggests age-related deficits in preparatory cognitive processes. We also found group differences in switch costs indexed by drift rate for switch trials with high stimulus interference (stimuli with features relevant for both tasks). This result suggests that older participants have less effective cognitive processes involved in resolving interference. Our findings show that age-related effects in separate components of switch costs can be studied with the DDM. Our results demonstrate the utility of using discrimination tasks with degraded stimuli in conjunction with model-based analyses. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233544, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479531

RESUMO

Recently, Wang and Theeuwes used the additional singleton task and showed that attentional capture was reduced for the location that was likely to contain a distractor [1]. It is argued that due to statistical learning, the location that was likely to contain a distractor was suppressed relative to all other locations. The current study replicated these findings and by adding a search-probe condition, we were able to determine the initial distribution of attentional resources across the visual field. Consistent with a space-based resource allocation ("biased competition") model, it was shown that the representation of a probe presented at the location that was likely to contain a distractor was suppressed relative to other locations. Critically, the suppression of this location resulted in more attention being allocated to the target location relative to a condition in which the distractor was not suppressed. This suggests that less capture by the distractor results in more attention being allocated to the target. The results are consistent with the view that the location that is likely to contain a distractor is suppressed before display onset, modulating the first feed-forward sweep of information input into the spatial priority map.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Exp Psychol ; 67(1): 48-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520669

RESUMO

Doing two things at once (vs. one in isolation) usually yields performance costs. Such decrements are often distributed asymmetrically between the two actions involved, reflecting different processing priorities. A previous study (Huestegge & Koch, 2013) demonstrated that the particular effector systems associated with the two actions can determine the pattern of processing priorities: Vocal responses were prioritized over manual responses, as indicated by smaller performance costs (associated with dual-action demands) for the former. However, this previous study only involved auditory stimulation (for both actions). Given that previous research on input-output modality compatibility in dual tasks suggested that pairing auditory input with vocal output represents a particularly advantageous mapping, the question arises whether the observed vocal-over-manual prioritization was merely a consequence of auditory stimulation. To resolve this issue, we conducted a manual-vocal dual task study using either only auditory or only visual stimuli for both responses. We observed vocal-over-manual prioritization in both stimulus modality conditions. This suggests that input-output modality mappings can (to some extent) attenuate, but not abolish/reverse effector-based prioritization. Taken together, effector system pairings appear to have a more substantial impact on capacity allocation policies in dual-task control than input-output modality combinations.


Assuntos
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the latency and the amplitude values of Mismatch Negativity and P300 cognitive potential in children with stuttering, with no auditory complaints, with auditory thresholds within the normality range, comparing them to the findings of a Control Group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 50 children of both sexes, 15 with stuttering and 35 without stuttering, aged 6 to 11 years, with no diagnosis of ear pathology or other diseases. All children were submitted to peripheral audiological evaluation (meatoscopy, pure tone testing, speech audiometry, and acoustic immittance measures) and a central audiological evaluation (investigation of the Mismatch Negativity and P300 cognitive potential). For the evaluation of fluency, all children with stuttering had a specific history taken and were video recorded in a spontaneous speech. Afterwards, the transcription was done, followed by speech analysis to classify children according the severity of stuttering. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the latencies of Mismatch Negativity and P300 cognitive potential, as well as in the amplitude of Mismatch Negativity. CONCLUSION: There was a significant delay in the latencies of Mismatch Negativity and P300 cognitive potential, as well as increase in the amplitude of the Mismatch Negativity in children with stuttering when compared to children in the Control Group. Changes in the morphology of the waves were found in the Stuttering Group.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Gagueira/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fala
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234380, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542032

RESUMO

It is well-known that correction of blur can improve visual perception. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effect of correction is affected by the regions of correction and the spatial uncertainty introduced by the retinal stimulation. The purpose of this study was two-fold: first, to compare the impacts of blur correction between isoeccentric locations of the visual field; and second, to evaluate the effect of spatial cueing in each corrected location on performing a simple task. Five subjects were asked to complete a simple detection task of a small dark spot stimulus presented randomly at four cardinal retinal locations (eccentricity: 5°) under manipulation of attention via an exogenous cue. Both clear and blurred targets were randomly displayed across the visual field and viewed monocularly through a vision simulator, used to minimize peripheral ocular aberrations. Results confirmed the advantage of clear vs/ blurred images under spatial uncertainty. It was also found that the visual benefit from blur correction is unequal at isoeccentric locations, even for a simple detection task. While manipulation of attention in the presence of spatial uncertainty significantly modulated response time (RT) performance, no differential effect was observed for clear and blurred stimuli, suggesting that attention has only a small effect on the optical benefit for a simple detection task when the display is depleted (no distractor). Those observations highlight the importance of field performance asymmetries in optical interventions and may offer useful implications for the design of extrafoveal refractive correction. Further studies are needed to elucidate how the focus of attention interacts with the perceived gain of vision correction.


Assuntos
Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Sinais (Psicologia) , Olho Artificial , Óculos , Humanos , Orientação Espacial , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Erros de Refração/psicologia , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual , Campos Visuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584827

RESUMO

When we perform an action, the outcome that follows it can change the value we place on that behaviour, making it more or less likely to be repeated in the future. However, the values that we learn are not objective: we interpret the outcomes that we receive for ourselves relative to those that share our environment, i.e. we engage in social comparison. The temporal dynamics of physiological responses to stimulus valuation in social learning tasks are poorly understood, particularly in human participants. Therefore, we recorded stimulus-locked event-related potentials with 64-channel EEG to examine stimulus valuation, following the design of a study previously used in macaques. Pairs of participants performed a social learning task in which they received outcomes sequentially for a presented stimulus (partner first) by pressing a button in response to a cue. There were two conditions: one in which stimulus values varied for the participant but output a constant rate of reward for the partner (self-variable blocks), and another condition in which this payout was reversed (other-variable blocks). We then measured participants' self-reported competitiveness. Approximately 200 ms post-stimulus, an ERP related to stimulus evaluation and attentional processing appeared to encode own stimulus value in self-variable blocks. In other-variable blocks the same pattern of activity was reversed, even though the value of the stimulus for the participant did not depend on the stimulus presented. Outcome-locked analyses further showed that attention dedicated to the partner's outcome was greater in more competitive participants. We conclude that subjective stimulus value can be reflected in early stimulus-locked ERP responses and that competitive participants may be more invested in their own performance relative to the other player, hence their increased interest in the outcome of their partner.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Recompensa
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579618

RESUMO

Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch between different concepts or to adapt goal-directed behavior in a changing environment. Although, cognitive research on this ability has long been focused on the individual mind, it is becoming increasingly clear that cognitive flexibility plays a central role in our social life. This is particularly evident in turn-taking in verbal conversation, where cognitive flexibility of the individual becomes part of social flexibility in the dyadic interaction. In this work, we introduce a model that reveals different parameters that explain how people flexibly handle unexpected events in verbal conversation. In order to study hypotheses derived from the model, we use a novel experimental approach in which thirty pairs of participants engaged in a word-by-word interaction by taking turns in generating sentences word by word. Similar to well established individual cognitive tasks, participants needed to adapt their behavior in order to respond to their co-actor's last utterance. With our experimental approach we could manipulate the interaction between participants: Either both participants had to construct a sentence with a common target word (congruent condition) or with distinct target words (incongruent condition). We further studied the relation between the interactive Word-by-Word task measures and classical individual-centered, cognitive tasks, namely the Number-Letter task, the Stop-Signal task, and the GoNogo task. In the Word-by-Word task, we found that participants had faster response times in congruent compared to incongruent trials, which replicates the primary findings of standard cognitive tasks measuring cognitive flexibility. Further, we found a significant correlation between the performance in the Word-by-Word task and the Stop-Signal task indicating that participants with a high cognitive flexibility in the Word-by-Word task also showed high inhibition control.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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