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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 401-405, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taeniasis, caused by two major Taenia species, T. solium and T. saginata, is a worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. T. solium is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked pork, while T. saginata is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked beef. Cattle rearing and beef consumption is an important socio-cultural feature in the Kashmir valley, India. This study's objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of foodborne taeniasis in Kashmir and explore the various risk factors for its transmission. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detailed survey of the population in selected rural and semi-urban sites of Kashmir valley was carried out based on previous information. A total of 12,404 subjects (males=6364; females=6040) ranging from one to 85 years of age (mean age: 28.96±17.68) were included in this study. The parasite diagnosis was made through stool analysis (egg morphology) and anatomical characteristics of gravid proglottids obtained from infected cases. The data obtained were compiled for the parameters studied and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The observations as estimated coprologically and based on gravid proglottids' anatomy revealed the presence of T. saginata infection. The prevalence was 2.74% with males significantly (p<0.01) more infected (3.40%) than females (2.05%). Similarly, the age group of >60 years showed greater prevalence (7.21% among males and 2.68% among females) at a significance value of p<0.05. Rural populatios were slightly more infected (2.84%) than semi-urban populations (2.36%) with a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Kashmiri population who consume raw or undercooked beef, harbor T. saginata infection; its prevalence was influenced by food eating habits, age, sex, and living conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/fisiologia , Teníase/transmissão , Teníase/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Parasitology ; 147(2): 231-239, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603069

RESUMO

Cysticercus tenuicollis as metacestode of Taenia hydatigena is the most prevalent taeniid species in livestock. Eighty-eight C. tenuicollis samples were collected from sheep (n = 44) and goats (n = 44) of the northern Iran from 2015 to 2016. The isolated parasites were characterized by morphometric keys. The DNA of the larval stage was extracted, amplified and sequenced targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cox 1 markers. A significant difference in larval rostellar hook length was observed in 12S rRNA haplotypes. Analysis of molecular variance of 12S rRNA indicated a moderate genetic diversity in the C. tenuicollis isolates. The pairwise sequence distance of C. tenuicollis showed an intra-species diversity of 0.3-0.5% and identity of 99.5-100%. Using the 12S rRNA sequence data we found a moderate genetic difference (Fst; 0.05421) in C. tenucollis isolates collected from livestock of the northern and southeastern regions of Iran. We concluded that the genetic variants of C. tenuicollis are being undoubtedly distributing mostly in different parts of Iran. Further studies with a larger number of T. hydatigena isolates collected from various intermediate and definitive hosts are needed to study this evolutionary assumption and also to determine the apparent genetic differences observed in the studied regions.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taenia/genética , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Haplótipos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA de Helmintos/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 520, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is a disease of veterinary and economic importance. A considerable level of genetic variation among isolates of different intermediate hosts and locations has been documented. Generally, data on the genetic population structure of T. hydatigena is scanty and lacking in Nigeria. Meanwhile, similar findings in other cestodes like Echinococcus spp. have been found to be of epidemiological importance. Our aim, therefore, was to characterize and compare the genetic diversity of T. hydatigena population in Nigeria based on three mitochondrial DNA markers as well as to assess the phylogenetic relationship with populations from other geographical regions. METHODS: In the present study, we described the genetic variation and diversity of T. hydatigena isolates from Nigerian sheep and goats using three full-length mitochondrial genes: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5). RESULTS: The median-joining network of concatenated cox1-nad1-nad5 sequences indicated that T. hydatigena metacestodes of sheep origin were genetically distinct from those obtained in goats and this was supported by high FST values of nad1, cox1, and concatenated cox1-nad1-nad5 sequences. Genetic variation was also found to be higher in isolates from goats than from sheep. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, the present study described the genetic variation of T. hydatigena population for the first time in Nigeria using full-length mitochondrial genes and suggests the existence of host-specific variants. The population indices of the different DNA markers suggest that analysis of long mitochondrial DNA fragments may provide more information on the molecular ecology of T. hydatigena. We recommend that future studies employ long mitochondrial DNA sequence in order to provide reliable data that would explain the extent of genetic variation in different hosts/locations and the biological and epidemiological significance.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taenia/genética , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Cabras , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Nigéria , Filogenia , Ovinos , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/parasitologia
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 135-141, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As is the case for all of Southeast Europe, Serbia is an area traditionally endemic for Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections. This study was performed to analyse the epidemiological data on taeniosis and cysticercosis in Serbia for the period 1990-2018. METHODS: Data on cases of T. saginata and T. solium infection were collected via a systematic search of published articles, the grey literature, and official reports, as well as by performing clinical observational studies of patients treated in the departments for infectious diseases of hospitals and university clinics in Serbia. RESULTS: A total of 212 cases of taeniosis were reported, all between 1997 and 2004 when taeniosis was notifiable (incidence range 0.04-0.9/100 000 population/year). From 1990 to 2018, 170 cases of cysticercosis (all but one of neurocysticercosis), were registered (incidence range 0-0.29/100 000 population/year), with a strong decrease since 2000 and a single case in the last 9 years. The annual number of cases of both taeniosis (Pearson's r = 0.914, p = 0.001) and cysticercosis (Pearson's r = 0.582, p = 0.014) correlated with the consumer price index. CONCLUSIONS: In Serbia, T. saginata and T. solium infections are autochthonous but occur only sporadically. However, the potential for re-emergence exists, depending on the socio-economic state of the country.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Teníase/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taenia saginata , Teníase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300133

RESUMO

Unawareness of canine parasitic diseases among at-risk hosts and an uncontrolled program of stray dog population have caused that zoonotic parasites received great attention in endemic regions of the Middle East. A total of 552 faecal samples were collected between December 2016 to January 2018 from stray (n = 408) and domestic (n = 144) dogs of Iran. All specimens were coproscopically observed following concentration and flotation techniques. Subsequently, the DNAs of taeniid eggs were extracted, amplified, and sequenced by targeting of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and small-subunit ribosomal DNA markers. The overall prevalence of canine intestinal parasites found 53.6%. The following parasites and their total frequencies were identified: taeniid (10.5%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.7%), Trichuris vulpis (1.2%), Capillaria spp. (2.3%), Blastocystis spp. (5.2%), Ancylostoma spp. (2%), Eimeria spp. (13.2%), Dipylidium caninum (2.3%), Toxocara canis (3.8%), Giardia spp. (8.5%), and Toxascaris leonina (3.6%). Stray dogs were characterized more likely to be poliparasitized and indicated a higher prevalence of taeniid (10.9%), T. canis (4.4%) Giardia spp. (10.1%) than domestic dogs (P > 0.05). Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of Cox1 and SSU-rDNA indicated a low genetic diversity (Haplotype diversity; 0 to 0.495) in E. granulosus sensu lato G1, G3, G7 genotypes, and Taenia hydatigena. The pairwise sequence distances between G7 isolates showed an intra-diversity of 0.7%-1.5% and identity of 98.5%-100%. The first occurrence of pig strain (G7) from Iranian dogs might have substantial implications in the drug treatment of infected dogs due to the shorter maturation time of G7 compared with G1 genotype. Thus, the preventive strategies should be noticed to determine the risk factors, the importance of applying the hygienic practices, and well adjusting deworming programs for the Iranian dogs and at-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Filogenia , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Prevalência , Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/genética , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/epidemiologia
7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100306, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303222

RESUMO

The metacestodes of Taenia solium and Taenia hydatigena are the cause of cysticercosis in pigs. T. solium is also responsible of the taeniosis/neurocysticercosis complex in humans, constituting a main cause of epilepsy cases across endemic countries. T. hydatigena is non-zoonotic, but its occurrence in pigs contributes significantly to false positive reactions should genus-species serological methods be used for diagnosis of T. solium porcine cysticercosis. T. hydatigena is often considered not common in pigs in Africa compared to T. solium. On the basis of the evidence that these two cestodes coexist in Cameroon, we examined the viscera of 305 pigs for the identification of the metacestodes of T. hydatigena in Bénoué division, North Region of Cameroon. Tongue, masticatory muscles and heart were sliced for the identification of T. solium cysticerci (TMH dissection test). Twenty seven (8.85%) and 16 (5.24%) pigs were found infected with the metacestodes of T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. The difference between the two rates of infection was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Serum samples were also collected for the evaluation of an inhibition ELISA (i-ELISA) specific to antibodies anti- T. solium or anti-T. hydatigena cysticerci. After incubation of these sera with cyst fluid of T. solium, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps multiceps, T. multiceps gaigeri and T. saginata to eliminate cross-reactions among cestodes parasites, the i-ELISA indicated that 26.56% and 28.52% slaughtered pigs had predominant specific antibodies to cyst fluid of T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. Combination of TMH dissection test, i-ELISA and a standard indirect ELISA in a Bayesian simulation approach revealed a true prevalence of 19.27% (0.7-49.27, CI 95%) and 24.85% (5.17-48.34, CI 95%) of porcine cysticercosis due to T. solium and T. hydatigena, respectively. These results indicated that T. hydatigena is as prevalent as T. solium in pigs in the North of Cameroon.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/patogenicidade , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Autopsia/veterinária , Teorema de Bayes , Camarões/epidemiologia , Cysticercus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Coração/parasitologia , Músculos da Mastigação/parasitologia , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Taenia/imunologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Taenia solium/imunologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Taenia solium/patogenicidade , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Língua/parasitologia , Vísceras/parasitologia
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 313, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis is a dangerous zoonotic disease caused by larval forms of Echinococcus multilocularis. In its life-cycle, the principal definitive host is the red fox; however, domesticated carnivorous animals (dogs and cats) can also act as definitive hosts. Until now, there were no data concerning this infection in cats in Poland. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of E. multilocularis in cats and dogs originating from rural areas and animal shelters in a region characterised by a high prevalence of E. multilocularis in red foxes. METHODS: Samples of faeces were collected from 67 cats and 268 dogs from a rural area (villages and animal shelters) of a highly endemic region in southeastern Poland. Samples were examined using nested PCR (E. multilocularis), multiplex PCR (E. multilocularis, Taenia spp.) and PCR [E. granulosus (s.l.)]. Additionally, faeces were examined microscopically (flotation). Moreover, intestines from 110 red foxes shot in the investigated area were examined (sedimentation and counting technique). RESULTS: Positive PCR results for E. multilocularis were obtained in 4 cats (6.0%) and 4 dogs (1.5%). There were no significant differences between groups of animals (from a shelter and with an owner) concerning the prevalence of E. multilocularis in both cats and dogs. Taenia spp. were found in 10 cats (14.9%) (Taenia taeniaeformis and T. hydatigena) and 26 dogs (9.7%) (T. hydatigena, T. serialis, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, T. pisiformis and T. ovis) and Mesocestoides litteratus was found in 4 cats (6.0%) and 3 dogs (1.1%). All samples were negative for E. granulosus by PCR. Taking into consideration PCR and flotation results, 29 cats (43.3%) and 73 dogs (27.2%) were infected with helminths (26.9 and 11.9%, respectively, were infected with tapeworms). The highly endemic status of the investigated area was confirmed by examination of red foxes: 48.2% of examined red foxes were infected with E. multilocularis. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study reports the presence of E. multilocularis in cats for the first time in Poland and confirms the role of dogs in this infection in highly endemic areas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Raposas/parasitologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/veterinária
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 324, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The zoonotic tapeworm Taenia saginata, although causing only minor discomfort in humans, is responsible for considerable economic losses in the livestock sector due to condemnation or downgrading of infected beef carcasses. An overview of current knowledge on the distribution and prevalence of this parasite in West and Central Africa is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, collecting information on published and grey literature about T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis from 27 countries/territories in West and Central Africa, published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. RESULTS: The literature search retrieved 1672 records, of which 51 and 45 were retained for a qualitative and quantitative synthesis, respectively. Non-specified human taeniosis cases were described for Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic Congo, Guinea, and Ivory Coast (seven out of 27 countries/territories), while T. saginata taeniosis specifically was only reported for Cameroon. Most prevalence estimates for taeniosis ranged between 0-11%, while three studies from Nigeria reported prevalence estimates ranging between 23-50%. None of the studies included molecular confirmation of the causative species. The presence of bovine cysticercosis was reported for Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tristan da Cunha (14 out of 27 countries/territories). Prevalence estimates ranged between 0-29%. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review has revealed that human taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis are seriously understudied in West and Central Africa. The high prevalence estimates of both conditions suggest an active dissemination of this parasite in the region, calling for a concerted One Health action from public health, veterinary health and food surveillance sectors.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Gado/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/veterinária , África Central/epidemiologia , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007301, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cestode Taenia solium causes the neglected (zoonotic) tropical disease cysticercosis, a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in endemic low and middle-income countries. Transmission models can inform current scaling-up of control efforts by helping to identify, validate and optimise control and elimination strategies as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the PRISMA approach to identify and compare existing T. solium transmission models, and related Taeniidae infection transmission models. In total, 28 modelling papers were identified, of which four modelled T. solium exclusively. Different modelling approaches for T. solium included deterministic, Reed-Frost, individual-based, decision-tree, and conceptual frameworks. Simulated interventions across models agreed on the importance of coverage for impactful effectiveness to be achieved. Other Taeniidae infection transmission models comprised force-of-infection (FoI), population-based (mainly Echinococcus granulosus) and individual-based (mainly E. multilocularis) modelling approaches. Spatial structure has also been incorporated (E. multilocularis and Taenia ovis) in recognition of spatial aggregation of parasite eggs in the environment and movement of wild animal host populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gaps identified from examining the wider Taeniidae family models highlighted the potential role of FoI modelling to inform model parameterisation, as well as the need for spatial modelling and suitable structuring of interventions as key areas for future T. solium model development. We conclude that working with field partners to address data gaps and conducting cross-model validation with baseline and longitudinal data will be critical to building consensus-led and epidemiological setting-appropriate intervention strategies to help fulfil the WHO targets.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/veterinária , Modelos Biológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Teníase/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cisticercose/transmissão , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia solium , Teníase/transmissão , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 93, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia multiceps is a harmful tapeworm and its larval form (coenurus cerebralis) is the causative agent of coenurosis, a disease affecting the health of herbivores, resulting in great economic loss to animal husbandry. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs), expressed in all prokaryotes and eukaryotes, act as molecular chaperones and can affect pathogenicity. METHODS: Herein, cDNAs of T. multiceps genes Tm-HSP60 and Tm-p36 were cloned and molecularly characterised by bioinformatics analyses. The immunogenicity and immunoreactivity of recombinant rTm-HSP60 and rTm-p36 proteins were investigated by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA was established to evaluate their serodiagnostic potential. Tissue localisation and transcriptional level at different life stages of T. multiceps were determined by immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses. RESULT: The 533 residue rTm-HSP60 and the 314 residue rTm-p36 proteins share typical highly conserved features of HSPs. Tm-p36 shares structural characteristics with metazoan small HSPs, with two N-terminal α-crystallin domains. Compared with Tm-p36, Tm-HSP60 displayed stronger immunogenicity, and the indirect ELISA based on rTm-HSP60 exhibited a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 87.5%, while rTm-p36 was not suitable to develop indirect ELISA. Tm-HSP60 was widely distributed in all stages of T. multiceps, albeit at relatively low levels, while Tm-p36 was specifically distributed in the protoscolex and oncosphere. CONCLUSIONS: The sequence, structural and functional analyses of these two HSPs indicates that they may play important roles in the life-cycle of T. multiceps as molecular chaperones. Tm-HSP60 displayed stronger immunogenicity compare to Tm-p36, and has the potential for antibody detection. Tm-p36 was strongly associated with the activation of oncospheres and has potential interest for vaccination.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Taenia/genética , Teníase/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Chaperonina 60/química , Chaperonina 60/genética , Chaperonina 60/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Cisticercose/parasitologia , DNA Complementar/genética , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/imunologia , Herbivoria , Modelos Moleculares , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Taenia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Taenia/imunologia , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/parasitologia
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 200: 42-47, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922888

RESUMO

In order to develop a method of identification and discrimination of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from faecal samples of dogs infected with taeniid eggs (Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp.), a combined strategy of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragments of Lenght Polymorphisms (RFLP) was proposed. Initially, a pair of primers was designed to amplify a fragment of the 12 Subunit of ribosomal RNA gene (12SrRNA) from mitochondrial DNA. The amplified product was digested by SspI restriction enzyme, which in E. granulosus kept the intact fragment of 160 basis pairs (bp), while in Taenia spp. produced two fragments (62 bp and another of 98 bp). The method was tested using positive controls of DNA, in faecal samples experimentally contaminated with eggs of E. granulosus and Taenia spp. and in dogs naturally infected. In all of them, reproducible results were obtained and the primers were specific to amplify only Taeniidae DNA. The sensitivity of the technique was tested, achieving amplification of DNA extractions with a single egg. In conclusion, the technique developed was optimal and easy to identify patent infections by E. granulosus s.s., constituting a possible alternative for epidemiological studies in dogs, especially in endemic areas where this infection occurs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Consenso , DNA de Helmintos/química , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Taenia/genética , Teníase/parasitologia
13.
Ecohealth ; 16(1): 161-170, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673904

RESUMO

The article examines the presence of metacestodes on the liver capsule in two wild boars and on the liver capsule and mediastinum in moose. Cysticerci were identified as Taenia hydatigena metacestodes by morphological features-size and shape of rostellar hooks and molecular analysis of the partial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Molecular analysis revealed similarities between the metacestodes isolated from the wild mammals in the present study to T. hydatigena in European wolves. It is possible that infection of moose and wild boar with T. hydatigena metacestode is related to the growth in the wolf population in Europe.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , DNA de Helmintos , Cervos/parasitologia , Polônia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Taenia/genética , Lobos/parasitologia
14.
Vet Rec ; 184(6): 191, 2019 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683735

RESUMO

AbstractA neurological syndrome of small ruminants, known locally as 'ormilo', has been reported among pastoralist livestock keepers in Tanzania. This study was carried out in four affected pastoral communities to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors, characterise the clinical signs and investigate the aetiology of the syndrome. Questionnaires were administered at all households (n=480) within four study villages. Overall, 94 per cent of households reported at least one case in the previous 12 months. By village, the individual-level 12-month period prevalence ranged from 11 per cent to 34 per cent, equivalent to about 10,000 small ruminants across the four villages. Thirty-eight households were randomly selected for further investigation. Proprioceptive deficits and weakness were the most commonly observed clinical signs in affected animals. Brain and spinal cord cysts consistent with Taenia multiceps infection were detected in 32 (82 per cent) of 39 affected animals selected for postmortem examination. Feeding small ruminant brains to dogs was identified as an important risk factor for the syndrome, even in households that did not own dogs. This study confirms cerebral coenurosis as a major cause of small ruminant neurological disease in northern Tanzania and highlights the urgent need for further investigation to quantify the disease burden and to identify and implement control measures.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Teníase/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 57, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is an important zoonotic parasite that infects humans as definitive host (taeniasis) and pigs as intermediate host (cysticercosis). Serological diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis is limited to antigen detection using ELISA, which is known to cross-react with other Taenia species, and antibody detection using the lentil-lectin glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP EITB), which has not been adequately evaluated for cross-reactivity to other parasites. Field studies suggest that the GP50 diagnostic band of the LLGP EITB may cross-react to Taenia hydatigena, a common non-zoonotic parasitic infection of pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the specificity of the LLGP EITB assay in pigs infected experimentally with T. hydatigena and Echinococcus granulosus. RESULTS: Twelve three-month-old seronegative were divided into two groups; six were each given an oral challenge with a single gravid proglottid of T. hydatigena and the other six were each given an oral challenge with 50 gravid proglottids of E. granulosus. Serum samples were collected biweekly until 14 weeks when all pigs underwent a detailed necropsy. Taenia hydatigena cysticerci were found in two of six pigs from the first group. Four T. hydatigena-exposed pigs were seropositive at the GP50-band only on EITB LLGP; two of these had cysts at necropsy while no seronegative pigs had cysts. One E. granulosus-exposed pig was positive to EITB LLGP, again with reactivity only to GP50; all six pigs had hepatic echinococcosis on necropsy. CONCLUSION: These results provide definitive evidence that the GP50 diagnostic band in pigs cross-reacts with T. hydatigena. Evidence of cross-reaction with E. granulosus was not conclusive.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Immunoblotting/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Taenia/imunologia , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Reações Cruzadas , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/imunologia , Epitopos , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Immunoblotting/métodos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/imunologia
16.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(1): 140-154, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to establish the current epidemiology of taeniosis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis among humans and animals in Iran by carrying out a comprehensive assessment of published articles reporting on these foodborne zoonotic diseases across the country. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline was used in the search for relevant published articles reporting on cysticercosis, taeniosis and trichinellosis in Iran using a number of appropriate key words. The search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, SpringerLink, SCOPUS, WHOLIS, FAO and CDC. Published scientific articles including journals, books and book chapters reporting on cysticercosis, taeniosis and trichinellosis in Iran for the period between 1967 and 2018 were selected. RESULTS: A total of 37 articles met the search criteria and were incorporated in this review. Of these, 10 (27%) reported on human taeniosis, 15 (40.5%) on cysticercosis (10 on Taenia saginata and five on Taenia spp. cysticercosis) and 12 (32.5%) on trichinellosis. T. saginata was implicated in all human taeniosis cases. All Taenia spp. cysticercosis cases were reported among domesticated pigs and wild animals. A case of neurocysticercosis was reported in a male patient at Shohada Hospital in Tehran. Eleven (91.7%) of the 12 studies reported on trichinellosis among wild animals, while one (8.3%) study detected anti-Trichinella IgG in 8 (2.2%) of the 364 at-risk human beings tested. Nevertheless, most of these studies were carried out in northern Iran. CONCLUSION: This review found T. saginata to be the most prevalent and of greater economic and public health significance in Iran. However, T. solium and Trichinella spp. were of little significance to human health. More studies should focus on other regions besides northern Iran.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/veterinária , Teníase/veterinária , Triquinelose/veterinária , Zoonoses , Animais , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Teníase/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia
17.
J Helminthol ; 93(6): 681-689, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149813

RESUMO

As part of the international joint projects working towards the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia Pacific, epidemiological studies on Taenia solium cysticercosis have been carried out in high-incidence populations, such as minority groups in Thailand. To assess the epidemiology of cysticercotic infections in pigs in the hill-tribe minority villages (Karen) in Tak province, Thailand, we conducted serological screening and necropsies. The patterns of antibody response to T. solium antigens were then investigated using immunoblot assays. Of the 188 pig serum samples tested for antibody responses to partially purified low-molecular-weight antigens of T. solium cyst fluid, positive responses were detected in 37 samples (19.7%). Based on these results, 16 pigs (10 seropositive and 6 seronegative) were necropsied for investigation of cysticerci and intestinal parasites. All seropositive pigs were coinfected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena cysticerci, except one, which was infected with T. hydatigena alone. Three of the six seronegative pigs were confirmed to be infected with T. hydatigena. Pigs infected with T. solium showed much stronger antibody responses than those infected with T. hydatigena. Our results demonstrate the co-occurrence of two swine cysticercoses due to T. solium and T. hydatigena in the studied areas. This study also reveals the importance of direct confirmation of the presence of cysticerci by necropsy after serological screening. In addition to the prevalence of swine cysticercosis in these endemic areas, our findings also reveal potential implications for the development of serological diagnostic assays for swine cysticercosis.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , População Rural , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/genética , Taenia solium/genética , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Taenia solium/fisiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
18.
Parasitology ; 146(5): 563-568, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419971

RESUMO

Little is known about the genetic and morphological characters of Taenia ovis. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sheep isolates of T. ovis using rostellar hook morphometry as well as mitochondrial genes sequence analysis. Ninety sheep specimens of Cysticercus ovis were collected from 18 slaughterhouses in Iran. The mean ± s.d. for total length of large and small hooks were 174.1 ± 6.4 and 116.7 ± 5.4 µm, respectively. CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence analysis showed 11 and nine haplotypes, respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variations between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were 0.3-1.1 and 0.2-1.0%, respectively. Level of nucleotide variation in CO1 and 12S rRNA between T. ovis haplotypes from present study and eight other Taenia species was found to be 11.3-17.8 and 5.3-16.3%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all T. ovis isolates into a single clade comprised of the all CO1 and 12S rRNA haplotypes. CO1 nucleotide difference between T. ovis ovis and T. asiatica was 13.6% that is lesser than the corresponding difference between T. ovis ovis and T. ovis krabbei, warranting the designation of two separate species as T. ovis and T. krabbei. Interclass correlation coefficients showed that there was no significant association between rostellar hook length variation and the variability of the mitochondrial genes.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taenia/anatomia & histologia , Taenia/genética , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Proteínas de Helminto/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/análise , RNA de Helmintos/análise , RNA Ribossômico/análise , Ovinos , Taenia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Teníase/parasitologia
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 161: 1-8, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466649

RESUMO

In Europe, bovine cysticercosis (BCC) is detected by routine meat inspection (MI) at the slaughterhouse. The prevalence of BCC in Belgium based on MI is estimated at 0.23%. MI has a known low sensitivity for animals with localised infections and alternative detection techniques should be considered. A mathematical scenario-analysis model was built to determine the current prevalence of BCC in Belgium based on MI results combined with results of dissection of the predilection sites (PS) and the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA on serum of 614 carcasses found negative on MI. Additionally, the impact of the introduction of the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA at slaughter on the prevalence of BCC and taeniosis and on the economic impact related to Taenia saginata was estimated for Belgium. Data for estimating the economic impact were gathered from multiple sources within the meat and human health sectors and included value loss for infected carcasses, inspection costs, carcass destruction costs, cattle insurance costs and costs related to taeniosis (consultation physician, drugs and laboratory test). The model estimated the current prevalence of BCC to be 42.5% (95% CI: 32.4-60.7%) and the sensitivity of the MI for viable and degenerated cysticerci at only 0.54% (95% CI: 0.37-0.71%). A total of 213,344 viable cysticerci (95% CI: 122,962-386.249) were estimated to be present in the infected carcasses in one year and only 408 (95% CI: 356-464) of these were present in the carcasses detected at current MI. The annual number of human taeniosis cases is estimated at 11,000 by using the sale numbers of niclosamide in Belgium. Implementation of the Ag-ELISA at slaughter (Se = 36.37%; Sp = 99.36%) would greatly reduce the prevalence of BCC to 0.6% and the number of taeniosis cases to 89 in year 10. Unfortunately, the accompanying resulting increase in costs for the animal owners, slaughterhouses and the insurance company, would be extremely high in the first years. Cattle owners would suffer losses of up to €21 million in the first year after implementation of the Ag-ELISA (compared to an annual loss of €3.5 million in the current situation), slaughterhouses of €10 million (compared to €200,000 currently) and the insurance company of almost €6 million (compared to €2.3 million profit currently). Therefore, implementation of the Ag-ELISA might not be feasible and other options for controlling T. saginata should be investigated.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos , Teníase/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Cisticercose/economia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Prevalência , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/economia , Teníase/epidemiologia
20.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(4): 721-727, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367774

RESUMO

Taenia multiceps, one of the most widely distributed zoonotic tapeworm parasites, is able to parasitize the small intestine of canids. The metacestode of T.multiceps is fatal to ruminants and causes important economic losses in livestock. However, molecular characteristics of T.multiceps and coenurus in China are still unclear. In this study, 36 goat isolates of the coenurus stage and 18 dog isolates of the adult stage of T.multiceps were obtained from three geographical areas in China and the isolated parasite above were analyzed by amplifying the partial of cytochrome coxidase subunit 1(pcox1), 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA) from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). These DNA sequences obtained from T.multiceps and coenurus were employed to evaluate the nucleotide diversity and confirm the relationship between T.multiceps and coenurus. Sequences variation were 0-1.4%, 0-1.5%, 0-4.2% for pcox1, 12S rRNA and ITS, respectively, among T.multiceps and coenurus isolates obtained in this study. In Sichuan province, sequence variations for Coenurus cerebralis isolated from Yaan city were 0-1.4% for pcox1, 0-1.0% for 12S rRNA and 0-2.1% for ITS. In Hunan province, variations were 0-1.0%, 0-1.5% and 0-3.3% for corresponding genes for non-coenurus cerebralis isolated from Changsha city, while variations of T.multiceps isolates from Xiangxi autonomous prefecture were 0-1.0%, 0-1.1% and 0-3.4% for pcox1, 12S rRNA and ITS, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on pcox1 sequences indicated that all cerebral and noncerebral metacestodes belong to T.multiceps. These results provide reference values for future molecular epidemiological and biological study on T.multiceps in dogs and intermediate hosts.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Filogenia , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/genética , Animais , China , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cães , Marcadores Genéticos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Taenia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Teníase/parasitologia , Teníase/veterinária
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