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1.
Waste Manag ; 98: 151-159, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446255

RESUMO

Approximately one quarter of the food supplied in the world is wasted across the food supply chain. Almost half of this amount is related to household food waste, which results from mis-management of consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the consumer food management behavior in order to reduce food waste. Survey data were gathered among 405 Iranian respondents who were responsible for food preparation in their households and were aged from 15 to 64 years old, by using an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB). In addition to measuring the constructs of planned behavior theory, the feeling of guilt construct was incorporated to the model. The extended model was derived and examined through structural equation modeling (SEM). Results showed the usefulness of using the extended model of planned behavior in predicting intention to reduce food waste and food consumption management. Moreover, attitude, perceived behavioral control, feeling of guilt, subjective norm and intention of not wasting food were the drivers of managing food consumption and avoiding food waste. Besides, results showed that intention to reduce household food waste is predictable by attitude, subjective norm and feelings of guilt constructs. At the end, implications of the study for changing consumers' food management behavior are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos , Atitude , Intenção , Irã (Geográfico) , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 13(1): 36-44, Ene-Jul. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006737

RESUMO

La investigación tuvo como objetivo, determinar los rasgos y dimensiones de personalidad dominantes en estudiantes de diferentes carreras pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional Chimborazo (UNACH). Se utilizó una metodología cuantitativa descriptiva, el análisis de datos fue con el paquete de datos estadísticos SPSS versión 23IBM. El instrumento empleado para medir las variables fue el Cuestionario 16PF-5 de Cattell (1993), con el cual se obtuvieron los rasgos y dimensiones globales de personalidad. Para el análisis se prefirió la teoría de los rasgos de la personalidad, incorporando las dimensiones globales: neuroticismo, apertura, afabilidad, extroversión y rectitud. Dentro de los resultados del estudio, se desprende que existen ciertos rasgos dominantes en la muestra como son la inestabilidad emocional y el rasgo de despreocu-pado. En cuanto a las dimensiones, el principal hallazgo fue la ansiedad alta. Estos tres aspectos de la individualidad que se destacan en el estudio por sus características pueden influir en el desempeño integral de los estudiantes.


This research aimed to determine the dominant personality traits and dimensions in students of different schools belonging to the National University Chimborazo (UNACH). A descriptive quantitative methodology was used. The data analysis was carried out using the statistical program SPSS version 23IBM. The Questionnaire 16PF-5 of Cattell (1993) was the instrument applied to measure the variables in order to get the global personality traits and dimensions. The theory of personality traits was preferred for analysis, incorporating the global dimensions: neuroticism, openness, affability, extroversion and rectitude. The results showed that there were certain dominant features in the sample such as: emotional instability and carefree trait. The main finding was high anxiety talking about the dimensions. These three aspects of individuality that are highlighted in the study by their characteristics may influence the overall performance of students.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Personalidade , Testes de Personalidade , Teoria Psicológica , Fenômenos Psicológicos , Disciplinas e Atividades Comportamentais
3.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 49, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adoption of low back pain guidelines is a well-documented problem. Information to guide the development of behaviour change interventions is needed. The review is the first to synthesise the evidence regarding physicians' barriers to providing evidence-based care for LBP using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Using the TDF allowed us to map specific physician-reported barriers to individual guideline recommendations. Therefore, the results can provide direction to future interventions to increase physician compliance with evidence-based care for LBP. METHODS: We searched the literature for qualitative studies from inception to July 2018. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility and extracted data on study characteristics, reporting quality, and methodological rigour. Guided by a TDF coding manual, two reviewers independently coded the individual study themes using NVivo. After coding, we assessed confidence in the findings using the GRADE-CERQual approach. RESULTS: Fourteen studies (n = 318 physicians) from 9 countries reported barriers to adopting one of the 5 guideline-recommended behaviours regarding in-clinic diagnostic assessments (9 studies, n = 198), advice on activity (7 studies, n = 194), medication prescription (2 studies, n = 39), imaging referrals (11 studies, n = 270), and treatment/specialist referrals (8 studies, n = 193). Imaging behaviour is influenced by (1) social influence-from patients requesting an image or wanting a diagnosis (n = 252, 9 studies), (2) beliefs about consequence-physicians believe that providing a scan will reassure patients (n = 175, 6 studies), and (3) environmental context and resources-physicians report a lack of time to have a conversation with patients about diagnosis and why a scan is not needed (n = 179, 6 studies). Referrals to conservative care is influenced by environmental context and resources-long wait-times or a complete lack of access to adjunct services prevented physicians from referring to these services (n = 82, 5 studies). CONCLUSIONS: Physicians face numerous barriers to providing evidence-based LBP care which we have mapped onto 7 TDF domains. Two to five TDF domains are involved in determining physician behaviour, confirming the complexity of this problem. This is important as interventions often target a single domain where multiple domains are involved. Interventions designed to address all the domains involved while considering context-specific factors may prove most successful in increasing guideline adoption. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2017, CRD42017070703.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta
4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(4): 323-343, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044675

RESUMO

Selection, Use, and Interpretation of German Intelligence Tests for Children and Adolescents Based on CHC-theory: Update, Extension, and Critical Discussion In order to facilitate planning and interpretation of cognitive assessments for children and adolescents a CHC broad and narrow ability classification of nine widespread German tests of intelligence is presented. The Cattel-Horn-Carroll-theory of intelligence is an influential model in the field of intelligence testing. Its structure and basic premises are presented. On this basis, intelligence testing can be planned and interpreted systematically in a common theoretical framework. Practical implications and suggestions for diagnosticians (e. g. cross-battery-assessment) are pointed out. Finally, possibilities and limitations of CHC-theory in the field of intelligence testing are discussed.


Assuntos
Testes de Inteligência , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia da Criança/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Inteligência , Psicometria
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 519, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is deemed to be the fourth leading cause for premature death. Nevertheless, only a minority of children and adolescents in Germany fulfil the guideline of the World Health Organization of at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day. Children and adolescents with a lower socioeconomic background and especially girls are regarded as a high-risk group in terms of physical inactivity. Aim of this study is to examine how a theory-based physical education intervention programme supporting students' autonomy, competence and relatedness affects physical activity both during these lessons and in leisure time. Based on the self-determination theory and the social cognitive theory, the extent to which autonomy, competence, relatedness, social support and self-efficacy in girls mediate the effect of the intervention programme on their physical activity will be examined. Moreover, the potential moderating role of socioeconomic status, environmental factors, teacher characteristics and BMI will be tested. METHODS: CReActivity is a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with a follow-up period of three months after the end of the intervention programme. A total of 600 sixth grade girls in lower secondary schools in Bavaria, Germany will be proactively recruited. The intervention is carried out by the physical education teachers of the participating classes for five months. Primary outcome is the girls' physical activity measured by accelerometers and systematic observations. DISCUSSION: We expect to provide an intervention programme that can contribute to the increase of physical activity levels in girls and offer insights into the mechanisms of physical activity behaviour change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00015723 (date of registration: 2018/10/22 retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Autonomia Pessoal , Teoria Psicológica , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 24(2): 322-337, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968721

RESUMO

Working with young people who present with diverse gender identifications and their families requires consideration and acknowledgement of a range of contexts (including relationship, family, social and cultural) as well as the influences of prior experience and language. Family members often present with diverse understandings and hopes from their referral to the Gender Identity Development Service and look to us to meet these. This article considers the contribution of Cronen and Pearce who introduced the theory of the co-ordinated management of meaning (CMM). We focus on their ideas about communication, the complexities of communication, meaning, context and multiple perspectives. This article relates to our practice as well as considers useful ways to work with families and young people, within a highly contested field. Clinical examples are used to illustrate how we have made use of the theory and models of CMM to facilitate engagement, build therapeutic rapport, facilitate understanding and support those we see in a way which takes into account the many contexts of their lives.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Família , Disforia de Gênero/terapia , Identidade de Gênero , Teoria Psicológica , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Terapia Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido
8.
J Nurs Educ ; 58(4): 225-228, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study purpose was to explore the experiences of nurse educators when teaching undergraduate nursing students through the lens of transformative learning theory. METHOD: This qualitative case study used interviews of 11 nurse educators who employ teaching strategies developed from the perspective of transformative learning theory. Multiple data sources were added to the study to enhance credibility of the findings: two program administrator interviews, qualitative surveys for 97 nursing students, five classroom observations, and records review. RESULTS: Using inductive analysis, the data collection revealed five prominent themes: Stepping Off the Stage, Teaching Outside the Box, Finding the Balance, Who's in Charge?, and Seeing Is Believing. CONCLUSION: The five themes provided insights into a previously unknown phenomenon in nursing education. The use of transformative learning strategies by this group of nurse educators illustrated innovative approaches to enhance teaching effectiveness, optimize student learning outcomes, and achieve the level of transformation nursing graduates need to successfully perform in the complex health care environment. [J Nurs Educ. 2019;58(4):225-228.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Ensino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 367, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent population-based surveys have reported that large majorities of children in France, Europe and in the US are not complying with international physical activity (PA) guidelines. There is, therefore, a need to find programs that will improve children's PA habits from an early age. Theory-based interventions that include school, family, and community involvement have the potential to generate a considerable increase in the PA level of children. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most widely tested models of the factors influencing health-related behaviors. The Great Live and Move Challenge (GLMC) is an extended TPB-based intervention designed to promote PA in French primary school children aged 7-11 years. The objective of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the GLMC on the PA level of children. METHODS: This is a two-year cluster-randomized controlled trial comparing an intervention group to a control group, randomized into clusters (community of communes) and stratified by department (Hérault, Gard, Aude) and residential environment (urban, rural). The goal is to recruit 4000 children. The GLMC involves children and their parents, and multiple local grassroots partners, such as school teachers, municipal officials and policy stakeholders. The intervention will be delivered over 3.5 months per year for a two-year period. Pre- and post-intervention, children and parents will be asked to fulfill a questionnaire concerning current PA level, TPB variables (i.e., intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control) and other psychosocial variables (e.g., perceptions of activity opportunities). A subsample of 400 children will be proposed to wear an accelerometer (i.e., the Actigraph GT3X+). The primary hypothesis is that the GLMC intervention will increase the proportion of children achieving the World Health Organization's recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous PA per day by 15%. DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a multilevel, theory-based PA program and potentially provide valuable information for schools and public health officers looking for innovative PA programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN:61116221 , 19/06/2018.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pais , Teoria Psicológica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Características de Residência , População Rural , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 434, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of the premalignant forms cervical cancer through screening in the target age group is one of the effective strategies in the prevention of the disease. Nevertheless, the cervical cancer screening service use remains considerably low in Ethiopia. Indeed; promoting screening behaviors requires understanding the factors influencing women's motivation towards the service. Our study has explored the psycho-graphic factors associated to intention to use cervical cancer screening among women visiting maternal and child health services in Southern Ethiopia, 2017. METHODS: Institution based cross-sectional study was used employing 422 women's age between 30 and 49 years old. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on interviewer-administered basis. All assumptions of theory of planned behavior (TPB) were considered to measure intention, attitude, perceived social pressure and perceived ability to control circumstances against cervical cancer screening. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version 21.0. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to identify factors associated to intention to use cervical cancer screening. P-value less than 5% was considered to indicate significant association. RESULT: Four hundred and two (95%) of the respondents completed the interview. Knowledge of the disease signs, symptoms, risk factors and prevention methods was 162(41.4%). Knowledge about the disease and past screening experience were positively associated with intention to use cervical cancer screening (ß = 0.145, 95% CI = [0.047, 0.170]) and (ß = 0.098, 95% CI = [0.093, 1.001]) respectively. Further; standardized regression coefficient showed that all dimensions of TPB were positively associated to intention to use the services with perceived behavioral control (ß = 0.297, 95% CI = [0.172, 0.343]), perceived social pressure (ß = 0.248, 95% CI = [0.131, 0.301]) and attitude towards screening (ß = 0.110, CI = [0.018, 0.158]). CONCLUSION: Overall; the intention to use cervical cancer screening was a function of attitude, perceived social pressure and perceived behavioral control confirming the hypothesis of the study. None of the socio-demographic variables were associated to intention. Health behavior change interventions should focus on increasing knowledge and empowering women that enable them to evaluate their control beliefs and develop ability against social norms and circumstances that compete with the use of cervical cancer screening services.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia
11.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E18, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006416

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate associations of health promotion and prevention regulatory foci with sports practice, and examined the Selection, Optimization and Compensation (SOC) process behind the positive relationship between health promotion focus and sports practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 513 French volunteer sports participants aged from 18 to 82. Participants completed an online self-report survey measuring health regulatory foci, SOC strategy, Amount of Sports Practice (ASP), health condition, and educational level. Path analysis main results (χ2 = 16.64; df = 5; p < .01; RMSEA = 0.067; CFI = 0.98; R2 = .24) demonstrated that ASP was positively related with health promotion focus (ß = .13, p < .01), SOC strategy (ß = .28, p < .001) and negatively related with health prevention focus (ß = -.20, p < .001). SOC strategy was positively related with health promotion focus (ß = .39, p < .001) and bootstrapping analyses revealed that this strategy partially mediated the positive relationship between health promotion focus and ASP, 95% CI [.13, .29]. Finally, additional analyses showed that it was specifically the elective selection, optimization and compensation sub-components of SOC strategy which played mediating roles in this link, [.13, .29] < 95% CI < [.13, .29]. For the first time in the literature, these results evidenced direct links between health regulatory foci and sports practice, and a mechanistic pathway between health promotion focus and sports practice. The theoretical and applied implications of these results for sports promotion are discussed.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 41(2): 82-95, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027456

RESUMO

Five experiments that examined Wegner's theory of ironic processes of mental control in reactive motor performance under pressure are presented for the first time. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, the authors conducted specific examinations of the incidence of an ironic error using a reactive motor task. In Experiments 3 and 5, they provided the first tests of whether task instruction moderates the incidence of ironic errors. The task required participants to react to a series of three primary-colored balls as they rolled down a chute under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Measures of anxiety, heart rate, heart-rate variability, and muscle activity confirmed the effectiveness of the anxiety manipulation. Experiments 1, 2, and 4 revealed that anxiety increased the number of ironic errors. In Experiments 3 and 5, the authors provided the first evidence that instructional interventions can reduce the incidence of anxiety-induced ironic performance errors in reactive motor tasks.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adolescente , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pap. psicol ; 40(1): 31-38, ene.-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181996

RESUMO

Se propone de forma tentativa una concepción de la Psicología que pretende desplazar las cuestiones epistemológicas (qué clase de ciencia es, de serlo) y las teóricas y metodológicas (cuál debe ser su objeto y su método) adoptando una perspectiva basada en la genealogía de cuño foucaultiano y en la antropología de la ciencia de autores como Bruno Latour. Para ello, se marca distancia con la llamada Psicología crítica y se argumenta que la Psicología importa más por lo que hace que por lo que dice (aunque decir es también hacer) y que funciona ante todo como una práctica de subjetivación. Se termina revisando brevemente algunos trabajos que intentan mostrar ese funcionamiento en casos concretos


A conception of psychology is tentatively proposed which aims to displace epistemological questions (what kind of science it is, if it is a science) and theoretical and methodological questions (what its object and its method should be). Instead, a perspective is adopted that is based on Foucauldian genealogy and the anthropology of science by authors such as Bruno Latour. An attempt is made to create distance with respect to so-called critical psychology. It is argued that psychology matters more for what it does than for what it says (although saying is also doing) and that it functions mainly as a practice of subjectivation. This paper ends by briefly reviewing a number of works that attempt to show this functioning in specific cases


Assuntos
Humanos , Etnopsicologia/métodos , Etnopsicologia/tendências , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia Educacional/organização & administração , Genealogia e Heráldica , Conhecimento , Segurança do Paciente/normas
14.
Theor Med Bioeth ; 40(1): 1-19, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826976

RESUMO

Jerome Wakefield has argued that a disorder is a harmful dysfunction. This paper develops how Wakefield should construe harmful in his harmful dysfunction analysis (HDA). Recently, Neil Feit has argued that classic puzzles involved in analyzing harm render Wakefield's HDA better off without harm as a necessary condition. Whether or not one conceives of harm as comparative or non-comparative, the concern is that the HDA forces people to classify as mere dysfunction what they know to be a disorder. For instance, one can conceive of cases where simultaneous disorders prevent each other from being, in any traditional sense, actually harmful; in such cases, according to the HDA, neither would be a disorder. I argue that the sense of harm that Wakefield should employ in the HDA is dispositional, similar to the sense of harm used when describing a vile of poison: "Be careful! That's poison. It's harmful." I call this harm in the damage sense. Using this sense of harm enables the HDA to avoid Feit's arguments, and thus it should be preferred to other senses when analyzing harmful dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/classificação , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica
15.
J Athl Train ; 54(3): 245-254, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829537

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Athletic trainers (ATs) have indicated a desire to better understand the motivations of athletes during rehabilitation. Self-determination theory offers an ideal lens for conceptualizing the antecedents, mediators, and consequences of motivated behavior. OBJECTIVE: To explore athletes' perceptions of ATs' influence on their basic psychological needs as well as their motivation during sport injury rehabilitation. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I universities in the northwestern and southeastern United States. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 injured and previously injured athletes (7 women, 3 men; mean age = 20.9 ± 2.0 years) active in a variety of sports. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Participants completed semistructured interviews, which were transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods. Trustworthiness techniques (eg, bracketing interview, discussion of biases, member checking, external auditor) were used throughout the process. RESULTS: Four domains were constructed: (a) athletes' concerns about injury and rehabilitation, (b) ATs' feedback and athletes' perceptions of competence, (c) a person-centered approach from ATs and athletes' perceptions of autonomy, and (d) a connection between ATs' and athletes' perceptions of relatedness. Athletes' experiences were largely influenced by the degree to which they perceived that ATs satisfied their 3 basic psychological needs, which, in turn, was determined by the presence or absence of particular AT behaviors, such as providing encouragement (competence), soliciting input (autonomy), and building rapport (relatedness). Furthermore, the degree to which they perceived these basic psychological needs were fulfilled (or thwarted) affected their overall motivation during sport injury rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Self-determination theory is a promising framework for ATs to consider when addressing motivational challenges among injured athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas , Motivação , Reabilitação/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Anal Psychol ; 64(2): 123-146, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864206

RESUMO

The paper consists of the opening chapter of Andrew Samuels' book The Political Psyche, published in 1993, together with a retrospective introduction. In the chapter, the author discussed the possibilities and limitations of applying depth psychological thinking to social and political problematics. He situates the attempt to make such applications within a wider movement to refresh and reform Western political endeavours. He terms this wider project 'resacralization'. The author cautions against psychological reductionism and a simplistic approach to market-based capitalism, calling for a transformation of the latter to the degree possible. He links sociopolitical criticism and psychological writings on numinous experience, thereby connecting the worlds of politics and depth psychology without losing their separate and unique qualities.


Assuntos
Política , Psicanálise , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos
17.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(2): 434-451, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887445

RESUMO

Two proposals have been put forward to account conjointly for the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect and the spatial-positional association of response codes (SPoARC) effect: the working memory account and the dual account. Here, on the basis of experimental and theoretical knowledge acquired in the field of expert memory, we propose an alternative account-named the expertise account-that explains both effects through the acquisition and use of knowledge structures (a generalization of "chunks," "retrieval structures," and "templates"), which have been used extensively in expert memory theory. These knowledge structures can be of two types: nonslotted or slotted schemas. We suggest that the SNARC effect can be explained via the use of nonslotted schemas, and the SPoARC effect via slotted schemas. We conclude our article by presenting the broader implications of our framework for working memory in general, when considering knowledge structures.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Generalização (Psicologia) , Conceitos Matemáticos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Espacial , Aprendizagem Verbal , Cognição , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica
18.
Prim Dent J ; 7(4): 24-29, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835663

RESUMO

While pain has traditionally been understood within a medical model that equates pain to tissue damage or disease, this understanding is not consistent with everyday observations of pain or with clinical examples of persistent pain where there is often very little correlation between pain experienced and physical findings.
This article considers psychological and multidimensional theories of pain, which are described within the historical context within which they were developed, including behavioural, cognitive, contextual and functional theories.
Research into the multifactorial nature of persistent pain has tended to focus on mechanisms of pain development and maintenance or on the function of pain. psychological approaches, which have focused on mechanism traditionally use disability, mood and quality of life measures to assess outcome, claiming little or no impact on pain intensity itself. By contrast, functional approaches include an explicit goal of reducing pain intensity, which is therefore measured as a key treatment outcome.
Strong evidence exists from a range of sources of the important contribution of psychological and social factors to the experience of pain. However, evidence is still lacking about the specific mechanisms of change that are targeted by biopsychosocial interventions and about what treatment approach is likely to work best for whom.


Assuntos
Dor , Teoria Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Dor/psicologia
19.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(1): 248-255, 2019 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the concept of Meaningful Learning, according to David Ausubel's Theory. METHOD: Integrative review using the Meleis's Theoretical Analysis model. RESULTS: The following were identified as antecedents: Previous students' knowledge, potentially meaningful instructional material and student's willingness to learn. The attributes found were: Existence of previous knowledge that allows the connection with the new knowledge; interaction of previous and new knowledge in the cognitive structure; expansion of the cognitive structure through the incorporation of prior knowledge with the new. The consequent ones found: Existence of new knowledge in the cognitive structure of the student, that generate sense and meaning in the cognitive system of the student and that confers importance to him according to the utility for his daily life. CONCLUSION: The conceptual analysis carried out contributed to the establishment of a more complete definition for Meaningful Learning, which can be appreciated in teaching and research, regardless of the area of activity.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Ensino/psicologia , Formação de Conceito , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica , Teoria Social , Ensino/tendências
20.
Behav Processes ; 162: 197-204, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831224

RESUMO

Disequilibrium theory is an approach to reinforcement that reconsiders the putative response strengthening prowess of stimuli. This disequilibrium approach-the pinnacle of the response deprivation hypothesis-reliably predicts changes in behavior without reference to a response strengthening process. While the strengthening model of reinforcement has received renewed and critical appraisal in behavior analysis, its appraisers have not fully considered the role that a disequilibrium conceptualization might play in their respective theories of reinforcement. In this essay we celebrate William Timberlake's legacy by elucidating the assumptions of disequilibrium theory and by exploring its predictions and implications within behavior analysis. We treat the disequilibrium approach to reinforcement as the theory of reinforcement in behavior analysis, and in doing so, we distinguish disequilibrium conditions from motivating operations and explore future directions regarding the potential to predict generalization and maintenance outcomes. The disequilibrium approach to reinforcement is not a mere deprivation operation used for the purposes of establishing a stimulus as a "reinforcer," as it is a general theory of behavior.


Assuntos
Reforço (Psicologia) , Ciências do Comportamento , Humanos , Motivação , Teoria Psicológica
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