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1.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 45, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All countries are facing decisions about which population groups to prioritize for access to COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine products have been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Our objective is to define the key target populations, their size, and priority for a COVID-19 vaccination program in the context of China. METHODS: On the basis of utilitarian and egalitarian principles, we define and estimate the size of tiered target population groups for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination, considering evolving goals as vaccine supplies increase, detailed information on the risk of illness and transmission, and past experience with vaccination during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Using publicly available data, we estimated the size of target population groups, and the number of days needed to vaccinate 70% of the target population. Sensitivity analyses considered higher vaccine coverages and scaled up vaccine delivery relative to the 2009 pandemic. RESULTS: Essential workers, including staff in the healthcare, law enforcement, security, nursing homes, social welfare institutes, community services, energy, food and transportation sectors, and overseas workers/students (49.7 million) could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services in the early phase of a vaccination program. Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (563.6 million) could be targeted for vaccination to reduce the number of individuals with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including hospitalizations, critical care admissions, and deaths. In later stages, the vaccination program could be further extended to target adults without underlying health conditions and children (784.8 million), in order to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission. Given 10 million doses administered per day, and a two-dose vaccination schedule, it would take 1 week to vaccinate essential workers but likely up to 7 months to vaccinate 70% of the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed framework is general but could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program. Additionally, this exercise could be generalized to inform other national and regional strategies for use of COVID-19 vaccines, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
/uso terapêutico , Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Polícia , Adolescente , Idoso , /mortalidade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Teoria Ética , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Prioridades em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Gravidez , Transportes , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(331): 34-38, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357666

RESUMO

This health crisis has revealed the difficulties, but also the creativity of the caregiving teams. In this context, assisting health professionals through the creation of an ethical support unit is valuable. However, the implementation of such a unit requires reflection with the definition of the resulting limits. Two questions are raised: is it really possible to externalise ethical reflection? Is there such a thing as ethics of crisis?


Assuntos
Teoria Ética , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Princípios Morais
3.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(2): 11-25, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319939

RESUMO

We address the ethical causes of the global ecological crisis we are currently undergoing, along with the expansion of the instrumental reason that is typical of modernity and the critics arisen from ecological ethics and feminism. Helping to solve the ethical crisis found in the base of ecology, with the intention of universal rationality, is possible from bioethical approach: utilitarianism and radical neoliberalism are useless, and maybe the foundations of our ethical duties with the nature and the rest of the living creatures may be found in the proposals of the dialogic ethics, neoaristotelian perspective and personalisme.


Assuntos
Bioética , Teoria Ética , Princípios Morais , Humanos
4.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190104, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101972

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the moral values that nursing teachers and students consider important for vocational training with those they believe are promoted throughout undergraduate study. Method: a qualitative research; an ethnographic study conducted at a public nursing school in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in 2018, involving 40 interviews with teachers and students and a participant observation phase. Results: the moral values that teachers and students consider important for vocational training, as well as those that are promoted, converge on prudence, respect, responsibility, and empathy. It is noteworthy that the knowledge was much cited by the respondents and this article interpreted it as prudence. However, in relation to the values promoted during undergraduation, students warn that these are stimulated when referring to the binomial student-user of health, because they do not feel to the same intensity the presence of these moral values in the teacher-student relationship. Conclusion: a powerful strategy for teaching about moral values is to promote the care of their own students, teachers and staff. In this way, mismatches are avoided between what is said and what is done by experiencing values such as prudence, respect, responsibility and empathy within interpersonal relationships and in the daily life of the school.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comparar los valores morales que los profesores y estudiantes de enfermería consideran importantes para la formación profesional con los que creen que se promueven a lo largo de la carrera de grado. Método: investigación cualitativa; un estudio etnográfico realizado en el año 2018 en una facultad pública de enfermería del estado de Río de Janeiro, por medio de 40 entrevistas con profesores y estudiantes y una fase de observación de los participantes. Resultados: los valores morales que los profesores y estudiantes evalúan como importantes para la formación profesional, al igual como los que se promueven, convergen en la prudencia, el respeto, la responsabilidad y la empatía. Cabe destacar que el conocimiento fue muy citado por los entrevistados y, en este artículo, se lo interpretó como prudencia. Pese a ello, en relación con los valores promovidos a lo largo de la carrera de grado, los estudiantes manifiestan que se los fomenta cuando se refieren al binomio estudiante-usuario de servicios de salud, puesto que no sienten con la misma intensidad la presencia de estos valores en la relación profesor-estudiante. Conclusión: estamos frente a una poderosa estrategia para enseñar sobre los valores morales y promover el cuidado de sus propios estudiantes, profesores y personal administrativo. De esta manera, se evitan desencuentros entre lo que se dice y lo que se hace al respetar valores como la prudencia, el respeto, la responsabilidad y la empatía dentro de las relaciones interpersonales y en la vida cotidiana de la facultad.


RESUMO Objetivo: comparar os valores morais que professores e estudantes de enfermagem consideram importantes para a formação profissional com aqueles que eles acreditam que são promovidos ao longo da graduação. Método: pesquisa qualitativa; um estudo etnográfico realizado em uma faculdade pública de enfermagem do estado do Rio de Janeiro, em 2018, envolvendo 40 entrevistas com professores e estudantes e uma fase de observação participante. Resultados: os valores morais que os professores e estudantes avaliam ser importantes para a formação profissional, bem como aqueles que são promovidos, convergem para a prudência, o respeito, a responsabilidade e a empatia. Vale destacar que o conhecimento foi muito citado pelos entrevistados e, este artigo, interpretou-o como prudência. Todavia, em relação aos valores promovidos ao longo da graduação, os estudantes alertam que estes são estimulados quando referem-se ao binômio estudante-usuário de saúde, pois não sentem na mesma intensidade a presença desses valores morais na relação professor-estudante. Conclusão: uma potente estratégia para ensinar sobre os valores morais é promover o cuidado dos seus próprios estudantes, professores e funcionários. Dessa maneira, evitam-se desencontros entre o que se diz e o que se faz ao vivenciar os valores como a prudência, o respeito, a responsabilidade e a empatia dentro das relações interpessoais e no cotidiano da faculdade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Teoria Ética , Ética , Moral , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Ensino , Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação em Enfermagem , Ética em Enfermagem , Docentes , Relações Interpessoais
5.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(11): 22-24, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103981
6.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(5): e2954, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144692

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Los farmacéuticos enfrentan conflictos éticos en la dispensación de medicamentos. La resolución de estos asegura un servicio eficaz, seguro, digno y de calidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar desde una perspectiva ética-deontológica la dispensación de medicamentos en las farmacias de Cuenca-Ecuador, 2018. Material y Métodos: La investigación tuvo un diseño no experimental, descriptivo y transversal. La muestra no probabilística fue de 65 dependientes. Se aplicó un cuestionario para identificar la resolución de conflictos éticos y el nivel de conocimientos sobre Ética y Deontología Farmacéutica. Las respuestas fueron codificadas y analizadas con SPSS 23.0. Resultados: Los conflictos más frecuentes fueron el consentimiento informado (83 por ciento), prescripción médica (95 por ciento) y conflicto de intereses (84 por ciento). La resolución ética de los conflictos fue superior en dependientes capacitados en Ética y Deontología, con una correlación de 0,34 (p= (0,009) con el nivel de conocimientos en Deontología Farmacéutica. El nivel de conocimiento sobre Ética y Deontología Farmacéutica fue bajo en 60 por ciento de la muestra, con asociación inversa a la autopercepción de conocimiento (ρ=-0,259; p≤ 0,001). Conclusiones: La resolución empírica de los conflictos éticos durante el ejercicio de la profesión se realiza sin un fundamento ético-deontológico. El nivel de conocimiento en Ética y Deontología requiere una intervención desde la capacitación institucional y formación profesional de modo que se revierta en la adopción de decisiones acertadas que garanticen la seguridad del paciente como persona(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Pharmacists face ethical conflicts related to the dispensing of medications. Their resolution ensures an effective, safe, dignified, and quality service. Objective: To characterize the dispensing of medications from an ethical-deontological perspective in pharmacies of Cuenca-Ecuador in 2018. Material and methods: A non-experimental, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. The non-probability sample consisted of 65 pharmacists. A survey was applied to identify the resolution of ethical conflicts and the level of knowledge of Pharmaceutical Ethics and Deontology. Data were coded and analyzed with SPSS 23.0. Results: The most frequent conflicts included informed consent (83 percent), medical prescription (95 percent) and conflict of interests (84 percent).The resolution of ethical conflicts was higher in pharmacists with training in Ethics and Deontology, with a correlation of 0.34 (p =0.009) with the level of knowledge of Pharmaceutical Deontology. The level of knowledge of Pharmaceutical Ethics and Deontology was low in 60 percent of the sample, with an inverse association with the self-perception of knowledge (ρ= -0.259; p≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Empirical resolution of ethical conflicts while exercising the profession is carried out without ethical-deontological foundation. The level of knowledge of Ethics and Deontology requires intervention from institutional and professional training so that it is reverted to make the right decisions to guarantee the safety of the patient as a person(AU)


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica/ética , Teoria Ética , Medicamentos de Venda Assistida , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Equador
7.
J Med Ethics ; 46(11): 732-735, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958693

RESUMO

A recent update to the Geneva Declaration's 'Physician Pledge' involves the ethical requirement of physicians to share medical knowledge for the benefit of patients and healthcare. With the spread of COVID-19, pockets exist in every country with different viral expressions. In the Chareidi ('ultra-orthodox') religious community, for example, rates of COVID-19 transmission and dissemination are above average compared with other communities within the same countries. While viral spread in densely populated communities is common during pandemics, several reasons have been suggested to explain the blatant flouting of public health regulations. It is easy to fault the Chareidi population for their proliferation of COVID-19, partly due to their avoidance of social media and internet aversion. However, the question remains: who is to blame for their community crisis? The ethical argument suggests that from a public health perspective, the physician needs to reach out and share medical knowledge with the community. The public's best interests are critical in a pandemic and should supersede any considerations of cultural differences. By all indications, therefore, the physician has an ethical obligation to promote population healthcare and share medical knowledge based on ethical concepts of beneficence, non-maleficence, utilitarian ethics as well as social, procedural and distributive justice. This includes the ethical duty to reduce health disparities and convey the message that individual responsibility for health has repercussions within the context of broader social accountability. Creative channels are clearly demanded for this ethical challenge, including measured medical paternalism with appropriate cultural sensitivity in physician community outreach.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/ética , Obrigações Morais , Pandemias/ética , Médicos/ética , Papel Profissional , Responsabilidade Social , Acesso à Informação , Beneficência , Betacoronavirus , Códigos de Ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Competência Cultural , Cultura , Teoria Ética , Equidade em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/ética , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Paternalismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública/ética , Religião , Justiça Social
8.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 151-165, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910669

RESUMO

The public health crisis caused by COVID-19 disease has bring again to the public arena the old debate of the role in decision-making process of politics and science. In this paper we analyze, in the context of the current pandemics, how politics has left a stellar role for science, either because science has anticipated in its proposals to politics, or because politics has opted for it as a premeditated strategy. The references to the opinion of scientists as a decision-making criterion or, furthermore, their presence as true spokesmen for authority have been so frequent. This means rediscovering science and health as instruments of power, in terms that remind us of what Foucault denounced almost fifty years ago with his Biopolitics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política , Ciência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisões , Democracia , Teoria Ética , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poder Psicológico , Saúde Pública , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Papel (figurativo) , Valores Sociais , Sociedades Científicas , Espanha , Vacinas Virais
9.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 183-202, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910671

RESUMO

The article deals with the analysis of the criteria for the allocation of scarce health resources during the pandemic produced by the COVID 19 virus in Spain. It critically analyses the absence of a legal-constitutional perspective in the elaboration of such criteria and suggests the incorporation of the criterion of equity as a guarantee of the effective exercise of the constitutional right to health protection by vulnerable persons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Pandemias/ética , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Constituição e Estatutos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Teoria Ética , Órgãos Governamentais , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Publicações , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , Papel (figurativo) , Justiça Social , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/ética , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 28(3): 410-417, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137123

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo busca identificar contribuições da bioética para enfrentar conflitos relacionados à tomada de decisão em tempos de pandemia. Trata-se de texto elaborado a partir de reflexões pessoais dos autores em diálogo com a literatura de diferentes perspectivas da bioética. Com fundamento em relatos históricos, argumenta-se que, durante epidemias, a sociedade passa a atuar em modo de excepcionalidade, o que exige argumentação mais apurada para se posicionar ante os conflitos que surgem. Analisam-se então diferentes vertentes teóricas - principialismo, personalismo, utilitarismo e bioética social -, recolhendo de cada uma elementos que podem nortear a tomada de decisão. Com base nessas contribuições, propõem-se parâmetros para a atuação dos profissionais da saúde, reconhecendo igual valor em cada vida humana, com o propósito de salvar o maior número de pessoas possível. Por fim, aponta-se para a responsabilidade de agentes políticos.


Abstract This article aims to identify the contribution of bioethics to resolve decision-making conflicts in healthcare in times of pandemic. The research was based on the authors' personal reflections in a dialogue with the literature and different bioethical perspectives. Historical accounts show that when a society is experiencing an epidemic it starts to function in a mode of social exceptionality, reinforcing the need for a more appropriate form of reasoning before the ethical conflicts that may arise from this situation. Some approaches to bioethics - principlism, personalism, utilitarianism and social bioethics - are briefly examined in order to obtain the elements for guiding the decision-making process. Finally, we suggest some parameters for health professionals, recognizing the value of all human lives, to save as many lives as possible.


Resumen Este artículo tiene como objetivo identificar la contribución de la bioética para hacer frente a los conflictos relacionados con la toma de decisiones en tiempos de pandemia. Se trata de un texto elaborado con base en las reflexiones personales de los autores en diálogo con la literatura de diferentes perspectivas de la bioética. Con base en los relatos históricos, se argumenta que, durante epidemias, la sociedad pasa a actuar en modo de excepcionalidad, lo que requiere una argumentación más precisa para posicionarse ante los conflictos que surgen. Se analizan entonces diferentes vertientes teóricas -el principialismo, el personalismo, el utilitarismo y la bioética social-, recogiendo de cada una los elementos que pueden orientar la toma de decisiones. Con base en dichas contribuciones, se proponen parámetros para la actuación de los profesionales de la salud, reconociendo el mismo valor en cada vida humana, con el propósito de salvar al mayor número posible de personas. Por fin, se apunta hacia la responsabilidad de los agentes políticos.


Assuntos
Grupos de Risco , Bioética , Infecções por Coronavirus , Teoria Ética , Pessoalidade , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Pandemias
11.
Rev. med. cine ; 16(3): 155-163, sept. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197478

RESUMO

Este artículo profundiza en los acontecimientos narrados en el cuarto episodio de la sexta temporada de la serie House M.D. (título en inglés, en España es conocida como House o Dr. House). En él, el Doctor Chase se ve en el dilema de tratar a un dictador africano. Por un lado, el juramento hipocrático al que está ligado le obliga a sanar a su paciente, sin embargo, su moral individual lo empuja a tomar una decisión fatal. Y es que en eso estriba la peculiaridad ética de esta narración, en el choque de actitudes que codifican lo que se considera «el deber». Entre los principios y los fines, es el territorio en el que Chase se encuentra perdido. Una tierra de nadie que atormenta al profesional de la medicina, en general, y al Doctor Chase, en particular. El análisis cinematográfico dilucidará las claves éticas (temas) y estéticas (estrategias narrativas) de esta obra. El demiurgo que controla los aconteceres de la narración decide que el doctor tome el bando de los fines, aunque eso no signifique que sea lo correcto. Sin pretender ser ejemplo de lo que debiera hacerse en la vida real, esta obra, junto al estudio de la misma, invitan a explorar los límites de la deontología médica


This article delves into the events narrated in the fourth episode of the sixth season of House M.D. In it, Dr. Chase finds himself in the dilemma of treating an African dictator. On the one hand, the Hippocratic oath to which he is bound forces him to heal his patient, however, his individual morale pushes him to make a fatal decision. And it is that, in that lies the ethical peculiarity of this narrative, in the clash of attitudes that codify what is considered «duty». Between principles and ends, it’s the territory in which Chase is lost. A no man’s land that torments the medical professional, in general, and Dr. Chase in particular. Cinematic analysis will elucidate the ethical (themes) and aesthetic keys (narrative strategies) of this work. The demiurge that controls the storytelling happenings decides that the doctor takes the side of the ends, even if that does not mean that it is the right thing to do. Without pretending to be an example of what should be done in real life, this article, with the study of it, invites to explore the limits of medical deontology


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina nas Artes , Filmes Cinematográficos , Ética Médica , Teoria Ética , Julgamento Moral Retrospectivo , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Juramento Hipocrático
12.
J Med Ethics ; 46(10): 662-667, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769094

RESUMO

In March 2020, the Government produced a document entitled "Responding to COVID-19: The Ethical Framework for Adult Social Care" ('The Ethical Framework'). In this article, we summarise the key features of the proposed ethical framework and subject it to critical analysis. We highlight three primary issues. First, the emphasis placed on autonomy as the primary ethical principle. We argue if ever there was a context in which autonomy should dominate the ethical analysis, this is not it. Second, we examine the interface between ethics and law which is largely overlooked in the document. Finally, we explore the surprising lack of attention paid to the concept of responsibility and communal obligations within the framework.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Análise Ética , Ética Médica , Legislação Médica/ética , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Responsabilidade Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Teoria Ética , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal/ética , Medicina Estatal/legislação & jurisprudência , Reino Unido
13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(8): e00151620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756764

RESUMO

This essay aims to discuss the foundations and possibilities for community participation in the fight against COVID-19. The first part discusses the meanings of community, defined according to geographic, aggregate-interest, or epidemiological criteria. In the context of the pandemic, none of the three perspectives can be considered alone. The essay discusses the need to link different approaches in order to produce socially contextualized health interventions. Next, the authors present the four main models in the international literature that provide the basis for community participation practices in various countries. The analysis of community participation in the context of COVID-19 uses conceptual systematization based on two meta-narratives: utilitarian and social justice. The utilitarian perspective involves measures to restrict social contact. Participation is thus understood as collaboration in implementing measures that contribute to controlling the problem. The social justice perspective especially addresses the social determinants of health and reduction in social inequalities. The approach focuses on community empowerment and the search for solutions to the social and economic problems that determine the spread of COVID-19 and other diseases. The essay concludes on the peculiarities and importance of each approach. Community participation in the fight against COVID-19 should consider the emergency contexts to strengthen the health system and the defense of the social protection system and democracy.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Teoria Ética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Justiça Social , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603338

RESUMO

Killing people is universally considered reprehensible and evokes in observers a need to punish perpetrators. Here, we explored how observers' personality is associated with their cognitive, emotional, and punishing reactions towards perpetrators using data from 1,004 participants who responded to a set of fifteen third-party perspective moral dilemmas. Among those, four scenarios (architect, life boat, footbridge, smother for dollars) describing deliberate killings were compared to investigate the role of the content features "motive for killing" (selfish vs. utilitarian) and "evitability of victims' death". Participants' moral appropriateness ratings, emotions towards perpetrators, and assigned punishments revealed complex scenario-personality interactions. Trait psychopathy was associated with harsher punishments in all scenarios but also with less concern about killing in general, an increased moral appreciation of utilitarian motives for killing, and a reduced concern about the killing of avoidable victims. Need for cognition was associated with considering a utilitarian motive for killing as a mitigating factor, while intuitive/authority-obedient thinking was linked to a strong focus on avoidability of harm as an aggravating factor when assigning punishments. Other-oriented empathy, trait anxiety, and justice sensitivity did not account for differences in third-party punishments. Our explorative findings highlight the importance of inter-individual differences for moral decision making and sense of justice.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Julgamento , Adulto , Emoções , Empatia , Teoria Ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Motivação , Punição/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Philos ; 45(4-5): 560-579, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726810

RESUMO

After expressing our gratitude to the commentators for their valuable analyses and assessments of Principles of Biomedical Ethics, we respond to several particular critiques raised by the commentators under the following rubrics: the compatibility of different sets of principles and rules; challenges to the principle of respect for autonomy; connecting principles to cases and resolving their conflicts; the value of and compatibility of virtues and principles; common morality theory; and moral status. We point to areas where we see common agreement with our commentators and respond to their critical evaluations.


Assuntos
Bioética , Ética Baseada em Princípios , Teoria Ética , Humanos , Virtudes
17.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 41-58, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192093

RESUMO

La evaluación psicológica forense del maltrato y del abuso sexual ha sido abordada prioritariamente desde una perspectiva técnico-metodológica. La consideración de los aspectos ético-deontológicos implicados ha resultado más incipiente y comienzan gradualmente a integrarse como una dimensión relevante de la práctica profesional. El presente artículo explora las principales tensiones y desafíos para los psicólogos que realizan evaluaciones forenses en esta materia. Se revisan cómo los principios rectores de la bioética se adaptan a la realidad de las evaluaciones forenses que permiten orientar el desarrollo de buenas prácticas en el área


The forensic psychological evaluation of mistreatment and sexual abuse has been addressed primarily from a technical-methodological perspective. Considerations of the ethical-deontological aspects involved has been more incipient, and gradually beginning to be integrated as a relevant dimension of professional practice. This article explores the main tensions and challenges for psychologists who perform forensic evaluations in this area. We review how the guiding principles of bioethics adapt to the reality of forensic evaluations that allow to guide the development of good practices in the área


L'avaluació psicològica forense del maltractament I abús sexual ha estat abordada prioritàriament des d'una perspectiva tècnico-metodològica. La consideració dels aspectes ètico-deontològics implicats ha resultat més incipient I comencen gradualment a integrar-se com una dimensió rellevant de la pràctica professional. El present article explora les principals tensions I desafiaments per als psicòlegs que realitzen avaluacions forenses en aquesta matèria. Es revisen com els principis que regeixen la bioètica s'adapten a la realitat de les avaluacions forenses que permeten orientar el desenvolupament de bones pràctiques al sector


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Psicologia Forense/ética , Maus-Tratos Infantis/ética , Teoria Ética , Abuso Sexual na Infância/ética , Psicologia Forense/instrumentação , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia
18.
Exp Psychol ; 67(1): 23-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520665

RESUMO

Although recent studies have investigated the effect of alexithymia on moral judgments, such an effect remains elusive. Furthermore, moral judgments have been conflated with the moral inclinations underlying those judgments in previous studies. Using a process dissociation approach to independently quantify the strength of utilitarian and deontological inclinations, the present study investigated the effect of alexithymia on moral judgments. We found that deontological inclinations were significantly lower in the high alexithymia group than in the low alexithymia group, whereas the difference in the utilitarian inclinations between the two groups was nonsignificant. Furthermore, empathic concern and deontological inclinations mediated the association between alexithymia and conventional relative judgments (i.e., more utilitarian judgments over deontological judgments), showing that people with high alexithymia have low empathic concern, which, in turn, decreases deontological inclinations and contributes to conventional relative judgments. These findings underscore the importance of empathy and deontological inclinations in moral judgments and indicate that individuals with high alexithymia make more utilitarian judgments over deontological judgments possibly due to a deficit in affective processing.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/complicações , Julgamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Empatia , Teoria Ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 29(3): 421-425, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484131
20.
J Med Ethics ; 46(8): 505-507, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532825

RESUMO

COVID-19 is reducing the ability to perform surgical procedures worldwide, giving rise to a multitude of ethical, practical and medical dilemmas. Adapting to crisis conditions requires a rethink of traditional best practices in surgical management, delving into an area of unknown risk profiles. Key challenging areas include cancelling elective operations, modifying procedures to adapt local services and updating the consenting process. We aim to provide an ethical rationale to support change in practice and guide future decision-making. Using the four principles approach as a structure, Medline was searched for existing ethical frameworks aimed at resolving conflicting moral duties. Where insufficient data were available, best guidance was sought from educational institutions: National Health Service England and The Royal College of Surgeons. Multiple papers presenting high-quality, reasoned, ethical theory and practice guidance were collected. Using this as a basis to assess current practice, multiple requirements were generated to ensure preservation of ethical integrity when making management decisions. Careful consideration of ethical principles must guide production of local guidance ensuring consistent patient selection thus preserving equality as well as quality of clinical services. A critical issue is balancing the benefit of surgery against the unknown risk of developing COVID-19 and its associated complications. As such, the need for surgery must be sufficiently pressing to proceed with conventional or non-conventional operative management; otherwise, delaying intervention is justified. For delayed operations, it is our duty to quantify the long-term impact on patients' outcome within the constraints of pandemic management and its long-term outlook.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Ética Médica , Cirurgia Geral/ética , Equidade em Saúde/ética , Pandemias/ética , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Análise Ética , Teoria Ética , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Obrigações Morais , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ética Baseada em Princípios , Medição de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Cirurgiões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
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