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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576902

RESUMO

Human polycystic echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus vogeli, which occurs in rural areas of Central and South America. Until now, little information on the genetic variability of E. vogeli is available. Here, 32 samples from human-excised E. vogeli cysts had a 396-bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequenced and compared to another 17 COI sequences representing nine Echinococcus species. A Bayesian COI tree revealed that all E. vogeli sequences formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade with an E. vogeli reference sequence. The occurrence of geographically restricted E. vogeli COI haplotypes suggests retention of ancestral polymorphisms with little migration in Acre, Brazil.


Assuntos
Echinococcus/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Haplótipos , Humanos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17055, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated polygenic hereditary skin disease quality of the patients' life because of the great trouble it causes to patients. Whereas, there is variability when we regard the selection of traditional Chinese medicine treatments in practice and most choices are made based on personal experience or preference of clinician. This study uses network meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of different forms of TCM for psoriasis and assesses the evidence with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. METHODS: We will search for PubMed, Cochrane Library, AMED, EMbase, WorldSciNet; Nature, Science online and China Journal Full-text Database (CNKI), China Biomedical Literature CD-ROM Database (CBM), and related randomized controlled trials included in the China Resources Database. The time is limited from the construction of the library to April 2019. The quality of the included RCTs will be evaluated by the risk of bias (ROB) tool and the evidence will be evaluated by GRADE. STATA 13.0 and WinBUGS 1.4.3 through the GeMTC package will be used to perform a network meta-analysis to synthesize direct and indirect evidence. RESULTS: The results of this network meta-analysis (NMA) will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019137250.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Psoríase/terapia , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 267: 11-19, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483249

RESUMO

Radiology has a reputation for having a high affinity to innovation - particularly with regard to information technologies. Designed for supporting the peculiarities of radiological diagnostic workflows, Radiology Information Systems (RIS) and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) developed into widely used information systems in hospitals and form the basis for advancing the field towards automated image diagnostics. RIS and PACS can thus serve as meaningful indicators of how quickly IT innovations diffuse in secondary care settings - an issue that requires increased attention in research and health policy in the light of increasingly fast innovation cycles. We therefore conducted a retrospective longitudinal observational study to research the diffusion dynamics of RIS and PACS in German hospitals between 2005 and 2017. Based upon data points collected within the "IT Report Healthcare" and building on Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory, we applied a novel methodological technique by fitting Bayesian Bass Diffusion Models on past adoption rates. The Bass models showed acceptable goodness of fit to the data and the results indicated similar growth rates of RIS and PACS implementations and suggest that market saturation is almost reached. Adoption rates of PACS showed a slightly higher coefficient of imitation (q = 0.25) compared to RIS (q = 0.11). However, the diffusion process expands over approximately two decades for both systems which points at the need for further research into how innovation diffusion can be accelerated effectively. Furthermore, the Bayesian approach to Bass modelling showed to have several advantages over the classical frequentists approaches and should encourage adoption and diffusion research to adapt similar techniques.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Radiologia , Hospitais , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 992-996, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484267

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the genetic diversity of Aedes albopictus populations in the coastal areas of southern China by using the microsatellite markers to provide a basis for the control of vectors. Methods: Genetic diversity and clustering analysis of Aedes albopictus populations were studied in the 7 microsatellite loci, in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Yiwu of Zhejiang province, Longyan of Fujian province, Guangzhou of Guangdong province, Nanning of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Haikou of Hainan province. Results: Numbers of different alleles (5.429-7.571), effective alleles (2.897-3.632), allele richness (5.236-7.170) and expected heterozygosity (0.538- 0.637) were detected from each of the Aedes albopictus population by using 7 microsatellite markers. The inbreeding coefficients appeared as 0.008-0.332, with heterozygote deficiency, in these populations. Fixation index of the whole populations was 0.058, suggesting that the genetic variation among the 7 populations was 5.8%. Data from the Neighbor-Joining clustering analysis showed that populations from Hangzhou and Yiwu belonged to one branch while Longyan and Guangzhou populations constituted another branch. Aedes albopictus populations of Nanning and Haikou showed great genetic variation but formed a single branch. Bayesian analysis on Aedes albopictus populations showed that the possible number of clusters was 3. Conclusions: Based on 7 microsatellite loci, relatively high genetic diversity and medium level of genetic differentiation that increasing with the geographical distances, were found in these Aedes albopictus populations, from the coastal areas in southern China.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Aedes/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Filogenia
5.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e47, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531625

RESUMO

Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects between 6 and 12 million people in Latin America, with an incidence rate of 12 thousand cases per year. In the Ceara State, the predominance of the caatinga biome, coupled with a large rural area with precarious human habitations, provides several s shelters for these insects. In this study, we determined the spatiotemporal distribution of triatomine dispersion rates in the Cariri region, Southern Ceara and ascertained the possible association between these rates with socioeconomic and environmental factors. Dispersion rates (number of positive localities/number of searched localities × 100) were analyzed regarding 13 municipalities from the Ceara State, from 2009 to 2013. Socioeconomic and environmental variables collected from national research institutes were associated with the dispersion rates and their local empirical Bayesian estimates. All the municipalities recorded dispersion rates over 10% in all years, and 11 municipalities had average rates over 40% for the period of study. Significant differences were observed among the municipality means. The highest rates were observed in Antonina do Norte and Potengi. According to the correlation analysis, the proportion between the occupied population and the total population showed a significant negative correlation, as well as the percentage of the population who lives under adequate sanitary conditions. Both, the percentage of revenues from external sources and the percentage of urban households in reforested blocks had a significant positive correlation. Our results show that socioeconomic and environmental variables can be factors that contribute to both, the maintenance and the reduction of the elevated dispersion rates observed in the study area. Similar researches that encompass more municipalities from that region may reinforce Chagas disease surveillance and control in the Northeast of Brazil.


Assuntos
Habitação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Triatominae/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
JAMA ; 322(6): 557-568, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408142

RESUMO

Importance: The substantial growth over the last decade in the use of extracorporeal life support for adults with acute respiratory failure reveals an enthusiasm for the technology not always consistent with the evidence. However, recent high-quality data, primarily in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, have made extracorporeal life support more widely accepted in clinical practice. Observations: Clinical trials of extracorporeal life support for acute respiratory failure in adults in the 1970s and 1990s failed to demonstrate benefit, reducing use of the intervention for decades and relegating it to a small number of centers. Nonetheless, technological improvements in extracorporeal support made it safer to use. Interest in extracorporeal life support increased with the confluence of 2 events in 2009: (1) the publication of a randomized clinical trial of extracorporeal life support for acute respiratory failure and (2) the use of extracorporeal life support in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome during the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. In 2018, a randomized clinical trial in patients with very severe acute respiratory distress syndrome demonstrated a seemingly large decrease in mortality from 46% to 35%, but this difference was not statistically significant. However, a Bayesian post hoc analysis of this trial and a subsequent meta-analysis together suggested that extracorporeal life support was beneficial for patients with very severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. As the evidence supporting the use of extracorporeal life support increases, its indications are expanding to being a bridge to lung transplantation and the management of patients with pulmonary vascular disease who have right-sided heart failure. Extracorporeal life support is now an acceptable form of organ support in clinical practice. Conclusions and Relevance: The role of extracorporeal life support in the management of adults with acute respiratory failure is being redefined by advances in technology and increasing evidence of its effectiveness. Future developments in the field will result from technological advances, an increased understanding of the physiology and biology of extracorporeal support, and increased knowledge of how it might benefit the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/métodos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16881, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a universal chronic nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Although 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is used as a first-line treatment for mild-to-moderate UC, some patients do not react well to it. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a complementary role in the management of UC. A large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that TCM has a significant effect in the treatment of mild-to-moderate UC. However, due to the diversity of TCM treatments, its relative effectiveness and safety remains unclear. Therefore, we aim to compare the effectiveness and safety of TCM for mild-to-moderate UC by implementing a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) and provide a reference for clinical treatment. METHODS: According to the Cochrane Handbook, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM), and WANFANG database will be searched. Related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared one TCM intervention with another or with 5-ASA (placebo) for mild-to-moderate UC from inceptions to February 2019 will be included. Two authors will screen the literature and extract data independently based on predesigned rules, and evaluate the risk of bias of included studies using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Both classical pair-wise meta-analysis and Bayesian NMA will be conducted using R-3.4.4 and WinBUGS-1.4.3 software. The ranking probabilities for all interventions will be estimated and the hierarchy of each intervention will be summarized as surface under the cumulative ranking curve. The consistency within network will be evaluated with Cochrane Q statistic and net-heat plot. The quality of evidence will be assessed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: The study results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal publication or conference presentation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings will provide a systematic evidence-based medical evidence of TCM interventions in the treatment of UC and help clinical practitioners, UC patients, and policy-makers make more informed choices in the decision-making. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval and informed consent are not required since this is a protocol for a network meta-analysis based on published studies. The findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal publication or conference presentation. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019133962.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Terapia por Acupuntura , Teorema de Bayes , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 358-362, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437945

RESUMO

Early detection of Alzheimer's disease is important for deploying interventions to prevent or slow disease progression. We propose a multi-view dependence modeling framework that integrates multiple data sources to distinguish patients at different stages of the disease. We design interpretable models that can handle heterogeneous data types including neuro-images, bio- and clinical markers, and historical and genotypical characteristics of the subjects. We learn the dependence structure from data with guidance from domain knowledge in Bayesian Networks, visualizing and quantifying the conditional probabilistic dependence among the variables. Our results indicate that the hybrid dependence models also improve prediction performance.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 888-892, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438052

RESUMO

Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most frequent maternal morbidities after delivery with serious implications. Currently, there is a lack of effective screening strategies and high-quality clinical trials. The ability to leverage a large amount of detailed patient data from electronic health records (EHRs) to predict PPD could enable the implementation of effective clinical decision support interventions. To develop a PPD prediction model, using EHRs from Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital between 2015-17, 9,980 episodes of pregnancy were identified. Six machine learning algorithms, including L2-regularized Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine, Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes, XGBoost, and Random forest were constructed. Our model's best prediction performance achieved an AUC of 0.79. Race, obesity, anxiety, depression, different types of pain, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy were among the significant predictors. Our results suggest a potential for applying machine learning to EHR data to predict PPD and inform healthcare delivery.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Depressão Pós-Parto , Teorema de Bayes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Gravidez
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 223-227, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437918

RESUMO

We tested the value of adding data from the operating room to models predicting in-hospital death. We assessed model performance using two metrics, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC), to illustrate the differences in information they convey in the setting of class imbalance. Data was collected on 74,147 patients who underwent major noncardiac surgery and 112 unique features were extracted from electronic health records. Sets of features were incrementally added to models using logistic regression, naïve Bayes, random forest, and gradient boosted machine methods. AUROC increased as more features were added, but changes were small for some modeling approaches. In contrast, AUPRC, which reflects positive predicted value, exhibited improvements across all models. Using AUPRC highlighted the added value of intraoperative data, not seen consistently with AUROC, and that with class imbalance AUPRC may serve as the more clinically relevant criterion.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Área Sob a Curva , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Curva ROC
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1492-1493, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438197

RESUMO

By applying the Bayesian network method to the clinical registry database J-DREAMS (Japan Diabetes compREhensive database project based on an Advanced electronic Medical record System), we have developed a reference model that summarizes the exploration of the patient group's state and facilitates a bird's-eye view. This visualization method would help registry researchers to screen the registry database.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Japão , Sistema de Registros
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190325, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460594

RESUMO

The West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T. inunguis) manatees have a sympatric occurrence at the mouth of the Amazon River. A result of this interspecific encounter is the occurrence of hybrids, which are frequently found along the coasts of Amapá state in Brazil, French Guiana and Guyana. Here we present new genetic evidence indicating the occurrence of a hybrid swarm along the Guianas Shield coastline, which is an interspecific hybrid zone that also separates T. manatus populations located east (Brazil) and west (Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Antilles). In addition, we suggest that this hybrid population occupies a peculiar mangrove-rich environment under strong influence of the Amazon River plume, which requires an independent management and should be considered a special conservation area.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Hibridização Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Trichechus inunguis/genética , Trichechus manatus/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Região do Caribe , Guiana , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Trichechus inunguis/fisiologia , Trichechus manatus/fisiologia
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 55, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of seasonality on femoral fracture incidence among people residing in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Ecological study based on a consecutive series of 216,348 reports of hospital admissions caused by femoral fractures. A Bayesian statistical model was used for time series analysis, considering the monthly average number of events of femoral fractures per day as a dependent variable. RESULTS: Among the female population, significant seasonal effects were observed only for older women, aged 60 years or more. Among younger men (aged less than 20 years) there is not a clear seasonal effect, but among the other age groups there seems to exist a higher number of cases of femoral fractures during the coldest months of the year. CONCLUSIONS: In general, more cases of fractures occur during the coldest months of the year; however, men and women have different patterns of incidence according to each age group.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 680, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major challenge in dengue management in resource limited settings is the confirmation of diagnosis. Clinical features of dengue often overlap with other infections and molecular diagnostic tools are not readily accessible to clinicians at hospitals. In addition, the prediction of plasma leakage in dengue is also difficult. Hematocrit level and ultrasound scans (combined with clinical parameters) are helpful to detect plasma leakage once it has happened, not before. METHODS: Colombo Dengue Study (CDS) is a prospective cohort study of clinically suspected adult dengue patients recruited from the National hospital of Sri Lanka (within the first 3 days of fever) that aimed to a) identify clinical and basic laboratory test parameters to differentiate dengue from non-dengue fever, b) evaluate the comparative efficacy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for dengue diagnosis (vs. NS1 antigen test and RT-qPCR) and c) identify early associations that are predictive of plasma leakage or severe dengue. The basic laboratory tests considered here included hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Only 70% of clinically suspected patients were confirmed as having dengue by either the NS1 antigen test or RT-qPCR. On a Bayesian latent class model which assumes no "gold standard", LAMP performed equally or better than RT-qPCR and NS1 antigen test respectively. When confirmed dengue patients were compared with others, the earlier group had significantly lower lymphocyte counts and higher aspartate aminotransferase levels (AST) within the first 3 days of fever. Confirmed dengue patients with plasma leakage had a lower mean age and a higher median baseline AST level compared to those without plasma leakage (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Clinical suspicion overestimates the true number of dengue patients. RT-LAMP is a potentially useful low-cost diagnostic tool for dengue diagnosis. Confirmed dengue patients had significantly higher AST levels and lower lymphocyte counts in early disease compared to others. In confirmed dengue patients, younger age and a higher AST level in early infection were associated with subsequent plasma leakage.


Assuntos
Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Dengue Grave/etiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Dengue Grave/sangue , Sri Lanka
15.
Environ Res ; 177: 108630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421446

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that several metals are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In utero development and adolescence are critical windows of susceptibility to EDC exposure. With the exception of a few heavy metals, few human studies have evaluated the impact of metal exposure on pubertal development. Our aim was to investigate measures of in utero and peripubertal metal exposure in relation to reproductive hormone levels and sexual maturation and progression among girls from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohorts. We measured urinary concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in samples collected from women during their third trimester of pregnancy and from their female children at 8-13 years (n = 132). We measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) at age 8-13, and assessed Tanner stages for sexual maturation (breast, pubic hair development, and menarche status), at two time points (8-13, 14-18 years). We used linear regression to independently examine in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations as predictors of peripubertal hormones. In a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimation equations, we evaluated Tanner stage and menarche progression in relation to individual in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations. We found that higher in utero Zn was associated with increased inhibin B. Several metals at 8-13 years were associated with higher DHEA-S and estradiol, while Ni was positively but Cu was negatively associated with testosterone. In utero Ni, Al, and Cd were associated with slower progression of breast development after adjustment for child age and BMI z-score. For example, an IQR increase in in utero Al exposure was associated with 0.82 times lower odds of progressing to a higher Tanner stage for breast development per year (95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Peripubertal concentrations of Ba and Al were also associated with being at a higher pubic hair Tanner stage and menarche at 8-13, but lower odds of progressing to the next stage at 14-18 years. We used Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to model the joint effect of multiple metals while accounting for correlated exposures, as well as potential non-linear relationships between metals and outcomes of interest, which yielded results similar to individual analyses. These findings suggest that female reproductive development may be vulnerable to the effects of metal exposure, and using both Tanner stages and hormone levels may provide clues about underlying mechanisms in two sensitive periods of development.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cidades , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibinas/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , México , Gravidez , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3010, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285438

RESUMO

What is color vision for? Here we compared the extent to which memory modulates color appearance of objects and faces. Participants matched the colors of stimuli illuminated by low-pressure sodium light, which renders scenes monochromatic. Matches for fruit were not predicted by stimulus identity. In contrast, matches for faces were predictable, but surprising: faces appeared green and looked sick. The paradoxical face-color percept could be explained by a Bayesian observer model constrained by efficient coding. The color-matching data suggest that the face-color prior is established by visual signals arising from the recently evolved L-M cone system, not the older S-cone channel. Taken together, the results show that when retinal mechanisms of color vision are impaired, the impact of memory on color perception is greatest for face color, supporting the idea that trichromatic color plays an important role in social communication.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Cor , Visão de Cores , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 344-347, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349338

RESUMO

Clinical decision support systems are data analysis software that supports health professionals' decision - making the process to reach their ultimate outcome, taking into account patient information. However, the need for decision support systems cannot be denied because of most activities in the field of health care within the decision-making process. Decision support systems used for diagnosis are designed based on disease due to the complexity of diseases, symptoms, and disease-symptoms relationships. In the design and implementation of clinical decision support systems, mathematical modeling, pattern recognition and statistical analysis techniques of large databases and data mining techniques such as classification are also widely used. Classification of data is difficult in case of the small and/or imbalanced data set and this problem directly affects the classification performance. Small and/or imbalance dataset has become a major problem in data mining because classification algorithms are developed based on the assumption that the data sets are balanced and large enough. Most of the algorithms ignore or misclassify examples of the minority class, focus on the majority class. Most health data are small and imbalanced by nature. Learning from imbalanced and small data sets is an important and unsettled problem. Within the scope of the study, the publicly accessible data set, hepatitis was oversampled by distance-based data generation methods. The oversampled data sets were classified by using four different machine learning algorithms. Considering the classification scores of four different machine learning algorithms (Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, Naive Bayes and Decision Tree), optimal synthetic data generation rate is recommended.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Aprendizado de Máquina , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104702, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311628

RESUMO

In modern livestock farming, there is an increasing understanding that antimicrobial (AM) consumption must be kept low - preferably without compromising animal welfare or productivity. This requires an understanding of the relationship between AM use, productivity, biosecurity, vaccination and herd demographics. To obtain this, we undertook an Additive Bayesian Network analysis using data from 2014 to 2015, covering 157 Danish sow herds with weaners. In general, productivity and biosecurity were high, and AM consumption low. No association was found between prescribed AM and productivity. Other variables, such as biosecurity and enrolment in the Danish Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) system, had stronger associations with sow productivity than AM consumption. In the weaner unit, an association between AM consumption and certain vaccination practices was found, suggesting that vaccines might be used to control preexisting problems. The results reveal that most Danish sow producers are able to maintain productivity while using low amounts of AMs. This conclusion must be interpreted within the context of Danish pig farming i.e. generally high biosecurity and many years of official restrictions aiming at reducing AM consumption.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação/veterinária , Desmame
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104693, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311630

RESUMO

Bayesian networks are used to evaluate the effectiveness of mixed autogenous vaccines in fattening lambs to prevent the ovine respiratory syndrome. An experiment was performed with 460 fattening lambs, which were clustered into four groups according to the kind of vaccine received (Pasteurella spp., Mycoplasma spp., Mixed Mycoplasma-Pasteurella or placebo). After slaughtering, lungs were collected, and macroscopic and microscopic studies were performed. A microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma spp. and Pasteurellaceae by conventional culture and identification by nested polymerase chain reaction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, Bayesian networks have not been used to evaluate the effect of vaccines on the absence/presence of lung consolidation. Our results revealed that the use of mixed autogenous vaccines can decrease lung consolidation from 15.75% (12.42-19.08) to 9.24% (6.59-11.89). Therefore, the use of these autogenous vaccines in farms could be considered an effective control tool against ovine respiratory syndrome.


Assuntos
Autovacinas/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Pneumonia/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Pulmão/patologia , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Espanha
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104698, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311644

RESUMO

There is limited knowledge of the true prevalence and distribution of coxiellosis in dairy and beef cattle populations in Australia. For this to occur, apparent prevalence estimates need to be reliably adjusted, accounting for diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the test used. However, there are few tests available with known diagnostic specifications suitable to inform screening and surveillance activities in the Australian context. We initially modified and optimised a human indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) test for the detection of IgG antibodies against phase I and/or phase II Coxiella burnetii in bovine sera and determined an optimal screening dilution cut-off to be 1:160. Direct comparison of the modified IFA with the commercial IDEXX enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Q Fever Ab Test IDEXX Laboratories, United States of America) was performed by testing 458 serum samples from four distinct cattle populations across the east coast of Australia and New Zealand. Cross classified test results were then analysed using Bayesian latent class modelling, to validate the tests in the absence of a gold standard reference test. Results from this analysis indicate that the IFA, at a 1:160 serum dilution, has an estimated DSe of 73.6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI) 61.1, 85.9) and DSp of 98.2% (95% CrI 95.1, 99.7). The commercial IDEXX ELISA kit was found to have a higher DSe of 87.9% (95% CrI 73.9, 96.4) and similar DSp of 97.7% (95% CrI 93.2, 99.7). Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of the IFA and ELISA methods, specifically for use in cattle will enable more accurate interpretation of prevalence estimates of C. burnetii exposure to be reported for cattle in Australia and other countries.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/normas , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Febre Q/sangue , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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