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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1483, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioural science can play a critical role in combatting the effects of an infectious disease outbreak or public health emergency, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The current paper presents a synthesis of review literature discussing the application of behaviour change theories within an infectious disease and emergency response context, with a view to informing infectious disease modelling, research and public health practice. METHODS: A scoping review procedure was adopted for the searches. Searches were run on PubMed, PsychInfo and Medline with search terms covering four major categories: behaviour, emergency response (e.g., infectious disease, preparedness, mass emergency), theoretical models, and reviews. Three further top-up reviews was also conducted using Google Scholar. Papers were included if they presented a review of theoretical models as applied to understanding preventative health behaviours in the context of emergency preparedness and response, and/or infectious disease outbreaks. RESULTS: Thirteen papers were included in the final synthesis. Across the reviews, several theories of behaviour change were identified as more commonly cited within this context, specifically, Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and Protection Motivation Theory, with support (although not universal) for their effectiveness in this context. Furthermore, the application of these theories in previous primary research within this context was found to be patchy, and so further work is required to systematically incorporate and test behaviour change models within public health emergency research and interventions. CONCLUSION: Overall, this review identifies a range of more commonly applied theories with broad support for their use within an infectious disease and emergency response context. The Discussion section details several key recommendations to help researchers, practitioners, and infectious disease modellers to incorporate these theories into their work. Specifically, researchers and practitioners should base future research and practice on a systematic application of theories, beginning with those reported herein. Furthermore, infectious disease modellers should consult the theories reported herein to ensure that the full range of relevant constructs (cognitive, emotional and social) are incorporated into their models. In all cases, consultation with behavioural scientists throughout these processes is strongly recommended to ensure the appropriate application of theory.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899942

RESUMO

The tourism industry has been seriously suffering from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis ever since its outbreak. Given this pandemic situation, the major aim of this study is to develop a conceptual framework that clearly explains the US international tourists' post-pandemic travel behaviors by expanding the theory of planned behavior (TPB). By utilizing a quantitative process, the TPB was successfully broadened by incorporating the travelers' perceived knowledge of COVID-19, and it has been deepened by integrating the psychological risk. Our theoretical framework sufficiently accounted for the US tourists' post-pandemic travel intentions for safer international destinations. In addition, the perceived knowledge of COVID-19 contributed to boosting the prediction power for the intentions. The associations among the subjective norm, the attitude, and the intentions are under the significant influence of the tourists' psychological risks regarding international traveling. The comparative criticality of the subjective norm is found. Overall, the findings of this study considerably enhanced our understanding of US overseas tourists' post-pandemic travel decision-making processes and behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Teoria Psicológica
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 pandemic led to major life changes. We assessed the psychological impact of COVID-19 on dental academics globally and on changes in their behaviors. METHODS: We invited dental academics to complete a cross-sectional, online survey from March to May 2020. The survey was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The survey collected data on participants' stress levels (using the Impact of Event Scale), attitude (fears, and worries because of COVID-19 extracted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), perceived control (resulting from training on public health emergencies), norms (country-level COVID-19 fatality rate), and personal and professional backgrounds. We used multilevel regression models to assess the association between the study outcome variables (frequent handwashing and avoidance of crowded places) and explanatory variables (stress, attitude, perceived control and norms). RESULTS: 1862 academics from 28 countries participated in the survey (response rate = 11.3%). Of those, 53.4% were female, 32.9% were <46 years old and 9.9% had severe stress. PCA extracted three main factors: fear of infection, worries because of professional responsibilities, and worries because of restricted mobility. These factors had significant dose-dependent association with stress and were significantly associated with more frequent handwashing by dental academics (B = 0.56, 0.33, and 0.34) and avoiding crowded places (B = 0.55, 0.30, and 0.28). Low country fatality rates were significantly associated with more handwashing (B = -2.82) and avoiding crowded places (B = -6.61). Training on public health emergencies was not significantly associated with behavior change (B = -0.01 and -0.11). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had a considerable psychological impact on dental academics. There was a direct, dose-dependent association between change in behaviors and worries but no association between these changes and training on public health emergencies. More change in behaviors was associated with lower country COVID-19 fatality rates. Fears and stresses were associated with greater adoption of preventive measures against the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Docentes de Odontologia/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Análise de Componente Principal , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Rech Soins Infirm ; (141): 38-48, 2020 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988188

RESUMO

Heart failure is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization in older people, and the hospital-to-home transition can be unsuccessful for these patients. Existing care programs focus primarily on the physiological aspects of the disease and are rarely based on theory. Using Roy's adaptation model (1), the aim of this study was to develop a thorough understanding of the adaptation difficulties and factors that influence how well elderly patients with chronic heart failure cope with the hospital-to-home transition, in order to develop a nursing interventions program. Based on the process proposed by Sidani and Braden (2011), this qualitative descriptive study adopted a deductive approach, with the use of intermediary theories and empirical data, as well as an inductive approach, where older people with chronic heart failure (n=7), caregivers (n=6), and healthcare professionals (n=14) participated in semi-structured individual interviews. The triangulation of data highlights the difficulties and factors influencing adaptation at the physical, psychological, and social levels. Gaining a better understanding of the experience of older people with heart failure when it comes to their transition from hospital to home, and doing so with a holistic vision, provides information for interventions that can contribute to better management of chronic disease and a better quality of life for these elderly patients.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/enfermagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Transferência de Pacientes , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 256-261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796795

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the psychological health of individuals and societies. A theoretical framework is required in order to understand this impact and strategies to mitigate it. In this paper, individual and community responses to COVID-19 are discussed from the point of view of attachment theory, a psychological theory which examines the formation and disruption of attachment bonds across the life-span from an evolutionary perspective. The contributions of this perspective to individual psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress, as well as to social responses such as interpersonal violence and stigmatization, are discussed in the light of findings from attachment research. Proposals for incorporating the knowledge derived from attachment theory into therapeutic strategies, as well as in developing community resilience in the face of COVID-19, are discussed based on the available evidence. It is hoped that this information will be of value to clinicians and researchers, as well as to those involved in planning health services and social policy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1290, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviors and positive changes in lifestyle are essential for successful hypertension control. We used a behavioral model based on the theory of planned behavior to assess which factors influence self-care behaviors for controlling hypertension. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, five hundred patients with at leastaone-year history of diagnosed hypertension participated in this study. The data collection tool was designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the main parameters. RESULTS: For self-care behaviors, ninety-six (19.2%) and forty-five (9.1%) participants had good knowledge and acceptable behavior(≥8 out of 10 points). Having perceived behavioral control regarding quitting smoking and alcohol intake was associated with the patient's intention and behavior [b:1.283 ± .095 and b:1.59 ± .014 (p < .001)]. Having perceived behavioral control over the other self-care behaviors had a positive effect on the intention in female patients [b: .885 ± .442 (p = .045)]. Subjective norms had a positive effect on behavioral intention in younger patients [b:4.52 ± 2.24 (P = .04)]. CONCLUSIONS: Group-specific behavioral barriers are important when improving self-care behaviors in patients with hypertension. Perceived control over self-care behaviors is more important in vulnerable patients, such as the elderly and women.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Teoria Psicológica , Autocuidado/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Public Health ; 185: 243-245, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate possible differences in COVID-19-related anxiety based on previous theories in social psychology. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional online questionnaire delivered via the crowdworking platform. METHODS: Four-hundred and seven (120 men and 287 women) adults (aged >18 years) from the United Kingdom answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 'in light of the COVID-19 situation', followed by three health and three financial anxiety items. RESULTS: Our findings imply that women are more anxious than men, people are more anxious about others than about themselves, their anxiety about relatives is higher than about strangers, and anxiety about health is higher than about financial issues. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that these preliminary findings should be further investigated to help policymakers improve both their treatment of pandemic-related anxiety and their messages.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235436, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609765

RESUMO

Modern psychological theories postulate that individual differences in prejudice are determined by social and ideological attitudes instead of personality. For example, the dual-process motivational (DPM) model argues that personality does not directly associate with prejudice when controlling for the attitudinal variables that capture the authoritarian-conservatism motivation and the dominance motivation. Previous studies testing the DPM model largely relied on convenience samples and/or European samples, and have produced inconsistent results. Here we examined the extent to which anti-black prejudice was associated with the Big Five personality traits and social and ideological attitudes (authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, political party affiliation) in two large probability samples of the general population (N1 = 3,132; N2 = 2,483) from the American National Election Studies (ANES). We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the causal assumptions between the latent variables and used survey weights to generate estimates that were representative of the population. Different from prior theories, across both datasets we found that two personality traits, agreeableness and conscientiousness, were directly associated with anti-black prejudice when controlling for authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and political party affiliation. We also found that a substantial part of the associations between personality traits and anti-black prejudice were mediated through those social and ideological attitudes, which might serve as candidates for prejudice-reduction interventions in the real world.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Personalidade , Preconceito/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Política , Poder Psicológico , Teoria Psicológica , Predomínio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645866

RESUMO

The sorting of domestic waste is the most effective way to alleviate the problem of mass garbage accumulation around the villages of rural China. Farmers are the creators of rural domestic waste as well as the direct beneficiaries of effective waste management. However, few studies have been conducted on the psychological determinants of farmers' intentions to sort domestic waste. This paper applies planned behavior theory (TPB) and normative activation theory (NAM), to analyze the domestic waste sorting intentions of rural residents in Guanzhong, China. Based on the micro-data of 327 rural households in Guanzhong, structural equation models of the factors influencing farmers' domestic waste sorting intentions were estimated. The results demonstrate the following. (1) Farmers' attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and personal norms have significant positive direct impacts on their domestic waste sorting intentions, with personal norms having the greatest direct impact. (2) Subjective norms have no direct impact on farmers' domestic waste sorting intentions but do have an indirect impact on them through personal norms, behavioral attitudes, and perceived behavior control. This article increases scholarly understanding of the psychosocial determinants of the environmentally friendly behavioral intention to sort domestic waste. The study also provides academic and theoretical support to policy makers in implementing relevant policy recommendations.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Intenção , População Rural , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Atitude , China , Humanos , Motivação , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Int J Public Health ; 65(6): 713-714, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This piece of work proposes a way for the wise management of pseudoscience and conspiracy theories. METHODS: This work encompassed a review of relevant literature and synthesized the critical thoughts on the proper management of pseudoscience and conspiracy theories. RESULT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmingly challenges the competency of the digital generation. Consequently, public had been left stranded, helpless and anxious, especially during the peak season of the pandemic. However, this crisis creates a conducive environment for pseudoscience and conspiracy theories to proliferate. Pseudoscience and conspiracy theories negatively impacted the effort made to contain COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This piece of work, however, argues that although pseudoscience and conspiracy theories are real threats to conventional science, effort needs to be made to develop a sort of database to archive and curate them for downstream use.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Ciência/normas , Humanos
13.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(6-7): 328-333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608256

RESUMO

Mental illness is a prevalent and pressing public health problem among the Asian population, especially among young adults. This study examined the psychosocial predictors of the intention to seek counseling based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the effects of mental health conditions on the relative contributions of the TPB predictors in forming the intention among Asian young adults. The survey results in Singapore (n = 232) and Hong Kong (n = 998) revealed that attitudes, descriptive norms, and self-efficacy significantly predicted the intention to seek counseling in both Asian sites. In addition, the descriptive norms-intention association was stronger among those in a better mental health condition than among those with a worse mental health condition for both samples. The findings extend the literature on the TPB, as well as provide tailored strategies to promote counseling seeking among Asian young adults.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Singapura/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517165

RESUMO

Engaging in prosocial behavior is considered an effective way to increase happiness in a sustainable manner. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the conditions under which such a happiness effect occurs. From a person-activity congruence perspective, we proposed that an individual's eudaimonic orientation moderates the effect of prosocial behavior on happiness, whereas hedonic orientation does not. For this purpose, 128 participants were assigned to play a game in which half of them were explained the benevolence impact of playing the game (the benevolence condition), and the other half played the same game without this knowledge (the control condition). Participants' eudaimonic and hedonic orientations were assessed before the game, and their post-task happiness were measured after the game. The results showed that participants in the benevolence condition reported higher post-task positive affect than those in the control condition. Furthermore, this happiness effect was moderated by participants' eudaimonic orientation-participants with high eudaimonic orientation reaped greater benefits from benevolence, and their hedonic orientation did not moderate the relationship between benevolence and happiness. The importance of the effect of person-activity congruence on happiness is discussed, along with the implications of these findings for sustainably pursuing happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Orientação , Prazer/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade , Filosofia , Teoria Psicológica , Virtudes
15.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 208: 103081, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497740

RESUMO

Reasoning about epistemic possibilities - those based on knowledge - is fundamental in daily life. It is formalized in modal logics, of which there are infinitely many, based on the semantics of 'possible worlds'. An alternative psychological theory postulates that possibilities (and probabilities) in daily life are based on the human ability to construct mental models of finite alternatives, which can each be realized in an indefinite number of different ways. This account leads to three main predictions that diverge from normal modal logics. First, the assertion of an epistemic possibility, A, presupposes the possibility of not-A, in default of knowledge to the contrary. Second, reasoners condense multiple possibilities into one, contravening modal logics, but reducing the load on working memory, e.g.: When knowledge shows that this condensation would be inconsistent, reasoners resist it. Epistemic possibilities are akin to non-numerical probabilities, forming a scale that runs from impossible to certain. In contrast, epistemic necessities state a necessary condition for some other proposition, e.g.: "It is necessary that it rains tomorrow for the plants to survive." The article reports five experiments corroborating these predictions. Their results challenge current conceptions of human reasoning.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Lógica , Resolução de Problemas , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Teoria Psicológica
16.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(5): 250-257, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551984

RESUMO

This study investigated the relationships between received neighboring behavior (i.e., informal mutual assistance and information sharing among neighbors) and the general health of low-income residents in a mixed-income community. A conservation resource theory perspective was applied. Survey data were selected from a self-reported questionnaire of 247 low-income residents in a mixed-income community of China. A 2-wave panel design was used to test the hypothesized relationships among the studied variables, and the interval between both measurements was 5 weeks. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the proposed hypotheses. The findings showed that received neighboring behavior decreased individual work-family conflict, while showing no significant differences between the mediating effects of work-family conflict. This study has important implications for neighbor behavior and work-family conflict.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Nível de Saúde , Comportamento de Ajuda , Características de Residência , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e95, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-196910

RESUMO

While predicting the course of an epidemic is difficult, predicting the course of a pandemic from an emerging virus is even more so. The validity of most predictive models relies on numerous parameters, involving biological and social characteristics often unknown or highly uncertain. Data of the COVID-19 epidemics in China, Japan, South Korea and Italy were used to build up deterministic models without strong assumptions. These models were then applied to other countries to identify the closest scenarios in order to foresee their coming behaviour. The models enabled to predict situations that were confirmed little by little, proving that these tools can be efficient and useful for decision making in a quickly evolving operational context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e95, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381148

RESUMO

While predicting the course of an epidemic is difficult, predicting the course of a pandemic from an emerging virus is even more so. The validity of most predictive models relies on numerous parameters, involving biological and social characteristics often unknown or highly uncertain. Data of the COVID-19 epidemics in China, Japan, South Korea and Italy were used to build up deterministic models without strong assumptions. These models were then applied to other countries to identify the closest scenarios in order to foresee their coming behaviour. The models enabled to predict situations that were confirmed little by little, proving that these tools can be efficient and useful for decision making in a quickly evolving operational context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
19.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(1): 11-14, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441357

RESUMO

What is important to think about in surgical education and technical skills training? Technical skills training is grounded in social cognitive theory and the concepts of modeling and self-efficacy. Cognitive and nontechnical learning is critical to supplement the overall proficiency of the surgical learner in performing an operation. Technical learning is cemented by deliberate practice and there is benefit to productive struggle and failure. External cognitive load should be minimized to maximized operative skills advancement.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos
20.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S249-S251, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463288

RESUMO

This article describes an integrative social psychological framework within which human reactions to COVID-19 can be understood and predicted. It is argued that social representations of COVID-19 (and its mitigation strategies) must resonate among diverse communities, not be too threatening, and provide clear pathways for action and engagement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica , Reino Unido
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