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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443995

RESUMO

Medical and Health Organization (MHO) staff's emergency preparedness awareness and behaviors are essential variables that affect public health emergency response effectiveness. Based on the theory of psychological capital and the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study discusses the mechanism of the psychological characteristics of MHO staff on their emergency preparedness behavioral intention (EPBI). To verify the research model, we conducted a web-based questionnaire survey among 243 MHO staff from China and analyzed the data using the structural equation modeling software, AMOS 24.0 (IBM, New York, United States). The empirical results reveal that psychological capital significantly affected cognitive processes theorized by TPB. This study suggests that the positive psychological capital of MHO staff should be developed and managed to improve their EPBI.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil , Humanos , Intenção , Corpo Clínico , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360139

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread uncertainty, promoted psychological distress, and fueled interpersonal conflict. The concomitant upsurge in endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories is worrisome because they are associated with both non-adherence to public health guidelines and intention to commit violence. This study investigates associations between endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories, support for violent radicalization (VR) and psychological distress among young adults in Canada. We hypothesized that (a) endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories is positively associated with support for VR, and (b) psychological distress modifies the relationship between COVID-19 conspiracy theories and support for VR. A total of 6003 participants aged 18-35 years old residing in four major Canadian cities completed an online survey between 16 October 2020 and 17 November 2020, that included questions about endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories, support for VR, psychological distress, and socio-economic status. Endorsement of conspiracy theories was associated with support for VR in multivariate regression (ß = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.96). There is a significant interaction effect between endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories and psychological distress (ß = 0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.57). The magnitude of the association was stronger in individuals reporting high psychological distress (ß = 1.36, 95% CI 1.26-1.46) compared to those reporting low psychological distress (ß = 0.47, 95% CI 0.35-0.59). The association between endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories and VR represents a public health challenge requiring immediate attention. The interaction with psychological distress suggests that policy efforts should combine communication and psychological strategies to mitigate the legitimation of violence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Teoria Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explanation of smoking cessation intentions consists of gender differences. The purpose of this study is to adopt the extended TPB to discuss factors influencing the smoking cessation intentions of young adult volunteer soldiers and to further compare the respective factors for both genders. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected from 139 and 165 male and female volunteer soldiers who smoked, respectively. Research participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised items pertaining to the participants' demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, smoking cessation experiences, social environments, and TPB variables. RESULTS: Subjective norms (friends) are a positive key factor for young adult male (ß = 0.033, p = 0.012) and female (ß = 0.076, p < 0.001) volunteer soldiers' smoking cessation intentions, and perceived behavioural control is a key factor for male young (ß = 0.226, p = 0.040) adult volunteer soldiers' smoking cessation intention. The extended TPB accounted for 27.9% and 53.2% of the variance in the intention to quit smoking in the male and female volunteer soldiers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that smoking cessation strategies can reinforce gender-specific intervention strategies to assist young adult volunteer soldiers in smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Militares , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 120(6): 1720-1748, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242044

RESUMO

Teleology involves an appeal to function to explain why things are the way they are. Among scientists and philosophers, teleological explanations are widely accepted for human-made artifacts and biological traits, yet controversial for biological and nonbiological natural entities. Prior research shows a positive relationship between religiosity and acceptance of such controversial teleological explanations. Across three large online studies, we show that the relationship between religiosity and teleological acceptance cannot be explained by acceptance of objectively false explanations. Furthermore, we show that anthropomorphism and a belief in supernatural agents each independently predict teleological acceptance. In contrast, the tendency to inhibit intuitively appealing, yet incorrect responses to simple reasoning problems was associated with lower teleological acceptance. These results provide strong support for an intention-based account of teleology, and further contribute to the existing literature which situates teleological reasoning within a dual-process framework. Several avenues of future research are discussed, including the need to dissociate implicit and explicit measures of teleological belief, and the need for a greater focus on cross-cultural variation in teleological beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Religião e Psicologia , Religião e Ciência , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Intuição , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206762

RESUMO

Dance is proven to offer a myriad of physical, psychological, and social benefits. However, because dance has been frequently perceived as a feminine practice, there is a prevailing prejudice towards boys who dance, making it hard for them to engage in this physical activity. Social marketing has been presented as a promising framework to deal with different social problems, including prejudice, although its effectiveness is still difficult to establish. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), a quasi-experimental study involving a sample of 436 children and adolescents, composed of 51.38% boys and 48.62% girls was implemented to measure the effectiveness of a Social Marketing Intervention (SMI) in reducing prejudice towards dance and boys who dance, in particular, and in increasing their intentions to practice this physical activity. The study furthermore aimed to compare the influence of the SMI on participants of two different stages of child development to ascertain when it is most effective to intervene. The questionnaire was used to collect information and included items derived from relevant literature. To assess differences between children and adolescents before and after the SMI, the analysis relied on independent t-tests and paired t-tests. Results suggest positive effects of the SMI on some dimensions of the TPB.


Assuntos
Dança , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Teoria Psicológica , Marketing Social
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204932

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the predictive utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining pregnant women's physical activity (PA) intentions and behaviour and to scrutinise the role of past behaviour within this context. Pregnant women (n = 89) completed the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and newly developed TPB questionnaire on two separate occasions during their pregnancy. Analyses were carried out in relation to three scenarios. Firstly, when considering the original TPB, intention emerged as the strongest determinant of pregnant women's PA behaviour. Secondly, controlling for past behaviour attenuated the influence of intention and perceived behavioural control on behaviour, with neither of the original variables providing a unique influence. Finally, the addition of past behaviour added significantly to the prediction of intention with the model as a whole, explaining 85% of the variance in pregnant women's PA intention, and with past behaviour uniquely contributing 44.8% of the variance. Pregnancy physical activity profiling based on intention and behaviour status is subsequently introduced as a novel and practical framework. This provides healthcare professionals with the opportunity and structure to provide tailored advice and guidance to pregnant women, thereby facilitating engagement with PA throughout motherhood.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Gestantes , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Parto , Gravidez , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Waste Manag ; 131: 443-452, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256344

RESUMO

This study explores the key variables that influence overall waste minimization behaviors of consumers by augmenting the theory of planned behavior (TPB) with additional variables, including environmental concern, perceived consumer effectiveness, and perceived lack of facilities. Further, subjective norm is replaced by injunctive norm and descriptive norm. A questionnaire was administered to 455 consumers from North America, a region that faces acute waste production challenges. The findings suggest that perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) constitutes the most influential variable to predict zero waste behavior (ZWB) intentions (ß = 0.380 p < 0.001), even surpassing perceived behavioral control (PBC) (ß = 0.232 p < 0.001), PBC also directly influences ZWB (ß = 0.321 p < 0.001), and injunctive norms (ß = 0.171 p < 0.05) exert a slightly greater influence than attitudes (ß = 0.122 p < 0.001). Importantly, environmental concern is a meaningful antecedent to all belief variables (i.e., control belief [ß = 0.689 p < 0.001], normative belief [ß = 0.378 p < 0.001], and behavioral belief [ß = 0.367p < 0.001]) while exerting an indirect effect on ZWB (ß = 0.474 [0.299, 0.523]), especially via attitudes and PBC. Albeit perceived lack of facilities negatively impacts intentions (ß = -0.073 p < 0.05), it positively relates ZWB (ß = 0.189 p < 0.001) or worsens the effect of intentions on ZWB (ß = -0.033 [-0.102, 0.036]). The results deliver crucial insights to devise impactful strategies and formulate sound policies to nudge consumers' ZWB.


Assuntos
Intenção , Teoria Psicológica , Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e050129, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive overview of the evidence for factors derived from leading psychological theories of the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) that underpin psychological interventions is scarce . We aimed to systematically investigate the prospective evidence for factors derived from the behavioural, cognitive, diathesis-stress, psychodynamic and personality-based theories for the first onset of MDD. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane and Embase and published articles were systematically searched from inception up to August 2019. Prospective, longitudinal studies that investigated theory-derived factors before the first onset of MDD, established by a clinical interview, were included. Screening, selection and data extraction of articles were conducted by two screeners. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria were used to estimate level of confidence and risk of bias. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models and mixed-method subgroup analyses. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Effect size of a factor predicting the onset of MDD (OR, risk ratio or HR). RESULTS: From 42 133 original records published to August 2019, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were only available for the cognitive (n=6585) and personality-based (n=14 394) theories. Factors derived from cognitive theories and personality-based theories were related to increased odds of MDD onset (pooled OR=2.12, 95% CI: 1.12 to 4.00; pooled OR=2.43, 95% CI: 1.41 to 4.19). Publication bias and considerable heterogeneity were observed. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence that factors derived from cognitive and personality-based theories indeed predict the onset of MDD (ie, dysfunctional attitudes and negative emotionality). There were no studies that prospectively studied factors derived from psychodynamic theories and not enough studies to examine the robust evidence for behavioural and diathesis-stress theories. Overall, the prospective evidence for psychological factors of MDD is limited, and more research on the leading psychological theories is needed. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017073975.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Teoria Psicológica
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204332

RESUMO

Edible insects deserve increased attention as green food source in today's society and more restaurants embrace them to promote sustainable consumption behavior. This study was design to explore how consumers' behavioral intentions to use edible insect restaurants were formed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model. Furthermore, the study attempted to deepen TPB by including the moderating role of product knowledge. A total of 440 samples were collected by online survey in South Korea, and the results of structural equation modeling found that all of the hypotheses have been statistically accepted. Additionally, the results of multiple group analysis indicated that product knowledge moderated the link between subjective norm and behavioral intentions. On a basis of the analysis results, we provided significant theoretical implications and practical implications how to increase future sustainable food consumption intention.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , Animais , Intenção , Teoria Psicológica , República da Coreia , Restaurantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1391, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent or recover from a disease, the prescriptions for medications must be correct, and the patient must comply with the medication's instructions. Therefore, this study verified the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model to predict medication adherence among Korean adults and examined the role of optimistic or present bias in that model. METHODS: The participants were 357 Korean male and female adults whose ages ranged from 18 to 76 (M = 41.53, SD = 9.89). Their medication adherence was measured with the Morisky Green Levine Scale. The study examined TPB factors with modified items related to medication adherence and optimistic bias with items developed based on the concept and on previous studies. RESULTS: An alternative TPB model, including a direct path from attitude to behavior, a direct path from the perceived behavioral control to the behavior, and an insignificant path from behavioral intention to behavior, was validated for Korean adults' medication adherence. This model was found to be moderated by optimistic or present bias. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study should provide useful information for future research and for medical or health professionals who wish to improve the medication adherence of their patients.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , República da Coreia
11.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 528-536, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite considerable evidence that supports perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB) as risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI), far less is known about the direction of effects between these constructs in treatments for suicidal adolescents. The present study examined bidirectional relations between PB, TB, and adolescents' suicidal ideation (SI) during a 16-week randomized clinical trial. METHOD: 129 depressed and suicidal adolescents completed PB, TB, and SI measures at three time points: baseline (T1), mid-treatment (T2), and treatment completion (T3). Random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPM) examined within-subject direction of effects between interpersonal variables (PB & TB) and suicidal ideation (SI) in the first and second halves of treatment. RESULTS: Within-subjects, autoregressive paths indicated significant carryover in PB and SI. In the first half of treatment, a significant cross-lagged path indicated that T1 PB predicted change in T2 SI, and in the last half of treatment change in T2 SI predicted change in T3 PB. There were no significant auto-regressive or cross-lagged effects for TB. CONCLUSIONS: In the first half of treatment, baseline PB predicted fewer reductions in SI suggesting that PB initially moderated adolescents' response to treatment. However, in the last half of treatment, initial reductions in SI predicted subsequent reductions in PB suggesting that adolescents' initial response to treatment decreased their perceptions of burdening others. The clinical and treatment implications of these bidirectional findings are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Teoria Psicológica , Psicoterapia/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interpersonal theories of suicide suggest that the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) can be used to measure suicidal ideation, but few studies have focused on migrant people, a group with a high prevalence of suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to validate the psychometric properties of the INQ-15 and its prediction of suicidal ideation among migrant industrial workers in China. METHOD: A stratified multi-stage sample of 2023 industrial workers was recruited from 16 factories in Shenzhen, China. There were 1805 nonlocal workers, which we defined as migrant workers with a mean age of 32.50 ± 8.43 years old who were 67.3% male. The structure of the Chinese version of the INQ-15 and its correlation and predictive utility for suicidal ideation were examined through factor analysis, the Item Response Theory, the M2 test, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Different from studies among various samples in which a two-factor solution is identified, results within this sample indicated three factors: perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and social isolation. The model fit statistics of three-factor INQ were 0.075 for RMSEA, 0.945 for CFI, 0.932 for TLI, and 0.067 for SRMR. The model standard estimated factor loadings ranged from 0.366 to 0.869. The summed scores of INQ and perceived burdensomeness predicted suicidal ideation after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics such as age, gender, and income with AUC of 0.733 (95% CI: 0.712/0.754) and 0.786 (95% CI: 0.766/0.804). In the meantime, the comparison of the predictive ability between INQ total scores and PB scores was significant with p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The INQ has good psychometric properties and can be used to assess how migrant workers living in the Shenzhen perceive meeting interpersonal psychological needs and shows good predictive ability of suicidal ideation. Perceived burdensomeness appears to play a role in suicide and may be a point of intervention, yet the notable deviation from previous findings and the relative weakness of two of the other factors warrant further study.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Migrantes , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(8): 805-812, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 continues to spread globally, it is important to understand psychological factors that may influence compliance with social distancing. PURPOSE: The present study examined whether Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs were associated with social distancing, with a focus on exploring moderators of the intention-behavior relationship. METHODS: Using a longitudinal design, U.S. adults (N = 507) self-reported TPB constructs and social distancing behavior at baseline and 3 months later. Participants were from 48 U.S. States and the District of Columbia and were on average 50.39 years old (SD = 15.32, range = 18-80). The majority were Non-Hispanic White (71.6%), had a bachelor's degree or higher (55.3%), and resided in suburban areas (55.8%). RESULTS: While positive attitudes toward social distancing increased over time (p = .002), subjective norms weakened (p < .001) and perceived behavioral control (PBC) remained stable (p = .22). Interestingly, despite an increase in intentions from baseline to follow-up (p < .001), there was a significant decrease in social distancing behavior over time (p < .001). Consistent with the TPB, baseline attitudes (p < .001), subjective norms (p < .001), and PBC (p < .001) for social distancing were all associated with baseline intentions to social distance. In turn, baseline intentions were significantly associated with social distancing behavior at follow-up (p < .001). Younger adults (p < .001) and non-White participants (p = .002) displayed a greater intention-behavior gap relative to older and White participants. In contrast, participants with more stable intentions over time displayed a stronger intention-behavior relationship (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Targeting individuals' attitudes, norms, and PBC may effectively promote protective behaviors intended to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and similar viral outbreaks. Future research should examine effective strategies for translating social distancing intentions into actions.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Intenção , Distanciamento Físico , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(9): 1840-1852, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174104

RESUMO

The current study tested the effects of an intervention based on the trans-contextual model (TCM) on secondary school PE students' sport injury prevention behavior and on theory-based motivational and social cognition mediators. Participants were PE students (N = 1168; Mage  = 13.322 ± 1.045, range = 12-16; female = 51.721%) who participated in a 3-month cluster-randomized controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to a treatment group, in which PE teachers received training to be more supportive of psychological needs in teaching sport injury prevention, or a control group, in which PE teachers received no training. Participants completed survey measures of TCM variables and self-reported sport injury prevention behavior at baseline and at 3-month post-intervention follow-up. The proposed TCM model exhibited adequate fit with the data, χ2  = 143.080 (df = 19), CFI = 0.956, TLI = 0.916, RMSEA = 0.078 (90% CI = 0.066-0.090), and SRMR = 0.058. We found positive, statistically significant direct intervention effects on changes in perceived psychological need support (ß = 0.064, p = 0.020). We also found positive, significant direct (ß = 0.086-0.599, p < 0.001) and indirect (ß = 0.002-0.027, p = 0.020-0.032) intervention effects on changes in TCM variables and behaviors to prevent sport injuries. Our findings support the TCM as a useful framework for building an intervention for promoting sport injury prevention behaviors among secondary school students.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Teoria Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Capacitação de Professores/métodos
15.
Appetite ; 166: 105467, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133978

RESUMO

This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature investigating the psychosocial factors associated with intentions to reduce red and processed meat consumption, given the significant negative impact of meat on public health and in contributing to climate change. A framework combining the Theory of Planned Behaviour with meat-eater identity and the Transtheoretical Model was used to explain intention to reduce red and processed meat consumption across participant samples in the UK and Italy, to identify the factors involved in encouraging behaviour change whilst also considering differences in culinary practices. University students in the UK (n = 320) and Italy (n = 304) completed an online survey including measures from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Transtheoretical Model, as well as a measure of meat-eater identity. The results showed differences in the relative impact of subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and meat-eater identity, on behavioural intention across the different stages of change and across the two countries. On the other hand, attitude remained a stable predictor across the different stages of change and in both countries. The results are discussed in relation to existing literature, with the goal of increasing understanding of how reduced meat consumption might be encouraged across different populations.


Assuntos
Intenção , Modelo Transteórico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Carne , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072012

RESUMO

Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), augmented by the concept of self-concordance (derived from self-determination theory, SDT), we conducted a study to identify the key determinants of physical activity in older adults. We applied structural equation modeling of telephone survey data from a random sample of adults aged 65 years and older living in Germany (N = 865). Relations of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) with intention strength and self-concordance of intention to be physically active were tested. Habit strength was analyzed as a moderator. Data analysis showed this model to be well-suited for explaining the intention to be physically active-especially for people with a weak habit. The influence of TPB components on intention would have been underestimated if we had investigated intention strength only, without considering the self-concordance of intention. While attitude and PBC had positive relations with a strong and self-determined intention, the subjective norm showed no relation with intention strength but, rather, with non-self-determined regulation forms. We conclude that the combined model provides a better theoretical foundation from which to explain physical activity intentions than does just one of the theories.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Intenção , Idoso , Atitude , Alemanha , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 496-503, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with psychotic disorders are at an increased risk of suicide, but there is little understanding of suicidal ideation (SI) in this population. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide posits that perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belonginess (TB) contribute to SI. To our knowledge there are no studies using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess these interpersonal risk factors in a sample of individuals with psychotic disorders. This study investigated the validity and variability of PB and TB, and whether SI, EMA-measured psychotic symptoms, mood, and social context relate to PB and TB. METHOD: Ninety-six participants with a psychotic disorder, including mood disorders with psychosis completed in-lab assessments of current SI, and then EMA surveys on a smartphone 3×/day for 10 days, answering questions about burdensomeness, belongingness, symptoms (i.e., hearing voices, experiencing suspiciousness), mood (i.e., happy, sad), and social context. RESULTS: Burdensomeness varied within-participants less than belongingness (t (95) = -3.74, p=< .001). Participants with SI had higher mean burdensomeness ratings (t (94) = -2.70, p < .01) and lower mean belongingness ratings (t (94) = 3.68, p < .001) than did participants without SI. Being with others, greater psychotic experiences, less happiness, and greater sadness related to greater burdensomeness. SI status, being alone, greater psychotic experiences, less happiness, and greater sadness related to less belongingness. CONCLUSIONS: This study examined the real-time influences of SI and psychotic symptoms on burdensomeness and belongingness. Hearing voices, suspiciousness, mood, and SI are related to interpersonal suicide-related risk factors. In this sample, social context had a differential effect on burdensomeness and belongingness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Suicídio , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida
19.
Evol Psychol ; 19(2): 14747049211021524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112018

RESUMO

Prior research has indicated that disease threat and disgust are associated with harsher moral condemnation. We investigated the role of a specific, highly salient health concern, namely the spread of the coronavirus, and associated COVID-19 disease, on moral disapproval. We hypothesized that individuals who report greater subjective worry about COVID-19 would be more sensitive to moral transgressions. Across three studies (N = 913), conducted March-May 2020 as the pandemic started to unfold in the United States, we found that individuals who were worried about contracting the infectious disease made harsher moral judgments than those who were relatively less worried. This effect was not restricted to transgressions involving purity, but extended to transgressions involving harm, fairness, authority, and loyalty, and remained when controlling for political orientation. Furthermore, for Studies 1 and 2 the effect also was robust when taking into account the contamination subscale of the Disgust Scale-Revised. These findings add to the growing literature that concrete threats to health can play a role in abstract moral considerations, supporting the notion that judgments of wrongdoing are not based on rational thought alone.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19 , Asco , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 126, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the need for interventions that effectively involve men and boys to promote family planning behaviours. Evidence suggests that the most effective behavioural interventions in this field are founded on theoretical principles of behaviour change and gender equality. However, there are few evidence syntheses on how theoretical approaches are applied in this context that might guide best practice in intervention development. This review addresses this gap by examining the application and reporting of theories of behaviour change used by family planning interventions involving men and boys. METHODS: We adopted a systematic rapid review approach, scoping findings of a previously reported evidence and gap map of intervention reviews (covering 2007-2018) and supplementing this with searches of academic databases and grey literature for reviews and additional studies published between 2007 and 2020. Studies were eligible for inclusion if their title, abstract or keywords referred to a psychosocial or behavioural intervention targeting family planning behaviours, involved males in delivery, and detailed their use of an intervention theory of change. RESULTS: From 941 non-duplicate records identified, 63 were eligible for inclusion. Most records referenced interventions taking place in low- and middle-income countries (65%). There was a range of intervention theories of change reported, typically targeting individual-level behaviours and sometimes comprising several behaviour change theories and strategies. The most commonly identified theories were Social Cognitive Theory, Social Learning Theory, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, and the Information-Motivation-Behaviour Skills (IMB) Model. A minority of records explicitly detailed gender-informed elements within their theory of change. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the range of prevailing theories of change used for family planning interventions involving men and boys, and the considerable variability in their reporting. Programmers and policy makers would be best served by unified reporting and testing of intervention theories of change. There remains a need for consistent reporting of these to better understand how complex interventions that seek to involve men and boys in family planning may lead to behaviour change.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos , Masculino
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