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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803912

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the association of different frequencies of organized sport participation (OSP) with physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, sleep, and screen time among adolescents. A cross-sectional study involving 315 16-year-old adolescents was conducted. OSP was self-reported, being categorized as 0 times a week, less than three times a week, 4-5 times a week, and 6-7 times a week, on average. Screen time was also self-reported but physical activity and sleep duration were objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition were measured using a maximal cycle ergometer test and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, respectively. An analysis of covariance revealed a significant association between OSP and physical activity (F (3, 286) = 14.53, p < 0.01), cardiorespiratory fitness (F (3, 236) = 17.64, p < 0.01), screen time (F (3, 294) = 8.14, p < 0.01), body fat percentage (F (3, 292) = 11.84, p < 0.01), and fat free mass (F (3, 290) = 5.76, p < 0.01. No significant association was found between OSP and sleep duration. Post hoc analyses showed that OSP at least four times a week was beneficial to favorable physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, screen time, and body composition and may therefore serve as a valuable tool in battling unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 106-113, abril 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151490

RESUMO

Introducción. En estudios anteriores, el uso excesivo o la exposición temprana a pantallas se asoció con atención deficiente, falta de control de la conducta, retraso del lenguaje y déficit en la función ejecutiva. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre el tiempo de uso de pantallas y la regulación emocional, que afecta las relaciones sociales de los niños de 2 a 5 años.Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal en un hospital universitario del 1.º de enero al 1.º de marzo de 2018. Se incluyó a madres de niños sanos de 2 a 5 años con un uso de pantallas inferior a 1 hora o superior a 4 horas. A quienes aceptaron participar se les administró una encuesta estructurada y la Emotion Regulation Checklist para padres.Resultados. De los 240 niños participantes, 98 (el 40,8 %) tenían un uso de pantallas ≥ 4 horas. Ser cuidado por la madre, tener 12 meses o más durante la primera exposición y no estar acompañado por los padres al usarlas se asociaron con ≥ 4 horas de uso de pantallas (p = 0,002; p = 0,002; p = 0,012, respectivamente). La proporción de participantes con una puntuación alta de labilidad/negatividad (L/N) fue significativamente mayor entre los niños con ≥ 4 horas de uso de pantallas y que no estaban acompañados por sus padres al usarlas (p = 0,004; p = 0,033, respectivamente).Conclusiones. Este estudio determinó que un uso excesivo de pantallas se asocia con labilidad emocional durante esta etapa temprana de la infancia.


Introduction. Previous studies have found that excessive screen time or early screen exposure is associated with poor attention, lack of behavioral control, delayed language and deficit in executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between screen time and emotion regulation skills, which is one of the important life components affecting the social relations of children aged 2 to 5 years.Population and methods.This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a university hospital between January 1, 2018 and March 1, 2018. Mothers of healthy children aged 2-5 years with a daily screen time of less than 1 hour or over 4 hours were included in the study. A structured survey and the Emotion Regulation Checklist for parents were applied to the mothers who agreed to participate.Results. Of 240 children participating in the study, 98 (40.8 %) had ≥4 hours of screen time. Caring by mother, age at first screen exposure 12 months and older, not co-viewing with parents were found to be associated with ≥ 4 hours of screen time (p = 0.002, p = 0.002, p = 0.012, respectively). The ratio of participants with high-lability/negativity (L/N) score was significantly higher in children with screen time of ≥ 4 hours and not co-viewing with parents (p = 0.004, p = 0.033, respectively).Conclusions. This study investigating the relationship between the emotion regulation skill and screen time revealed that excessive screen time is associated with emotional lability in this early childhood period.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Tempo de Tela , Regulação Emocional , Turquia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809697

RESUMO

COVID-19 home confinement has led to a stressful situation for children around the world and affected their lifestyle. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of these restrictions on sleep quality, screen time (ST) and physical activity (PA) in Tunisian children with a special focus on gender differences. An online survey was launched in April 2020. Questions were presented in a differential format, with expected responses related to "before" and "during" confinement. Participants (52 boys and 48 girls, age: 8.66 ± 3.3 years) responded to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the digital media use, and the Ricci and Gagnon sedentary behavior questionnaires. Findings revealed that COVID19 home confinement had a negative effect on all the considered parameters (p < 0.05). Significant effects of gender were found on sleep disturbances (p = 0.016, np2 = 0.05), subjective sleep quality (p < 0.01, np2 = 0.07), global score of PSQI (p = 0.01, np2 = 0.01) and nocturnal and global screen time (p < 0.001, np2 = 0.09) with poorer sleep and higher screen time in girls compared to boys during home confinement. A significant correlation was shown between Global ST and PSQI score (r = 0.39, p < 0.001). Programs of PA for children and sensitization campaigns against the use of screens have been deemed urgent with special focus oriented to girls.


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Tempo de Tela , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8529, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879822

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the levels of health-related behaviours (physical activity, screen exposure and sleep status) among Chinese students from primary, secondary and high schools during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as their changes compared with their status before the pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey of 10,933 students was conducted among 10 schools in Guangzhou, China, between 8th and 15th March, 2020. After getting the informed consent from student's caregivers, an online questionnaire was designed and used to obtain time spending on health-related behaviours during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as the changes compared with 3 months before the pandemic, which was completed by students themselves or their caregivers. Students were stratified by regions (urban, suburban, exurban), gender (boys and girls), and grades (lower grades of primary school, higher grades of primary schools, secondary schools and high schools). Data were expressed as number and percentages and Chi-square test was used to analyse difference between groups. Overall, the response rate of questionnaire was 95.3% (10,416/10,933). The median age of included students was 13.0 (10.0, 16.0) years and 50.1% (n = 5,219) were boys. 41.4%, 53.6% and 53.7% of total students reported less than 15 min per day in light, moderate and vigorous activities and 58.7% (n = 6,113) reported decreased participation in physical activity compared with the time before pandemic. Over 5 h of screen time spending on online study was reported by 44.6% (n = 4,649) of respondents, particular among high school students (81.0%). 76.9% of students reported increased screen time compared with the time before pandemic. Inadequate sleep was identified among 38.5% of students and the proportion was highest in high school students (56.9%). Our study indicated that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the school closure exerted tremendous negative effects on school-aged children's health habits, including less physical activity, longer screen exposure and irregular sleeping pattern.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Tempo de Tela , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925317

RESUMO

Understanding how screen time behaviors changed during the COVID-19 pandemic is important to inform the design of health promotion interventions. The purpose of this study was to quantify and describe changes in recreational screen time from 2018 to 2020 among a diverse sample of emerging adults. Participants (n = 716) reported their average weekly recreational screen time in 2018 and again during the pandemic in 2020. Additionally, participants qualitatively reported how events related to COVID-19 had influenced their screen time. Weekly recreational screen time increased from 25.9 ± 11.9 h in 2018 to 28.5 ± 11.6 h during COVID-19 (p < 0.001). The form of screen time most commonly reported to increase was TV shows and streaming services (n = 233). Commonly reported reasons for changes in screen time were boredom (n = 112) and a desire to connect with others (n = 52). Some participants reported trying to reduce screen time because of its negative impact on their mental health (n = 32). Findings suggest that screen time and mental health may be intertwined during the pandemic as it may lead to poorer mental health for some, while promoting connectedness for others. Health professionals and public health messaging could promote specific forms for screen time to encourage social connection during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Tempo de Tela
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807520

RESUMO

Physical activity is essential for children's healthy development, yet COVID-19 physical distancing restrictions such as school closures and staying at home, playground closures, and the cancelling of organised community sport have dramatically altered children's opportunities to be physically active. This study describes changes in levels of physical activity and screen time from February 2020 (i.e., before COVID-19 restrictions were introduced in Western Australia) to May 2020 (i.e., when COVID-19 restrictions were in place). Parents of children aged 5 to 9 years from Western Australia were eligible to participate and recruited through convenience sampling. An online survey instrument that included validated measures of their children's physical activity (unstructured, organized, home-based, indoor/outdoor active play, dog play/walking), sociodemographic, and other potential confounders was administered to parents. Paired t-tests and mixed ANOVA models assessed changes in physical activity outcomes. The analytic sample comprised parents of 157 children who were 6.9 years of age (SD = 1.7) on average. Overall, weekly minutes of total physical activity (PA) did not change from before to during COVID-19. However, frequency and duration (total and home-based) of unstructured physical activity significantly increased. Outdoor play in the yard or street around the house, outdoor play in the park or playground or outdoor recreation area, and active indoor play at home all significantly increased. Frequency and total duration of organised physical activity significantly declined during COVID-19 distancing. During Western Australian COVID-19 restrictions, there was an increase in young children's unstructured physical activity and outdoor play and a decrease in organised physical activity. It remains to be seen whether children's increased physical activity has been sustained with the easing of physical distancing restrictions.


Assuntos
Tempo de Tela , Animais , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Humanos , Austrália Ocidental
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567527

RESUMO

In Ireland, television (TV) screen time is a highly prevalent sedentary behavior among children aged less than five years. Little is known about the influence of parental rules and policies or screen time availability and accessibility within the home on children's TV screen time behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the extent to which parents' sociodemographic and sedentary behaviors are associated with children's TV screen time; and to determine the associations between parents' rules and practices, home physical environment and children's daily TV viewing. Three hundred and thirty-two children aged 3-5 years and their parents participated in the study. Children's TV screen time and home environmental characteristics (parents' rules and practices and the physical environment) were assessed using questions from standardized and validated questionnaires. The data were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Within the different sedentary behaviors evaluated, parents' TV viewing was positively associated with children's TV screen time (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.09-2.50, p = 0.018). Leaving the TV on, whether or not it was being watched, was associated with a 38% increased probability of children watching ≥ 1 h TV daily. Children whose parents restricted their outdoor activity were more likely to watch ≥ 1 h TV daily (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.04-3.88, p = 0.036). Findings from the study demonstrated that parents' own screen time behaviors, leaving the TV on whether it was being watched or not and restricting outdoor play were associated with higher children's TV viewing in the home environment. This knowledge is essential to inform future interventions aimed to address the increase in screen time among young children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Tempo de Tela , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Irlanda , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão
8.
J Affect Disord ; 284: 69-74, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Relatively few studies have explored the inter-relationship between screen time (ST), sleep duration and depressive symptoms. The study herein sought to determine (1) the relationships between ST, sleep duration and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents; (2) whether sleep duration mediates the relationships between ST and depressive symptoms. METHODS: 1st grade students (n=1,976) from ten high schools in Guangzhou, China were invited through cluster sampling between January and April 2019. Self-reported ST with electronic devices and Internet, sleep duration, and The Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression (CES-D) score were collected. Generalized mixed linear models and mediation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: There were 1,956 self-reported questionnaires received (response rate: 98.99%). Approximately 25% (471/1,929 for Internet use, 399/1,928 for electronic device) of the total sample reported ST >2 hours/day. Approximately 8.9% (169/1,894) reported a CES-D score >28. Longer ST with electronic devices (estimate=0.52, 95%CI: 0.24~0.80), Internet usage (estimate=0.82, 95%CI: 0.53~1.11) were positively associated with depressive symptoms, while less sleep (estimate=-1.85, 95%CI: -2.27~-1.43) was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. There is significant indirect effect of electronic device usage on depressive symptoms through sleep duration (indirect effect=0.08, 95%CI: 0.01~0.15). LIMITATIONS: This study only included school students from Guangzhou. Causal relationship cannot be inferred by this cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS: ST and sleep duration were significantly associated with depressive symptoms severity. The indirect effect of sleep duration suggests a possible mechanism of the association between ST and depressive symptoms. Future interventions to manage depressive symptoms should target sleep time and decrease ST among adolescents.


Assuntos
Depressão , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Phys Act Health ; 18(3): 296-303, 2021 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The French National Observatory for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors conducted a national survey aiming to evaluate the potential effects of confinement on the population's physical activity levels and sedentary behaviors. METHODS: In close collaboration with the French Ministry of Sports and a selected expert committee, 3 different questionnaires investigating 3 subgroup populations were included in the survey: (1) children, (2) adolescents, and (3) adults. RESULTS: Forty-two percentage of children, 58.7% of adolescents, 36.4% of adults, and 39.2% of older people had reduced physical activity levels. Particularly, active transportation and endurance practices showed a significant decrease, while domestic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility activities increased. Sitting time and screen time increased, respectively, in 36.3% and 62.0% of children, 25.5% and 69.0% in adolescents, 24.6% and 41.0% in adults, and 36.1% and 32.1% in seniors. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 confinement period led to important modifications in individual movement behaviors at all ages, particularly favoring decreased physical activity and increased sedentariness. These findings suggest that the authors need to inform and encourage people to maintain and improve their physical activities and to change their sedentary time habits during postconfinement and during the period of a potential future lockdown.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exercício Físico , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura Sentada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546128

RESUMO

School Lunch programs are a common strategy to address social inequalities in food access among children, especially food insecurity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary intake and lifestyle habits of children aged 10-12 years enrolled in the School Lunch Program in Greece. A cross-sectional survey of fifth and sixth grade students, School Lunch recipients (n = 609) and control subjects (n = 736), collected data on sociodemographic, nutritional and lifestyle habits via self-reported questionnaires during May-October 2019. Despite enrollment in the School Lunch Program children in this group reported consuming less meals during the day (3.47 ± 1.38 vs. 3.65 ± 1.35, p = 0.002). No differences were seen in intakes of energy and macronutrients, however School Lunch recipients reported lower intakes of cereals/potatoes and legumes but higher fruit intake (2.32 ± 1.59 vs. 1.97 ± 1.72, p < 0.05). School Lunch recipients reported 42min/d and 28min/d higher screen-time during weekdays and weekends, respectively. Linear regression highlighted that dietary quality was not associated with School Lunch enrollment but rather sleep duration and screen time had a stronger influence on dietary habits. Enrollment in a School Lunch Program was linked to sustained differences in sedentary lifestyle habits but less so in dietary habits.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Serviços de Alimentação , Estilo de Vida , Almoço , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Verduras
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(2): 220-229, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524119

RESUMO

Mental health (MH) and behavioral health are fundamental to a good quality of life. Only a few studies have investigated the association between behavioral health (e.g., physical activity (PA), screen time (ST)) and MH from childhood to adolescence. Therefore, we investigated the relationships of PA and ST with MH by sex in an 11-year longitudinal cohort study of German schoolchildren during 2003-2017. A subsample (n = 686; 55.2% female) of participants from the German Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study who participated in all 3 measurement phases (mean ages: time 1 (baseline; 2003-2006), 5.57 (standard deviation (SD), 1.00) years; time 2 (wave 1; 2009-2012), 11.85 (SD, 1.03) years; time 3 (wave 2; 2014-2017), 16.86 (SD, 1.04) years) were analyzed with regard to PA, ST, and MH (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems, prosocial behavior, and overall strengths and difficulties). Path panel prediction models were fitted with time 1, time 2, and time 3 PA, ST, and MH indicators. PA predicted less television (TV)/video watching in females, and TV/video watching predicted personal computer (PC)/Internet use in both sexes. Behavior and MH results suggested that, for females, higher TV/video watching and PC/Internet use was related to higher MH challenges over the course of maturation. Some preadolescent males' MH challenges increased ST (TV/video watching and PC/Internet use) in adolescence. Researchers should explore innovative and effective methods for reducing childhood ST, especially among females with early signs of MH issues, and addressing preadolescent males' MH challenges.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 3, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that screen time (ST) has a negative effect on children's emotional and behavioral health, but there are few longitudinal studies that have been conducted with infants and toddlers. This study sought to examine the effect of ST in early childhood on emotional and behavioral problems in children aged 4 years, based on a birth cohort study in China. METHODS: A total of 2492 children aged 4 years were enrolled in this study. The parents and guardians of each child completed a questionnaire that included items eliciting information on children's birth information, socio-demographic information at baseline, and ST at each follow-up. Emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 4 years of age. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the effects of ST on emotional and behavioral problems. RESULTS: The percentages of children with ST > 0 h/day at age 0.5 years, ST > 2 h/day at age 2.5 years, and ST > 2 h/day at age 4 years were 45.7, 55.5, and 34.5% respectively. The prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems was 10.8%. ST at 6 months was a risk factor for emotional symptoms and hyperactivity at the age of 4 years. ST at age 2.5 years was a risk factor for hyperactivity at the age of 4 years. However, ST at age 4 years was a risk factor for total difficulties, conduct problems, peer problems, hyperactivity, and prosocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Higher ST exposure at early childhood is associated with later emotional and behavioral problems. In particular, sustained high ST exposure is a risk factor for behavioral problems. These findings suggested the importance of controlling ST to prevent the occurrence of emotional and behavioral problems in the early years.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Emoções , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia , Tempo de Tela , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia
13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 28, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431818

RESUMO

The integration of technology in clinical care is growing rapidly and has become especially relevant during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Smartphone-based digital phenotyping, or the use of integrated sensors to identify patterns in behavior and symptomatology, has shown potential in detecting subtle moment-to-moment changes. These changes, often referred to as anomalies, represent significant deviations from an individual's baseline, may be useful in informing the risk of relapse in serious mental illness. Our investigation of smartphone-based anomaly detection resulted in 89% sensitivity and 75% specificity for predicting relapse in schizophrenia. These results demonstrate the potential of longitudinal collection of real-time behavior and symptomatology via smartphones and the clinical utility of individualized analysis. Future studies are necessary to explore how specificity can be improved, just-in-time adaptive interventions utilized, and clinical integration achieved.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/métodos , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/psicologia , Adulto , Boston , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Movimento , Fenótipo , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Tela , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sono , Smartphone , Comportamento Social
14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(3): 293-300, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443542

RESUMO

Importance: Time spent in outdoor activities has decreased owing to home confinement for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Concerns have been raised about whether home confinement may have worsened the burden of myopia owing to substantially decreased time spent outdoors and increased screen time at home. Objective: To investigate the refractive changes and prevalence of myopia in school-aged children during the COVID-19 home confinement. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cross-sectional study using school-based photoscreenings in 123 535 children aged 6 to 13 years from 10 elementary schools in Feicheng, China, was conducted. The study was performed during 6 consecutive years (2015-2020). Data were analyzed in July 2020. Exposures: Noncycloplegic photorefraction was examined using a photoscreener device. Main Outcomes and Measures: The spherical equivalent refraction was recorded for each child and the prevalence of myopia for each age group during each year was calculated. The mean spherical equivalent refraction and prevalence of myopia were compared between 2020 (after home confinement) and the previous 5 years for each age group. Results: Of the 123 535 children included in the study, 64 335 (52.1%) were boys. A total of 194 904 test results (389 808 eyes) were included in the analysis. A substantial myopic shift (approximately -0.3 diopters [D]) was found in the 2020 school-based photoscreenings compared with previous years (2015-2019) for younger children aged 6 (-0.32 D), 7 (-0.28 D), and 8 (-0.29 D) years. The prevalence of myopia in the 2020 photoscreenings was higher than the highest prevalence of myopia within 2015-2019 for children aged 6 (21.5% vs 5.7%), 7 (26.2% vs 16.2%), and 8 (37.2% vs 27.7%) years. The differences in spherical equivalent refraction and the prevalence of myopia between 2020 and previous years were minimal in children aged 9 to 13 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to be associated with a significant myopic shift for children aged 6 to 8 years according to 2020 school-based photoscreenings. However, numerous limitations warrant caution in the interpretation of these associations, including use of noncycloplegic refractions and lack of orthokeratology history or ocular biometry data. Younger children's refractive status may be more sensitive to environmental changes than older ages, given the younger children are in a critical period for the development of myopia.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Olho/fisiopatologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 8, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407589

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate associations of five typical lifestyle-related behavioral risk factors (insufficient physical activity, prolonged screen viewing, deprived sleeping, consumption of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage) with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among school students in China. METHODS: Students aged 9-17 years (grades 4-12) were randomly selected from primary and high schools in Nanjing, China, to participate in this cross-sectional study in 2018. The outcome variable, HRQoL, was assessed using the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) instrument and scored from 0 (worst) to 1 (best). Physical activity (including screen viewing and sleeping) and dietary intake were measured using a validated Physical Activity Scale and Food Frequency Questionnaire, respectively. Lifestyle-related behaviors were categorized as sufficient/insufficient or no/yes, and their associations with HRQoL were assessed using mixed-effects linear regression models. RESULTS: Overall, 4388 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate = 97.6%). Students with insufficient physical activity [mean difference (MD) = - 0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) = - 0.04, - 0.01], prolonged screen time (MD = - 0.06; 95% CI = - 0.07, - 0.04), insufficient sleeping time (MD = - 0.04; 95% CI = - 0.07, - 0.02), consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (MD = - 0.02; 95% CI = - 0.03, - 0.01) or fast food intake (MD = - 0.03; 95% CI = - 0.04, - 0.02) reported significantly lower HRQoL scores. When considered additively, each additional lifestyle-related risk factor was associated with an average decrease of 0.03 units (95% CI: - 0.03, - 0.02) CHU9D score. CONCLUSIONS: For Chinese students, HRQoL was positively associated with physical activity and sleep duration, but negatively with screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food. Moreover, lifestyle-related behaviors may have an additive effect on HRQoL.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Qualidade de Vida , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Tela , Sono , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467473

RESUMO

Research on the importance of the family environment on children's health behaviors is ubiquitous, yet critical gaps in the literature exist. Many studies have focused on one family characteristic and have relied on variable-centered approaches as opposed to person-centered approaches (e.g., latent profile analysis). The purpose of the current study was to use latent profile analysis to identify family typologies characterized by parental acceptance, parental monitoring, and family conflict, and to examine whether such typologies are associated with the number of movement behavior recommendations (i.e., physical activity, screen time, and sleep) met by children. Data for this cross-sectional observational study were part of the baseline data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Data were collected across 21 study sites in the United States. Participants included 10,712 children (female = 5143, males = 5578) aged 9 and 10 years (M = 9.91, SD = 0.62). Results showed that children were meaningfully classified into one of five family typologies. Children from families with high acceptance, medium monitoring, and medium conflict (P2; OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.39-0.76); high acceptance, medium monitoring, and high conflict (P3; OR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.20, 0.40); low acceptance, low monitoring, and medium conflict (P4; OR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.36); and medium acceptance, low monitoring, and high conflict (P5; OR = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.12-0.29) were less likely to meet all three movement behavior recommendations compared to children from families with high acceptance, high monitoring, and low conflict (P1). These findings highlight the importance of the family environment for promoting healthy movement behaviors among children.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Estados Unidos
17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 3, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children's activity patterns in the periods before and after school make a key contribution to achieving 24-h movement guidelines. There are currently no national-level guidelines informing physical activity and screen time practices in Outside School Hours Care (OSHC) programs anywhere in the world. This study aimed to work with industry, government and academic stakeholders to develop draft physical activity and screen time guidelines for use in Australian OSHC. METHODS: A 4-round online Delphi survey was conducted from May 2019 to January 2020. The Delphi participants included national and international experts and stakeholders from academia, education, government, health and the OSHC sectors. Round 1 consisted of open-ended questions exploring physical activity, screen time and sedentary behaviour in various periods of OSHC (before school, after school and vacation care). In rounds 2 and 3, participants rated the importance of items generated from the first round for inclusion in national guidelines using a Likert scale (1-9). Consensus was defined a priori as ≥80% of respondents rating an item as "critically important" (score 7-9). Between rounds 3 and 4, the guideline development panel used the consensus items, systematic review evidence, and followed the GRADE process, to draft the guidelines. In round 4, participants were invited to provide feedback on the draft guidelines and comment on barriers and enablers to implementation. RESULTS: Sixty-seven stakeholders agreed to participate, with response rates 61, 81, 54 and 72% for the four rounds respectively. Of the 123 items generated across the three rounds, 48 statements achieved consensus agreement as critically important for inclusion in the guidelines. These included offering a variety of physical activities (free play, playground and equipment) and restriction of screen time. The final round provided feedback on the draft guidelines. The wording of the guidelines was found to be appropriate and preliminary enablers and barriers to implementation were identified. CONCLUSIONS: This world-first expert and stakeholder consultation has underpinned the development of the draft Australian guidelines for physical activity and screen time in OSHC. Ongoing work is needed to further refine the guidelines, determine current rates of compliance with the guidelines and implement the guidelines into practice.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Exercício Físico , Tempo de Tela , Austrália , Criança , Técnica Delfos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An increase in screen time has been observed among children despite the impact on health. This study was aimed to analyze if the child population complies with health recommendations for adequate use of recreational screens (television and video games) and to evaluate associated variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 521 children between 6 months and 14 years old who attended Primary Care. A self-administered survey was used to collect sociodemographic variables, child's recreational screens time, the parent's television (TV) time, and related environmental and sociocultural variables. RESULTS: 521 surveys were carried out (55.2% boys and 44.8% girls). Recreational screen time in children under 2 years of age averaged 71 minutes/day and increased to 160 minutes/day in those over 10 years old. Boys had 30% more video game time than girls. A total of 80% of the sample started using TV before 2 years of age. The modifiable variables that showed an independent association with excess of time spent on recreational screens were the parental TV time (OR 4.34; 95% CI: 2.48-7.72), maintaining the "background TV on often" (OR 1.70; 95% CI: 1.07-2.72) and watching TV usually alone (OR 2.08; 95%: 1.30-3.32). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the child population does not comply with the main recommendations of health organizations regarding the adequate use of recreational screens. Our results indicated that environmental and cultural variables influence screen time. Our findings can contribute to design strategies to improve the use of recreational screens in childhood.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Hábitos , Tempo de Tela , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467514

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the lives of many people. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyse the physical activity (PA) and daily routine among children (0-12 years) during lockdown and to establish the main relationships among the variables. METHODS: A quantitative study with a descriptive-comparative and cross-sectional design carried out. The sample, selected for convenience, consisted of 837 Spanish children aged 0-12. The "Children and confinement" questionnaire was used, distributed electronically through Google Forms and social networks and activated for 45 days. The individuals participating in this study were mainly children (50.2%) who were in primary education (44.8%). Predominantly, the families of participants were biparental (87.9%), with established routines and schedules (85.7%). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The use of digital screens is an important part of children's daily routine. Their daily activities were practiced for more than three-six years, with more by girls. The time children devoted to sleep was directly proportional to the time they devoted to physical activity and indirectly proportional to the time they spent watching screens. The children who slept the most were those aged zero-three years, especially girls, who belonged to large families. The levels of physical activity in the sample were low, as were the times spent on activities such as music or games.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Tela , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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