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1.
Soc Work Public Health ; 36(2): 98-117, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380283

RESUMO

Utilizing the biopsychosocial model and the ecological systems theory, this disquisition explores on the risk factors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The discourse shows the interconnectedness of biological, psychological, and social domains in expatiating on the COVID-19 pandemic. It calls for the need to strengthen the resilience of the global community in the face of health outbreaks such as COVID-19. It emphasizes on the perspectives that pandemics are managed before they emerge through building systems that are resilient. Thus, it appreciates the need for a therapeutic milieu as a building block to resilience. The article calls for the adoption of a developmental stance to analyzing health outbreaks and clinical issues. The adumbration shows the reciprocity effects of the health outbreak [macrocosms] and individual factors [microcosms]. To its end, the paper implies that COVID-19 is a call for integration toward effective health planning between social policy formulators, urban and rural planners, epidemiologists, development practitioners, clinicians, researchers to mention but a few. Ultimately, the paper calls for social workers to consider a developmental-clinical social work approach which helps foster "health in all policies" so as to build resilience against the morbus and limit the proliferation of diseases.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Serviço Social , Teoria de Sistemas , Ansiedade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Nutricionais , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Ideação Suicida
2.
Phys Rev E ; 102(2-1): 022310, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942454

RESUMO

The frequent emergence of diseases with the potential to become threats at local and global scales, such as influenza A(H1N1), SARS, MERS, and recently COVID-19 disease, makes it crucial to keep designing models of disease propagation and strategies to prevent or mitigate their effects in populations. Since isolated systems are exceptionally rare to find in any context, especially in human contact networks, here we examine the susceptible-infected-recovered model of disease spreading in a multiplex network formed by two distinct networks or layers, interconnected through a fraction q of shared individuals (overlap). We model the interactions through weighted networks, because person-to-person interactions are diverse (or disordered); weights represent the contact times of the interactions. Using branching theory supported by simulations, we analyze a social distancing strategy that reduces the average contact time in both layers, where the intensity of the distancing is related to the topology of the layers. We find that the critical values of the distancing intensities, above which an epidemic can be prevented, increase with the overlap q. Also we study the effect of the social distancing on the mutual giant component of susceptible individuals, which is crucial to keep the functionality of the system. In addition, we find that for relatively small values of the overlap q, social distancing policies might not be needed at all to maintain the functionality of the system.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Análise de Sistemas , Teoria de Sistemas
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750052

RESUMO

We propose a process graph (P-graph) approach to develop ecosystem networks from knowledge of the properties of the component species. Originally developed as a process engineering tool for designing industrial plants, the P-graph framework has key advantages over conventional ecological network analysis techniques based on input-output models. A P-graph is a bipartite graph consisting of two types of nodes, which we propose to represent components of an ecosystem. Compartments within ecosystems (e.g., organism species) are represented by one class of nodes, while the roles or functions that they play relative to other compartments are represented by a second class of nodes. This bipartite graph representation enables a powerful, unambiguous representation of relationships among ecosystem compartments, which can come in tangible (e.g., mass flow in predation) or intangible form (e.g., symbiosis). For example, within a P-graph, the distinct roles of bees as pollinators for some plants and as prey for some animals can be explicitly represented, which would not otherwise be possible using conventional ecological network analysis. After a discussion of the mapping of ecosystems into P-graph, we also discuss how this framework can be used to guide understanding of complex networks that exist in nature. Two component algorithms of P-graph, namely maximal structure generation (MSG) and solution structure generation (SSG), are shown to be particularly useful for ecological network analysis. These algorithms enable candidate ecosystem networks to be deduced based on current scientific knowledge on the individual ecosystem components. This method can be used to determine the (a) effects of loss of specific ecosystem compartments due to extinction, (b) potential efficacy of ecosystem reconstruction efforts, and (c) maximum sustainable exploitation of human ecosystem services by humans. We illustrate the use of P-graph for the analysis of ecosystem compartment loss using a small-scale stylized case study, and further propose a new criticality index that can be easily derived from SSG results.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Algoritmos , Animais , Gráficos por Computador , Heurística Computacional , Cadeia Alimentar , Heurística , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia de Sistemas , Teoria de Sistemas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634158

RESUMO

The identification of potential super-spreader nodes within a network is a critical part of the study and analysis of real-world networks. Motivated by a new interpretation of the "shortest path" between two nodes, this paper explores the properties of the heatmap centrality by comparing the farness of a node with the average sum of farness of its adjacent nodes in order to identify influential nodes within the network. As many real-world networks are often claimed to be scale-free, numerical experiments based upon both simulated and real-world undirected and unweighted scale-free networks are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed "shortest path" based measure with regards to its CPU run time and ranking of influential nodes.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Teoria de Sistemas , Simulação por Computador , Sistemas Computacionais , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Integração de Sistemas
5.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 15(1): 1-17, jul. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1104070

RESUMO

La complejidad en la administración de las Organizaciones Sanitarias requiere de un profundo conocimiento de sus componentes políticos, sociodemográficos, económicos, de sus procesos, interrelaciones, determinantes ambientales, factores internos y externos que se relacionan entre sí para el logro de los objetivos, todos orientados al cuidado de la salud de la población. El escenario actual evidencia instituciones de salud cada vez más complejas, debido al aumento en la demanda de los servicios, las expectativas de los usuarios y los costos de los insumos para la atención, generando la necesidad de contar con personal de enfermería capacitado y entrenado en los sistemas que dan apoyo y sustentan el proceso asistencial. Profundizar en el conocimiento de la gestión de los recursos materiales como sistema o como proceso que transversaliza el proceso asistencial es un punto de partida para el logro con eficacia y eficiencia de los resultados sanitarios. El Departamento de Administración de la Facultad de Enfermería, en el marco del Programa de formación permanente, organizó el curso "Gestión de los recursos materiales para la mejora en la calidad de atención". La finalidad fue dar respuesta a una necesidad identificada por el departamento y sentida por el colectivo de Enfermería de capacitar a quienes se desempeñan en las distintas áreas de gestión de los recursos materiales, para contribuir en la calidad del cuidado a la población. En este sentido uno de los procesos claves abordados en el curso y que se quiere socializar en este artículo fue una "Guía para realizar la aproximación diagnóstica de una unidad de gestión de recursos materiales", aplicando la teoría de sistemas como metodología para su consolidación. A partir de la realidad diagnóstica obtenida, identificar fortalezas y debilidades del Servicio en que se aplique y poder desarrollar un proyecto de mejora de la calidad.


The complexity in the administration of the Health Organizations requires a deep knowledge of its political, sociodemographic, economic components, of its processes, interrelationships, environmental determinants, internal and external factors that are related to each other to achieve the objectives, all oriented to the health care of the population. The current scenario shows increasingly complex health institutions, due to the increase in the demand for services, the expectations of users and the costs of the inputs for care, generating the need for trained and trained nursing personnel systems that support and sustain the care process. Deepening knowledge of the management of material resources as a system or as a process that mainstreams the healthcare process is a starting point for the effective and efficient achievement of health outcomes. The Administration Department of the Nursing Faculty, within the framework of the Ongoing Training Program, organized the course "Management of material resources for the improvement of quality of care". The purpose was to respond to a need identified by the department and felt by the nursing collective to train those who work in the different areas of material resource management, to contribute to the quality of care for the population. In this sense, one of the key processes addressed in the course and that we want to socialize in this article was a "Guide to carry out the diagnostic approach of a material Resource management unit", applying systems theory as a methodology for its consolidation. Based on the diagnostic reality obtained, identify strengths and weaknesses of the Service in which it is applied and be able to develop a quality improvement project.


A complexidade na administração das Organizações de Saúde exige um profundo conhecimento de seus componentes políticos, sociodemográficos, econômicos, de seus processos, inter-relações, determinantes ambientais, fatores internos e externos que se relacionam para alcançar os objetivos, todos orientados aos cuidados de saúde da população. O cenário atual mostra instituições de saúde cada vez mais complexas, devido ao aumento da demanda por serviços, das expectativas dos usuários e dos custos dos insumos para o atendimento, gerando a necessidade de pessoal de enfermagem treinado e treinado sistemas que apóiam e sustentam o processo de atendimento. Aprofundar o conhecimento do gerenciamento de recursos materiais como um sistema ou como um processo que integra o processo de assistência à saúde é um ponto de partida para a obtenção eficaz e eficiente dos resultados da saúde. O Departamento de Administração da Faculdade de Enfermagem, no âmbito do Programa de Treinamento Contínuo, organizou o curso "Gestão de recursos materiais para melhorar a qualidade da assistência". O objetivo foi responder a uma necessidade identificada pelo departamento e sentida pelo coletivo de enfermagem para capacitar quem trabalha nas diferentes áreas de gestão de recursos materiais, a fi m de contribuir para a qualidade da assistência à população. Nesse sentido, um dos principais processos abordados no curso e que queremos socializar neste artigo foi um "Guia para realizar a abordagem diagnóstica de uma unidade de gerenciamento de recursos materiais", aplicando a teoria dos sistemas como metodologia para sua consolidação. Com base na realidade diagnóstica obtida, identificar os pontos fortes e fracos do Serviço em que é aplicado e ser capaz de desenvolver um projeto de melhoria da qualidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Teoria de Sistemas , Uruguai , Recursos Materiais em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Administração Hospitalar , Administração de Materiais no Hospital
7.
Anesthesiology ; 133(2): 332-341, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While 4 to 10% of medications administered in the operating room may involve an error, few investigations have prospectively modeled how these errors might occur. Systems theoretic process analysis is a prospective risk analysis technique that uses systems theory to identify hazards. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of systems theoretic process analysis in a healthcare organization to prospectively identify causal factors for medication errors in the operating room. METHODS: The authors completed a systems theoretic process analysis for the medication use process in the operating room at their institution. First, the authors defined medication-related accidents (adverse medication events) and hazards and created a hierarchical control structure (a schematic representation of the operating room medication use system). Then the authors analyzed this structure for unsafe control actions and causal scenarios that could lead to medication errors, incorporating input from surgeons, anesthesiologists, and pharmacists. The authors studied the entire medication use process, including requesting medications, dispensing, preparing, administering, documenting, and monitoring patients for the effects. Results were reported using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The hierarchical control structure involved three tiers of controllers: perioperative leadership; management of patient care by the attending anesthesiologist, surgeon, and pharmacist; and execution of patient care by the anesthesia clinician in the operating room. The authors identified 66 unsafe control actions linked to 342 causal scenarios that could lead to medication errors. Eighty-two (24.0%) scenarios came from perioperative leadership, 103 (30.1%) from management of patient care, and 157 (45.9%) from execution of patient care. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the authors demonstrated the use of systems theoretic process analysis to describe potential causes of errors in the medication use process in the operating room. Causal scenarios were linked to controllers ranging from the frontline providers up to the highest levels of perioperative management. Systems theoretic process analysis is uniquely able to analyze management and leadership impacts on the system, making it useful for guiding quality improvement initiatives.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/normas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Teoria de Sistemas , Anestesiologistas/normas , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas/métodos , Farmacêuticos/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Cirurgiões/normas
8.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 631-643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437181

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses an acute threat to the well-being of children and families due to challenges related to social disruption such as financial insecurity, caregiving burden, and confinement-related stress (e.g., crowding, changes to structure, and routine). The consequences of these difficulties are likely to be longstanding, in part because of the ways in which contextual risk permeates the structures and processes of family systems. The current article draws from pertinent literature across topic areas of acute crises and long-term, cumulative risk to illustrate the multitude of ways in which the well-being of children and families may be at risk during COVID-19. The presented conceptual framework is based on systemic models of human development and family functioning and links social disruption due to COVID-19 to child adjustment through a cascading process involving caregiver well-being and family processes (i.e., organization, communication, and beliefs). An illustration of the centrality of family processes in buffering against risk in the context of COVID-19, as well as promoting resilience through shared family beliefs and close relationships, is provided. Finally, clinical and research implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde da Família , Relações Familiares , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Resiliência Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Conflito Familiar , Humanos , Casamento , Relações Pais-Filho , Risco , Irmãos , Teoria de Sistemas
9.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 20 p. (Nota Técnica / IPEA. Diset, 65).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1102191

RESUMO

Esta nota técnica tem o objetivo de analisar, de modo exploratório, algumas vantagens e desvantagens da eventual adoção de uma fila única, conforme vem sendo proposto, para organizar as internações, inclusive em unidades de terapia intesiva (UTIs), em todos os hospitais públicos e privados brasileiros, no contexto da atual pandemia do novo coronavírus (Sars-COV-2), causador da Covid-19. A análise utiliza elementos teóricos, e de resultados práticos, observados em economia da saúde e, de modo complementar, em teoria das filas (Queueing Theory). Essa análise se justifica em função da gravidade da situação atual e da possibilidade de que a fila única seja adotada na presente pandemia, ou que venha a ser novamente objeto de debate, em eventuais futuras pandemias, ou em epidemias que ocorram no país.


Assuntos
Teoria de Sistemas , Leitos , Sistema Único de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Instituições Privadas de Saúde , Hospitalização
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033177

RESUMO

The Asia-Pacific region is known as a favorite destination for global medical travelers due to its medical expertise, innovative technology, safety, attractive tourism destination and cost advantage in the recent decade. This study contributes to propose an approach which effectively assesses performance of medical tourism industry based on considering the economic impact factors as well as provides a conceptual framework for the industry analysis. Grey system theory is utilized as a major analyzing approach. According to that, factors impact on the sustainable development of medical tourism in Asia-Pacific region could be identified. The performance of each destination in this region was simultaneously revealed. The results presented an overall perspective of the medical tourism industry in the scope of the Asia-Pacific region, and in Taiwan particularly. Data was collected on six major destinations including Singapore, Thailand, India, South Korea, Malaysia and Taiwan. The results proved that tourism sources and healthcare medical infrastructures play a crucial role in promoting the healthcare travel industry, while cost advantage and marketing effectiveness were less considered. In addition, performance analyse indicated that Thailand has a good performance and stands in the top ranking, followed by Malaysia, India, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, respectively. The revenue of Taiwan has increased slowly in the last six years, with a market worth approximately NT$20.5 billion, and the number of medical travelers is expected to increase to 777,523 by 2025. The findings of this study are expected to provide useful information for the medical tourism industry and related key players in strategic planning.


Assuntos
Turismo Médico/economia , Viagem/economia , Humanos , Índia , Malásia , República da Coreia , Singapura , Teoria de Sistemas , Taiwan , Tailândia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107495

RESUMO

Collective behaviours are known to be the result of diverse dynamics and are sometimes likened to living systems. Although many studies have revealed the dynamics of various collective behaviours, their main focus has been on the information processing performed by the collective, not on interactions within the collective. For example, the qualitative difference between three and four elements in a system has rarely been investigated. Tononi et al. proposed integrated information theory (IIT) to measure the degree of consciousness Φ. IIT postulates that the amount of information loss caused by the minimum information partition is equivalent to the degree of information integration in the system. This measure is not only useful for estimating the degree of consciousness but can also be applied to more general network systems. Here, we obtained two main results from the application of IIT (in particular, IIT 3.0) to the analysis of real fish schools (Plecoglossus altivelis). First, we observed that the discontinuity on 〈Φ(N)〉 distributions emerges for a school of four or more fish. This transition was not observed by measuring the mutual information or the sum of the transfer entropy. We also analysed the IIT on Boids simulations with respect to different coupling strengths; however, the results of the Boids model were found to be quite different from those of real fish. Second, we found a correlation between this discontinuity and the emergence of leadership. We discriminate leadership in this paper from its traditional meaning (e.g. defined by transfer entropy) because IIT-induced leadership refers not to group behaviour, as in other methods, but the degree of autonomy (i.e. group integrity). These results suggest that integrated information Φ can reveal the emergence of a new type of leadership which cannot be observed using other measures.


Assuntos
Teoria da Informação , Osmeriformes/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Estado de Consciência , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Teoria de Sistemas
12.
Appl Ergon ; 82: 102980, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670158

RESUMO

Although the modelling of interactions has long been at the core of socio-technical systems theory, and is a key for understanding resilience, there is a lack of a holistic taxonomy of interactions. This study introduces a taxonomy of interactions to be used in association with the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM). The taxonomy has nine criteria: nature of agents, output nature, levelling, waiting time, distance, degree of coupling, visibility, safety and/or security hazards, and parallel replications. For each criterion, two descriptors are proposed: what the interaction looks like; and - when applicable - the variability level of the interaction. The use of the taxonomy is presented for three systems with clearly distinct complexity characteristics: cash withdrawal from an ATM, teaching a university course, and manufacturing operations. These case studies indicate the usefulness of the taxonomy for the identification of leverage points in work system design. They also show the value of modelling the variability of the interactions in FRAM models, in addition to the traditional modelling of the variability of the outputs of functions. Implications of the taxonomy for resilience engineering are discussed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Teoria de Sistemas , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Ergonomia , Humanos , Indústrias , Modelos Teóricos , Ensino , Gravação em Vídeo
13.
J Interprof Care ; 34(1): 11-19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329018

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increasing impetus to define and develop theoretical foundations for interprofessional research. Currently, the theories cited in such research have often focused on individual and group learning. By comparison, organization and systems theories (OST) enable consideration of system and organization level factors. A scoping review was conducted to explore the use of OST in interprofessional research published between 2013 and 2019. Thirty-two studies were included and 13 OST were identified. Activity theory and complexity theory were the most commonly used OST. OST are relatively well integrated into data analysis and reporting of research findings, with less consideration given to how OST can support research designs. A primary reason researchers cited for selecting OST was that such theories could best reflect the complexity of interprofessional activities. OST provide a mechanism for understanding the nuances and multifactorial issues impacting interprofessional research. OST can thus address some of the challenges of introducing and sustaining interprofessional initiatives and should be further utilized within interprofessional research.


Assuntos
Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Teoria de Sistemas , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
14.
Biosystems ; 188: 104063, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715221

RESUMO

Most attempts to define life have concentrated on individual theories, mentioning others hardly at all, but here we compare all of the major current theories. We begin by asking how we know that an entity is alive, and continue by describing the contributions of La Mettrie, Burke, Leduc, Herrera, Bahadur, D'Arcy Thompson and, especially, Schrödinger, whose book What is Life? is a vital starting point. We then briefly describe and discuss (M, R) systems, the hypercycle, the chemoton, autopoiesis and autocatalytic sets. All of these incorporate the idea of circularity to some extent, but all of them fail to take account of mechanisms of metabolic regulation, which we regard as crucial if an organism is to avoid collapsing into a mass of unregulated reactions. In a final section we study the extent to which each of the current theories can aid in the search for a more complete theory of life, and explain the characteristics of metabolic control analysis that make it essential for an adequate understanding of organisms.


Assuntos
Vida , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia de Sistemas/história , Teoria de Sistemas , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , América do Norte
15.
Neural Netw ; 122: 218-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689680

RESUMO

Complementary Learning Systems (CLS) theory suggests that the brain uses a 'neocortical' and a 'hippocampal' learning system to achieve complex behaviour. These two systems are complementary in that the 'neocortical' system relies on slow learning of distributed representations while the 'hippocampal' system relies on fast learning of pattern-separated representations. Both of these systems project to the striatum, which is a key neural structure in the brain's implementation of Reinforcement Learning (RL). Current deep RL approaches share similarities with a 'neocortical' system because they slowly learn distributed representations through backpropagation in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). An ongoing criticism of such approaches is that they are data inefficient and lack flexibility. CLS theory suggests that the addition of a 'hippocampal' system could address these criticisms. In the present study we propose a novel algorithm known as Complementary Temporal Difference Learning (CTDL), which combines a DNN with a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to obtain the benefits of both a 'neocortical' and a 'hippocampal' system. Key features of CTDL include the use of Temporal Difference (TD) error to update a SOM and the combination of a SOM and DNN to calculate action values. We evaluate CTDL on Grid World, Cart-Pole and Continuous Mountain Car tasks and show several benefits over the classic Deep Q-Network (DQN) approach. These results demonstrate (1) the utility of complementary learning systems for the evaluation of actions, (2) that the TD error signal is a useful form of communication between the two systems and (3) that our approach extends to both discrete and continuous state and action spaces.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Aprendizagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reforço Psicológico , Algoritmos , Humanos , Análise de Sistemas , Teoria de Sistemas
16.
Brasília; IPEA; 2020. 12 p. (Nota Técnica / IPEA. Diset, 65).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1139901

RESUMO

Esta nota técnica tem o objetivo de analisar, de modo exploratório, algumas vantagens e desvantagens da eventual adoção de uma fila única, conforme vem sendo proposto, para organizar as internações, inclusive em unidades de terapia intesiva (UTIs), em todos os hospitais públicos e privados brasileiros, no contexto da atual pandemia do novo coronavírus (Sars-COV-2), causador da Covid-19. A análise utiliza elementos teóricos, e de resultados práticos, observados em economia da saúde e, de modo complementar, em teoria das filas (Queueing Theory). Essa análise se justifica em função da gravidade da situação atual e da possibilidade de que a fila única seja adotada na presente pandemia, ou que venha a ser novamente objeto de debate, em eventuais futuras pandemias, ou em epidemias que ocorram no país.


Assuntos
Administração Hospitalar , Coronavirus , Cuidados Médicos , Economia da Saúde , Hospitalização , Infecções por Coronavirus , Instituições Privadas de Saúde , Leitos , Pandemias , Sistema Único de Saúde , Teoria de Sistemas
17.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Improving early diagnosis of cancer through system change initiatives is endemic in England's NHS cancer services. These initiatives, however, often fail to gain traction due to the complexities of health system structures. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether using a change framework grounded in systems thinking could be of help to system leaders. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A portfolio of geographically independent projects, all implementing cancer service changes as part of the Accelerate, Coordinate, Evaluate Programme, was used for the study. Eight projects were purposively selected to give a varied case-mix. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with each project. Analysis of interviews was carried out using the Framework Method. FINDINGS: Processes working for (growth processes) and against (limiting processes) change were evident in and common across all eight projects. Projects commonly encountered challenges of relevance, time and bounded thinking. Having a network of committed people was vital for both initiating and sustaining change. Furthermore, understanding stakeholders' emotional responses to change helped mitigate emergent challenges. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Leaders should pay constant attention to the dynamics of change, taking time to anticipate and diffuse challenges whilst simultaneously working to create the conditions that help change flourish. A change framework rooted in complex systems theory can help leaders understand the contradictory and non-linear processes inherent in transformational change. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Few studies seek to understand change dynamics by comparing the experiences of separate change initiatives implemented contemporaneously. The findings offer leaders practical insights on how to implement transformation.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/tendências , Inovação Organizacional , Medicina Estatal/tendências , Teoria de Sistemas , Inglaterra , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(12): e1007311, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809500

RESUMO

The goal of many single-cell studies on eukaryotic cells is to gain insight into the biochemical reactions that control cell fate and state. In this paper we introduce the concept of Effective Stoichiometric Spaces (ESS) to guide the reconstruction of biochemical networks from multiplexed, fixed time-point, single-cell data. In contrast to methods based solely on statistical models of data, the ESS method leverages the power of the geometric theory of toric varieties to begin unraveling the structure of chemical reaction networks (CRN). This application of toric theory enables a data-driven mapping of covariance relationships in single-cell measurements into stoichiometric information, one in which each cell subpopulation has its associated ESS interpreted in terms of CRN theory. In the development of ESS we reframe certain aspects of the theory of CRN to better match data analysis. As an application of our approach we process cytomery- and image-based single-cell datasets and identify differences in cells treated with kinase inhibitors. Our approach is directly applicable to data acquired using readily accessible experimental methods such as Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) and multiplex immunofluorescence.


Assuntos
Análise de Célula Única/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria de Sistemas , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Citometria de Fluxo/estatística & dados numéricos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Cinética , Modelos Lineares , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e255, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826766

RESUMO

This commentary construes the relation between the two systems of temporal updating and temporal reasoning as a bifurcation and tracks it across three time scales: phylogeny, ontogeny, and microgeny. In taking a dynamic systems approach, flexibility, as mentioned by Hoerl & McCormack, is revealed as the key characteristic of human temporal cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Teoria de Sistemas , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
20.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 7963-7981, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698650

RESUMO

In this paper, a Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with ratio-dependence and state pulse feedback control is established to investigate the effect of spraying chemical pesticides and supplement amount of beneficial insects at the same time. Firstly, the existence, uniqueness and asymptotic stability of the periodic solution are proved by using successor function method and the analogue of the Poincaré criterion when the equilibria E∗ and E0 are stable, and the existence of limit cycles without impulse system is verified when the equilibrium E∗ is unstable. Furthermore, to obtain the minimum cost per period of controlling pests, we propose the optimization problem and calculate the optimal threshold. Finally, the feasibility of our model is proved by numerical simulation of a concrete example.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Cadeia Alimentar , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Insetos , Modelos Teóricos , Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Dinâmica Populacional , Teoria de Sistemas
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