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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6928-6935, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152111

RESUMO

Human social interaction crucially relies on the ability to infer what other people think. Referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM), this ability has long been argued to emerge around 4 y of age when children start passing traditional verbal ToM tasks. This developmental dogma has recently been questioned by nonverbal ToM tasks passed by infants younger than 2 y of age. How do young children solve these tests, and what is their relation to the later-developing verbal ToM reasoning? Are there two different systems for nonverbal and verbal ToM, and when is the developmental onset of mature adult ToM? To address these questions, we related markers of cortical brain structure (i.e., cortical thickness and surface area) of 3- and 4-y-old children to their performance in novel nonverbal and traditional verbal TM tasks. We showed that verbal ToM reasoning was supported by cortical surface area and thickness of the precuneus and temporoparietal junction, classically involved in ToM in adults. Nonverbal ToM reasoning, in contrast, was supported by the cortical structure of a distinct and independent neural network including the supramarginal gyrus also involved in emotional and visual perspective taking, action observation, and social attention or encoding biases. This neural dissociation suggests two systems for reasoning about others' minds-mature verbal ToM that emerges around 4 y of age, whereas nonverbal ToM tasks rely on different earlier-developing possibly social-cognitive processes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino
2.
Dev Sci ; 23(2): e12876, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162859

RESUMO

The mechanisms that support infant action processing are thought to be involved in the development of later social cognition. While a growing body of research demonstrates longitudinal links between action processing and explicit theory of mind (TOM), it remains unclear why this link emerges in some measures of action encoding and not others. In this paper, we recruit neural measures as a unique lens into which aspects of human infant action processing (i.e., action encoding and action execution; age 7 months) are related to preschool TOM (age 3 years; n = 31). We test whether individual differences in recruiting the sensorimotor system or attention processes during action encoding predict individual differences in TOM. Results indicate that reduced occipital alpha during action encoding predicts TOM at age 3. This finding converges with behavioral work and suggests that attentional processes involved in action encoding may support TOM. We also test whether neural processing during action execution draws on the proto-substrates of effortful control (EC). Results indicate that frontal alpha oscillatory activity during action execution predicted EC at age 3-providing strong novel evidence that infant brain activity is longitudinally linked to EC. Further, we demonstrate that EC mediates the link between the frontal alpha response and TOM. This indirect effect is specific in terms of direction, neural response, and behavior. Together, these findings converge with behavioral research and demonstrate that domain general processes show strong links to early infant action processing and TOM.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Masculino , Comportamento Social
3.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(1): 108-113, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697138

RESUMO

Social anxiety interferes with accurate perceptions of others' thoughts and intentions, yet studies examining the association between social anxiety and social cognition have resulted in mixed findings. We examined the association between dimensional levels of social anxiety and assessments of lower- and higher-level social cognition. In Study 1 (n = 1485), we found that social anxiety was negatively related to accuracy in an assessment of higher-level social cognition (i.e., theory of mind) across all stimuli. However, no consistent association was found between social anxiety and accuracy in an assessment of lower-level social cognition (i.e., emotion recognition). In Study 2 (n = 363), we found that social anxiety was negatively associated with another higher-level form of social cognition, empathic accuracy, for positive but not negative stimuli. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is negatively associated with higher-level social cognition but not lower-level social cognition, and this association appears to be more consistent for positive stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
4.
Dev Sci ; 23(2): e12887, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309631

RESUMO

The mentalistic view of early theory of mind posits that infants possess a robust and sophisticated understanding of false belief that is masked by the demands of traditional explicit tasks. Much of the evidence supporting this mentalistic view comes from infants' looking time at events that violate their expectations about the beliefs of a human agent. We conducted a replication of the violation-of-expectation procedure, except that the human agent was replaced by an inanimate agent. Infants watched a toy crane repeatedly move toward a box containing an object. In the absence of the crane, the object changed location. When the crane returned, 16-month-old infants looked longer when it turned toward the object's new location, consistent with the attribution of a false belief to the crane. These results suggest that infants spontaneously attribute false beliefs to inanimate agents. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://youtu.be/qqEPPhd9FDo.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Cognição , Compreensão , Formação de Conceito , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos , Percepção Social
5.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(1): 58-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081664

RESUMO

Cumulative technological culture is an intriguing phenomenon whose cognitive bases remain a matter of debate. For the influential shared-intentionality theory, this phenomenon originates in theory-of-mind skills. Evidence challenges it, stressing the role of learners' technical-reasoning skills. This discrepancy might be explained by a more specific role of theory-of-mind skills, notably in situations where the teacher communicates with the learner without visual access to what the latter is doing. We tested this hypothesis using a microsociety paradigm where participants (n = 200) had to build the highest possible tower in 2 conditions: Monitoring (communication with visual access) and Blind (communication without visual access). We also assessed participants' theory-of-mind and technical-reasoning skills. Results indicated that learners' technical-reasoning skills predicted cumulative performance in both conditions, whereas teachers' theory-of-mind skills were involved only in the Blind condition. These findings confirm the distinct but complementary roles of theory-of-mind and technical-reasoning skills in cumulative technological culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Cultura , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Tecnologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12863, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125472

RESUMO

When we watch movies, we consider the characters' mental states in order to understand and predict the narrative. Recent work in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) uses movie-viewing paradigms to measure functional responses in brain regions recruited for such mental state reasoning (the theory of mind ["ToM"] network). Here, two groups of young children (n = 30 3-4 years old, n = 26 6-7 years old) viewed a short animated movie twice while undergoing fMRI. As children get older, ToM brain regions were recruited earlier in time during the second presentation of the movie. This "narrative anticipation" effect is specific: there was no such effect in a control network of brain regions that responds just as robustly to the movie (the "Pain Matrix"). These results complement prior studies in adults that suggest that ToM brain regions play a role not just in inferring, but in actively predicting, other people's thoughts and feelings, and provide novel evidence that as children get older, their ToM brain regions increasingly make such predictions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino
7.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 40: 100726, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791005

RESUMO

Psychotic disorders are characterized by theory of mind (ToM) impairment. Although ToM undergoes maturational changes throughout adolescence, there is a lack of studies examining ToM performance and its brain functional correlates in individuals with an early onset of psychosis (EOP; onset prior to age 18), and its relationship with age. Twenty-seven individuals with EOP were compared with 41 healthy volunteers using the "Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes" Test, as a measure of ToM performance. A resting-state functional MRI scan was also acquired, in which the default mode network was used to identify areas relevant to ToM processing employing independent component analysis. Group effects revealed worse ToM performance and less intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex in EOP relative to healthy volunteers. Group by age interaction revealed age-positive associations in ToM task performance and in intrinsic connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex in healthy volunteers, which were not present in EOP. Differences in ToM performance were partially mediated by intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Poorer ToM performance in EOP, coupled with less medial prefrontal cortex connectivity, could be associated with the impact of psychosis during a critical period of development of the social brain, limiting normative age-related maturation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
8.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 24(6): 454-469, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578118

RESUMO

ABSTRACTIntroduction: The quality of measures used to assess theory of mind (ToM) in severe mental illness has not been sufficiently investigated. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Hinting Task in schizophrenia, bipolar I and II disorder and healthy controls.Methods: The study included 90 patients and 183 healthy controls. Internal consistency, ceiling effects, discriminatory power and concurrent and construct validity were investigated.Results: The Hinting Task displayed adequate levels of internal consistency for schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. Ceiling effects emerged in all groups except the schizophrenia group. Schizophrenia patients scored significantly lower than all other groups, but no other significant group differences were detected. In the schizophrenia group, the Hinting Task's concurrent validity was substantiated by significant correlations with measures of neurocognition, symptoms and functional capacity. In the bipolar disorder groups, however, only a few significant relationships were found. Correlations between the Hinting Task and a measure of emotion recognition indicated that construct validity was higher for schizophrenia than bipolar disorder.Conclusions: The results suggest that the Norwegian Hinting Task is suited for use in schizophrenia research and assessment, but caution is warranted when using the test for other populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Psicometria/normas , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Adulto Jovem
9.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 163: 457-472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590746

RESUMO

Impairments of social behavior constitute common symptoms of frontal lobe dysfunction and are frequent consequences of damage to the frontal lobe. In this chapter we define and describe social behavioral deficits that include mentalizing (e.g., theory of mind, empathy), social self-regulation, social self-awareness, and social problem solving, and discuss how intervention research might address these deficits. Three stages of neurologic illness are emphasized: the early recovery stage after frontal lobe damage, chronic recovery phases of recovery from frontal lobe damage, and progressive decline from frontal neurodegenerative disease. Each of these stages presents unique challenges in identifying and remediating social impairments that constitute vital areas of adjustment for patients and their families within home and community settings.


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia
10.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 40: 100705, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593908

RESUMO

Children's explicit theory of mind (ToM) understandings change over early childhood. We examined whether there is longitudinal stability in the neurobiological bases of ToM across this time period. A previous study found that source-localized resting EEG alpha attributable to the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ) was associated with children's performance on a battery of theory of mind tasks. Here, we investigated a small subset of children (N = 12) in that original study as a preliminary investigation of whether behavioral measures of ToM performance, and/or EEG localized to the DMPFC or RTPJ predicted ToM-specific fMRI responses 3.5 years later. Results showed that preschoolers' behavioral ToM-performance positively predicted later ToM-specific fMRI responses in the DMPFC. Preschoolers' resting EEG attributable to the DMPFC also predicted later ToM-specific fMRI responses in the DMPFC. Given the small sample, results represent a first exploration and require replication. Intriguingly, they suggest that early maturation of the area of the DMPFC related to ToM reasoning is positively linked with its specific recruitment for ToM reasoning later in development, affording implications for characterizing conceptual ToM development, and its underlying neural supports.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
11.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(6): 1787-1802, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515733

RESUMO

Theory of mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others and is often said to be one of the cornerstones of efficient social interaction. In recent years, a number of authors have suggested that one particular ToM process occurs spontaneously in that it is rapid and outside of conscious control. This work has argued that humans efficiently compute the visual perspective of other individuals. In this article, we present a critique of this notion both on empirical and theoretical grounds. We argue that the experiments and paradigms that purportedly demonstrate spontaneous perspective-taking have not as yet convincingly demonstrated the existence of such a phenomenon. We also suggest that it is not possible to represent the percept of another person, spontaneous or otherwise. Indeed, the perspective-taking field has suggested that humans can represent the visual experience of others. That is, going beyond assuming that we can represent another's viewpoint in anything other than symbolic form. In this sense, the field suffers from the same problem that afflicted the "pictorial" theory in the mental imagery debate. In the last section we present a number of experiments designed to provide a more thorough assessment of whether humans can indeed represent the visual experience of others.


Assuntos
Imaginação/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222890, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539418

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest theory of mind (ToM) ability declines with age. However, prior tasks not only required ToM competence but also imposed high executive function (EF) demands, so decline in ToM ability could be caused by deterioration in ToM competence, EF, or both. It was predicted that if the elderly have intact ToM competence but compromised EF, then they should perform similarly to younger adults when using ToM tasks that lower executive demands, such as spontaneous-response tasks. Results showed that on tasks with reduced demands, older adults tracked belief to the same extent as younger adults, despite their declining EF. The findings support a model in which age-related decline in ToM ability is primarily caused by compromised EF, not ToM competence, suggesting that underlying ToM mechanisms are still intact in the elderly. We discuss implications of this work for competence-performance issues in ToM processing and the underlying sources of age-related deterioration of ToM.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Competência Mental/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 27(6): 692-699, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown theory of mind (ToM) is affected in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). There has also been growing interest in the study of endophenotypes in psychiatric disorders, since they allow better understanding of genetic mechanisms underlying different conditions, making them potential targets for future treatment. The goal of this study was to investigate whether ToM inefficiencies observed in patients with AN, are shared by unaffected first-degree relatives. METHOD: Performance on two ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas Test) were compared in 17 unaffected first-degree relatives of AN patients and in 17 healthy individuals matched for age and level of education. Depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive, and eating disorder symptoms were also assessed and correlated with ToM and clinical/demographic variables. RESULTS: Significant differences between groups were observed in all ToM tasks, with relatives of AN patients showing poorer performance. ToM assessment did not correlate with any clinical or demographic variable. CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results of this study suggest unaffected first-degree relatives of AN patients display similar patterns of difficulty in ToM as reported previously for AN patients, supporting the hypothesis that ToM inefficiencies are a familial trait in this condition.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Família/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(8): 861-870, 2019 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506672

RESUMO

In chronic psychosis, reduced trust is associated with a neural insensitivity to social reward and reduced theory of mind (ToM). Here we investigate whether these mechanisms could underlie emerging social impairments in early psychosis. Twenty-two participants with early psychosis and 25 controls (male, 13-19 years) participated in two interactive trust games against a cooperative and unfair partner. Region of interest neuroimaging analyses included right caudate, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), involved in reward and ToM processing. Both groups showed similar levels of trust (i.e. investments). However, individuals with psychosis failed to activate the caudate differentially in response to cooperation and unfairness while making decisions to trust. During cooperative returns, patients showed reduced and controls increased caudate activation. Patients demonstrated greater rTPJ activation than controls, possibly pointing towards compensatory mechanisms. Effects were associated with Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence vocabulary scores. No group differences emerged in mPFC activation. Early psychosis is associated with an aberrant neural sensitivity to social reward. This could foster reduced social motivation and social isolation. Absent behavioural differences in early, relative to chronic psychosis could indicate that trust is achieved through increased compensatory demand on ToM.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Problema , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Confiança
15.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(5): 825-834, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Emotional functions may play an important role in anorexia nervosa (AN). The onset of the disorder generally occurs during adolescence, which is a critical period of emotional development. However, most studies that evaluated emotional functions in AN were conducted in adult patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate emotion regulation, emotion recognition, and empathy skills in adolescent girls with AN by controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms, childhood traumatic experiences, and attachment security on emotional functions. METHODS: Thirty-two adolescent girls with AN and 32 healthy counterparts completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, and the Child and Adolescent KA-SI Empathic Tendency Scale-Adolescent Form. RESULTS: The results revealed that adolescents with AN were found to have more difficulties in emotion regulation, higher alexithymic tendencies, and lower empathy skills compared with the control group. However, emotion recognition was not found to be significantly different between the two groups. These results were the same when controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms, childhood traumatic experiences, and attachment security except for empathy skills. Alexithymia and depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents with AN. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the results, it seems that emotion regulation and alexithymia may play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of AN. Accordingly, it is necessary to focus on the improvement of these skills during the treatment of AN. Furthermore, interventions promoting these skills during adolescence may be preventive. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, case-control study.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia
16.
Brain Cogn ; 136: 103588, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419764

RESUMO

Although theory of mind (ToM) has been extensively explored in aging, few studies have used the same tool to simultaneously assess and compare its cognitive and affective components. When we administered the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition, a dynamic sequence of social scenes, to 60 healthy participants (20-75 years), we observed no different age-related decreases in both cognitive and affective ToM. While each component was associated with cognitive measures (i.e., episodic memory and processing speed were predictive of cognitive ToM, and recognition of facial emotion expressions and inhibition were predictive of affective ToM), mediation analyses showed that these measures only mediated the effect of age on affective ToM. Voxelwise regressions with grey-matter volume showed that the components partly rely on the same neural substrates, reflecting either ToM per se or other cognitive processes elicited by this multi-determinant task. We discuss the specific substrates of each ToM component, emphasising the importance of considering the impact of other aspects of cognition, present in more ecological situations, on ToM functioning.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Longevidade/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(17): 4965-4981, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403748

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that the degree of social anhedonia reflects the vulnerability for developing schizophrenia. However, only few studies have investigated how functional network changes are related to social anhedonia. The aim of this fMRI study was to classify subjects according to their degree of social anhedonia using supervised machine learning. More specifically, we extracted both spatial and temporal network features during a social cognition task from 70 subjects, and used support vector machines for classification. Since impairment in social cognition is well established in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, the subjects performed a comic strip task designed to specifically probe theory of mind (ToM) and empathy processing. Features representing both temporal (time series) and network dynamics were extracted using task activation maps, seed region analysis, independent component analysis (ICA), and a newly developed multi-subject archetypal analysis (MSAA), which here aimed to further bridge aspects of both seed region analysis and decomposition by incorporating a spotlight approach.We found significant classification of subjects with elevated levels of social anhedonia when using the times series extracted using MSAA, indicating that temporal dynamics carry important information for classification of social anhedonia. Interestingly, we found that the same time series yielded the highest classification performance in a task classification of the ToM condition. Finally, the spatial network corresponding to that time series included both prefrontal and temporal-parietal regions as well as insula activity, which previously have been related schizotypy and the development of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Empatia/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(7): 462-469, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403840

RESUMO

Background: An abnormal interaction between cognition and emotion may contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate theory of mind and emotion regulation skills in adolescents diagnosed with OCD. In addition, the results were evaluated in accordance with patients' insight levels. Methods: This study was conducted with 50 patients, who were aged between 11 and 16 and who were newly diagnosed with OCD and 50 healthy individuals. The Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime was used to diagnose OCD and other comorbidities. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used for clinical evaluation. The intelligence levels were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Short Form. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was used in patients. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was also used to evaluate the skills of regulating emotions. Results: Patients with OCD had lower ability with regard to reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than the healthy individuals. Patients with OCD, who had a poor insight, had more difficulty in reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than those with good insight. Conclusions: This study supports the idea that OCD is related to deficits in theory of mind and emotion regulation skills. Thus, further studies are required to confirm the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade
19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 4740-4750, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440869

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with deficient comprehension of figurative language and, specifically, idioms. Theories ascribe this to deficits in specific abilities (e.g., Theory of Mind [ToM]; executive functions [EF]; general language skills), but no comprehensive theory has resulted. This study investigated the differential contribution of various abilities to idiom comprehension among children and adolescents with ASD compared to matched controls with typical development (TD). The TD group outperformed the ASD group in idiom comprehension. However, whereas EF predicted idiom comprehension in the TD group, vocabulary predicted idiom comprehension in the ASD group. Our findings emphasize the link between general language competence and figurative language comprehension in ASD and point to different processing mechanisms in each group.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Testes de Linguagem , Idioma , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Vocabulário
20.
Infant Behav Dev ; 57: 101350, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445431

RESUMO

Evidence obtained with new experimental paradigms has renewed the debate on the development of theory of mind in general and false belief ascription in particular. Namely, several studies contend to prove that infants already have the capacity to attribute false beliefs. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to review and summarize the empirical evidence about spontaneous-response false belief tasks in infants younger than 2 years old. Fifty-six false belief conditions using the violation-of-expectation, the anticipatory looking and interactive paradigms were included in this meta-analysis, including 1469 infants. The role of several moderators was examined, following Wellman et al.ös meta-analysis (2001). Results show that correct performance on spontaneous-response false belief tasks was about 1.76 times more likely than incorrect performance (ß = 0.57, 95% CI 0.33; 0.80, p <  .0001). Mediator analyses revealed that (i) year of publication had a significant influence on performance, reducing the average log odds of successful performance (ß = -0.11, 95% CI: -0.16; -0.06, p < .0001); and (ii) correct performance was more likely than incorrect performance when the task was conducted in the violation-of-expectation paradigm (ß = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.25; 1.26, p =  .003). However, heterogeneity was high across the studies and the funnel plot revealed an asymmetric distribution suggesting that studies with small effect sizes were not published. These results cast doubt on the alleged robustness of the phenomenon: its effect size decreases as time passes, it seems to depend on the type of paradigm employed, and the variance across studies is not well understood yet.


Assuntos
Cultura , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia
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