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1.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718645

RESUMO

Radiation is considered as a promising insect pest control strategy for minimizing postharvest yield losses. Among various techniques, irradiation is a method of choice as it induces lethal biochemical or molecular changes that cause a downstream cascade of abrupt physiological abnormalities at the cellular level. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 60Co-γ radiation on various developmental stages of Zeugodacus cucurbitae Coquillett and subsequent carry-over effects on the progeny. For this purpose, we treated eggs with 30- and 50-Gy radiation doses of 60Co-γ. We found that radiation significantly affected cellular antioxidants, insect morphology, and gene expression profiles. Our results indicate that in response to various doses of irradiation reactive oxygen species, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were increased along with a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. We observed higher mortality rates during the pupal stage of the insects that hatched from irradiated eggs (50 Gy). Furthermore, the life span of the adults was reduced in response to 50 Gy radiation. The negative effects carried over to the next generation were marked by significantly lower fecundity in the F1 generation of the irradiation groups as compared to control. The radiation induced morphological abnormalities at the pupal, as well as the adult, stages. Furthermore, variations in the gene expression following irradiation are discussed. Taken together, our results signify the utility of 60Co-γ radiation for fruit fly postharvest management.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Tephritidae/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/efeitos da radiação , Apoptose/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Catalase/efeitos da radiação , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/farmacologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/efeitos da radiação , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Longevidade/efeitos da radiação , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/efeitos da radiação , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidase/efeitos da radiação , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Pupa/fisiologia , Pupa/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/efeitos da radiação , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Tephritidae/fisiologia
2.
J Insect Physiol ; 134: 104308, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474015

RESUMO

The microbiota influences hosts' health and fitness. However, the extent to which the microbiota affects host' foraging decisions and related life history traits remains to be fully understood. Our study explored the effects of microbiota manipulation on foraging preference and phenotypic traits of larval and adult stages of the polyphagous fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni, one of the main horticultural pests in Australia. We generated three treatments: control (non-treated microbiota), axenic (removed microbiota), and reinoculation (individuals which had their microbiota removed then re-introduced). Our results confirmed that axenic larvae and immature (i.e., newly emerged 0 day-old, sexually-immature) adults were lighter than control and reinoculated individuals. Interestingly, we found a sex-specific effect of the microbiota manipulation on carbohydrate intake and body composition of 10 day-old mature adults. Axenic males ate less carbohydrate, and had lower body weight and total body fat relative to control and reinoculated males. Conversely, axenic females ate more carbohydrate than control and reinoculated ones, although body weight and lipid reserves were similar across treatments. Axenic females produced fewer eggs than control and reinoculated females. Our findings corroborate the far-reaching effects of microbiota in insects found in previous studies and show, for the first time, a sex-specific effect of microbiota on feeding behaviour in flies. Our results underscore the dynamic relationship between the microbiota and the host with the reinoculation of microbes restoring some traits that were affected in axenic individuals.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tephritidae , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Dípteros/microbiologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Tephritidae/microbiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia
3.
J Insect Physiol ; 133: 104289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332969

RESUMO

Polyandry, whereby females mate with more than one male in a reproductive cycle, can result in sperm competition or cryptic female choice, and have fitness implications for both sexes. Understanding patterns of sperm storage in twice-mated females can provide valuable insights to mechanisms that mediate sperm use and paternity. In the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Qfly), and other insects that are managed by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), polyandry can reduce the efficacy of this pest control method. Patterns of sperm storage in twice-mated Qflies were studied by developing three fly lines that are homozygous for different alleles of a microsatellite marker (Bt32) and using a combination of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis-based techniques to quantify and genotype sperm in each spermatheca. Female Qflies consistently stored fewer sperm from their second mate than from their first mate. Further, asymmetry between the spermathecae in the distribution of sperm stored from the first mate appears to in part determine the distribution of sperm stored from the second mate, likely because of constraints in storage capacity in the two spermathecae. Implications of these findings for elucidating pattern of sperm competition in this species, and for SIT, are discussed.


Assuntos
Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 881, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272466

RESUMO

Here, the ultrastructure and development of the white patches on thorax and head of Bactrocera oleae are analysed using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. Based on these analyses and measurements of patch reflectance spectra, we infer that white patches are due to modified air sacs under transparent cuticle. These air sacs show internal arborisations with beads in an empty space, constituting a three-dimensional photonic solid responsible for light scattering. The white patches also show UV-induced blue autofluorescence due to the air sac resilin content. To the best of our knowledge, this research describes a specialized function for air sacs and the first observation of structural color produced by tracheal structures located under transparent cuticles in insects. Sexual dimorphism in the spectral emission also lays a structural basis for further investigations on the biological role of white patches in B. oleae.


Assuntos
Pigmentação , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Sacos Aéreos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
5.
J Therm Biol ; 97: 102877, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863442

RESUMO

The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of fruit and vegetable production systems on several continents. The pest has invaded many countries, causing considerable impact on fruit production systems and commercialization. In this study we determined the relationship between temperature and development, survival and reproductive parameters of B. dorsalis on an artificial diet under laboratory conditions under 7 constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33 and 35 °C) with 70 ± 10% relative humidity and a photoperiod of L12:D12. We validated the laboratory results with a full life table analysis under semi-natural conditions in a screenhouse. We used the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software for all mathematical models and simulations applied to all life history parameters. Bactrocera dorsalis completed its development at temperatures ranging between 15 and 33 °C with the mean developmental time of egg, larva, and pupa ranging between 1.46 and 4.31 days, 7.14-25.67 days, and 7.18-31.50 respectively. The models predicted temperatures ranging between 20 and 30 °C as favorable for development and survival, and 20 to 25 °C for optimal fecundity of B. dorsalis. Life table parameters showed the highest gross reproductive rate (GRR), net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (λ) between 25 and 31 ᵒC while generation time (T) and doubling time (Dt) were low at this interval. The effects of future climate change on B. dorsalis life history parameters were further investigated and the outcome from this study will help in the management of B. dorsalis in different agroecologies in the context of ongoing climate change.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Temperatura , Tephritidae , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tephritidae/fisiologia
6.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(5): 560-567, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814029

RESUMO

Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major barrier to fruit production and exportation. In Brazil, the native parasitoid Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) and the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) stand out as biological control agents. Knowledge of the factors that affect interactions among parasitoids, A. fraterculus, and host fruits may enhance the use of these agents in biological control programmes. This study evaluated the chemotaxis and parasitism of A. pelleranoi and D. longicaudata females reared on A. fraterculus larvae and kept on an artificial diet, red guava (Psidium guajava) or apple (Malus domestica). Females of both parasitoid species that emerged from larvae raised on artificial diet, guava or apple, were tested to Y olfactometer choice tests. In the parasitism tests, both parasitoid species were made to choose between A. fraterculus larvae brushed with water, apple pulp or guava pulp. D. longicaudata females from artificial diet (control) did not distinguish between fruit odours; however, females of D. longicaudata from larvae kept in apple or guava directed to the odours of their original fruit. The greatest parasitism for D. longicaudata occurred in the units that contained the pulp in which the larvae grew. A. pelleranoi from artificial diet preferred guava odours, including the females kept in apple. Similar results were observed in the parasitism bioassays. Our results found that A. fraterculus larval feeding influenced search behaviour and parasitism of D. longicaudata, whereas A. pelleranoi rearing experience did not affect its host choices.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Tephritidae/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Dieta , Feminino , Frutas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Malus , Psidium , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Insect Physiol ; 131: 104231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798503

RESUMO

For frugivorous fruit flies, the decision whether to accept or reject a host fruit for oviposition is influenced by a variety of fruit quality factors. Additionally, ovipositing flies may be influenced by the presence of eggs or larvae already within the host fruit. Species of the genus Bactrocera have been shown to avoid ovipositing into larval-infested fruits. However, the observed oviposition aversion in Bactrocera is variable, with some studies showing that deterrence to infested fruits may not always occur, but what may influence such variation is unknown. Using the polyphagous fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), we tested if the quality of host fruit for offspring survival was a factor in influencing a female fly's decision whether to oviposit or not into larval-infested fruits. In both small cages and field cages, ovipositing B. tryoni did not discriminate between infested and non-infested high-quality fruits. However, when given a choice between poor-quality infested and non-infested fruits, significantly more flies selected and oviposited in non-infested fruits. For example, B. tryoni did not discriminate between infested and non-infested guava (a fruit in which there is high offspring survival), but more flies selected and oviposited on non-infested than on infested green apples (a fruit in which there is poor offspring survival). Small cage experiments also showed that prior oviposition experience on a larval-infested host negated the previously observed aversive response for that particular infested host fruit. The results are discussed in the light of a long recognised, but often ignored fact that herbivore host choice is about the sum of both the positive and negative cues received from the host.


Assuntos
Oviposição , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Frutas , Larva
8.
J Insect Physiol ; 131: 104245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930410

RESUMO

Despite the known negative impacts of aging on the reproductive potential of many insects, Bactrocera tryoni populations show a rapid increase in abundance from early to late spring when the population is composed of predominantly old individuals. While some aspects of how male and female reproductive potential are influenced by age for this species are known, no study investigates lifelong reproductive potential of either sex. We conducted a whole-of-life study in the laboratory to assess the effect of age and mating-partner age on reproductive potential of B. tryoni. The fertility of 70 individual females was directly measured by the number of eggs laid and hatched; while 70 individual males' fertility was assessed indirectly by measuring the hatch rate of eggs laid by a female partner. Half of the males and females had access to a same-age virgin mating partner, while the other half received a prime-age virgin partner (17-19 days old): in both groups mating partners were replaced weekly. Results showed that independent of the age of male mating partner, increasing age significantly reduced the fecundity and fertility of female B. tryoni after a peak at approximately 20 days of age. However, females mated with prime-age males showed higher egg hatch rates during early life than did females mated with a same-age mating partner. As indirectly measured through their partner's egg hatch rate, the fertility of B. tryoni males was also affected by the age of the male and their mating-partner's age. Males mated consistently with a prime-age partner showed an increasing trend in the egg hatch rate of their partner: indirect evidence of increasing fertility in males with increasing age. No such affect was seen when males were mated with a same-age female, possible because of the age-related changes in female fecundity and fertility. While fecundity is greatly reduced in old females, the whole-of-life data shows that the very old flies present in the field at the end of winter are physiologically capable of starting the new season's F1 generation. Beyond getting it begun, old females are unlikely to further contribute to the new season's population as their fecundity does not increase even if mated with a prime-age, new generation male. In contrast, old males, if they have subsequent access to new generation females, have the capacity to help contribute to the rapid spring population growth which is observed in the field.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901258

RESUMO

Lower elevations are generally thought to contain a greater abundance and diversity of insect communities and their natural enemies than higher elevations. It is less clear, however, how changes in seasons influence this pattern. We conducted a 2-year study (2013‒2014) in guava orchards located in a tropical Andean forest of Peru to investigate differences in fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoid communities at two elevations and over two seasons. Fruit fly traps were installed, monitored, and guava fruits were sampled from eight orchards at low (800-950 m above sea level) and high (1,700-1,900 m above sea level) elevations and during the dry and rainy seasons. At each orchard, adult fruit fly trap captures and emergence of fruit flies and their parasitoids from guava fruit were quantified to determine their abundance and species composition. There was a greater abundance and species richness of fruit flies captured in traps at lower elevations, as well as higher abundance and species evenness of fruit flies that emerged from fruit, indicating that lower elevations are associated with larger fruit fly populations. The abundance, species richness and diversity of parasitoids were also greater at lower elevations. Consequently, guava fruit infestation and fruit fly parasitism rates were also greater at lower elevations. Seasonality also influenced fruit fly populations with a greater number of flies emerging from guava fruit and more fruit infested in the rainy season. However, seasonality had no effect on parasitoid population parameters or rate of parasitism, nor did it interact with elevation as an influence of populations of fruit flies or their parasitoids in guava orchards. This study highlights the importance of examining both elevation and seasonality for a better understanding of the population dynamics of fruit flies and their parasitoids in tropical agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Psidium/parasitologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Altitude , Animais , Florestas , Frutas/parasitologia , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Peru , Dinâmica Populacional , Psidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Zootaxa ; 4951(1): zootaxa.4951.1.8, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903419

RESUMO

Doryctobracon maculatus Marinho, a new species of Braconidae (Opiinae) collected in the municipalities of Piracicaba and São Roque, state of São Paulo, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This new species is placed in group of species with areolate propodeum, but is easily distinguished from other species of this group, and other members of the genus by the noticeable black to dark-brown spots on the head, mesosoma and metasoma. This new species was reared in larvae of Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Diptera, Tephritidae) in passion fruits, Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). An illustrated key to species of Doryctobracon recorded in Brazil is presented.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Tephritidae , Animais , Brasil , Frutas , Himenópteros/classificação , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Larva , Tephritidae/classificação , Tephritidae/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6311, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737687

RESUMO

Males of the papaya fruit fly, Anastrepha curvicauda Gerstaecker (former Toxotrypana curvicauda), defend a papaya fruit from rivals and males release their sex pheromone to attract and mate with females and offer them an oviposition site. While some aspects of the biology of A. curvicauda are known, such as its reproductive biology, its sex pheromone, and host selection, there is currently no information on the species mate selection process. This paper describes the precopulatory mating behavior of A. curvicauda and elucidates how intrasexual selection affects the mate selection process. We studied the precopulatory mating behavior of dominant and subordinate males and ethograms were devised. The effect of hierarchy was studied in non-choice and choice experiments. Male's repertoire includes 15 behavioral elements, 12 precopulatory, one mating, and two postcopulatory (tandem and encounter). In non-choice experiments, dominant and subordinate males were accepted by females, but when females had the opportunity to choose among males, dominant males were significantly preferred over subordinate ones. The presence of a rival male modified the courting behavior of males and agonistic behavior among males was observed before and during mating.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Reprodução/genética , Atrativos Sexuais/genética , Tephritidae/genética , Comportamento Agonístico/fisiologia , Animais , Carica/parasitologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia
12.
Insect Mol Biol ; 30(3): 315-324, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527600

RESUMO

Studies of reproductive biology in insects often require quantification of sperm production, transfer or storage. Here, we develop a quantitative real-time PCR-based assay using a Y-specific marker for quantification of sperm from spermathecae of female Queensland fruit fly ('Q-fly'), overcoming constraints typical of traditional sperm quantification methods. The assay enables accurate and reliable quantification of as few as 50 sperms and provides a means to analyse large numbers of samples with flexible timing. The real-time PCR method enables revised understanding of how many sperms are stored by female Q-flies, the distribution of storage between the two spermathecae and the relationship between copula duration and sperm storage. Real-time PCR assays based on Y-specific markers provide an effective solution for sperm quantification in tephritid flies, as well as in other insects and potentially other animals with sperm storage organs.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Cromossomo Y/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582264

RESUMO

Diapause, a form of insect dormancy, generally facilitates overwintering by increasing cold tolerance and decreasing energy drain at high temperatures via metabolic rate suppression. Averting or terminating diapause prior to winter is generally assumed to be a lethal phenotype. However, low temperature acclimation can also increase cold tolerance and decrease metabolic rates. Here, we tested the hypothesis that non- and post-diapause individuals in a cold-induced quiescence can achieve a diapause-like phenotype, compensating for the potential costs of averting diapause. We tested this in the apple maggot fly Rhagoletis pomonella, which typically overwinters in the soil as a diapause pupa, but can avert diapause (non-diapause) or terminate diapause early ('weak diapause') when reared at warm temperatures. Metabolic rates were initially higher in non- and post-diapause than diapause pupae at high (25 °C) and low (4 °C) temperatures, but quiescent non- and post-diapause pupae achieved diapause-like metabolic rates slowly over time when incubated at 4 °C for several weeks. We found that diapause and quiescent pupae were freeze-avoidant and had similar tolerance of extreme low temperatures (cooling to c. -18 °C) following 8 weeks acclimation at 4 °C. Despite high tolerance of subzero temperatures, quiescent pupae did not survive well when chilled for prolonged periods (8 weeks or more) at 4 °C. We conclude that cold acclimation can only partially compensate for costs associated with aversion or premature termination of diapause, and that energy drain at low (not just high) temperatures likely contributes to chilling mortality in quiescent insects.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Temperatura Baixa , Diapausa , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Animais , Estações do Ano
14.
J Insect Physiol ; 130: 104210, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610542

RESUMO

Eurosta solidaginis males produce large amounts of putative sex pheromone compared to other insect species; however, neither the site of pheromone production nor the release mechanism has been characterized. We compared E. solidaginis males and females, focusing on sexually dimorphic structures that are known to be involved in pheromone production in other tephritid species. Morphological and chemical analyses indicated that the rectum and pleural epidermis are involved in male E. solidaginis pheromone production, storage, or emission. We detected large quantities of pheromone in the enlarged rectum, suggesting that it stores pheromone for subsequent release through the anus. However, pheromone might also discharge through the pleural cuticle with the involvement of unusual pleural attachments of the tergosternal muscles, which, when contracted in males, realign specialized cuticular surface elements and expose less-sclerotized areas of cuticle. In males, pheromone components were also detected in epidermal cells of the pleuron. These cells were 60-100 times larger in mature males than in females and, to our knowledge, are the largest animal epithelial cells ever recorded. Furthermore, because these large cells in males are multinucleated, we presume that they develop through somatic polyploidization by endomitosis. Consequently, the pheromone-associated multinuclear pleural epidermal cells of Eurosta solidaginis may provide an interesting new system for understanding polyploidization.


Assuntos
Células Epidérmicas/citologia , Poliploidia , Atrativos Sexuais/biossíntese , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tephritidae/citologia
15.
J Insect Physiol ; 129: 104195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539917

RESUMO

In order to reproduce, female tephritid fruit flies need both mates for fertilization and fruit for oviposition. Virgin females are prone to mating and approach males, attracted by their pheromones. Mated females, however, may experience an abrupt reduction of mating propensity and prioritise the search for suitable fruit rather than additional mates. Accordingly, mating in fruit flies may induce a switch in olfactory preferences of females from pheromones to fruit stimuli, and this switch may also be an important mediator of mating-induced sexual inhibition. To test for mating-induced switches in olfactory preference of female Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, we used wind tunnel assays to assess attraction of mated and virgin females to (1) male sex pheromone delivered through a perforated glass sphere or (2) an entire fruit. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses were also used to test for mating-induced changes in olfactory sensitivity to pheromones and fruit odours. Pheromones elicited quicker upwind responses in virgin females than in mated females; during the first six minutes of trials more virgin females than mated females were observed in the upwind end of the wind tunnel where pheromone odours were released. Fruit cues, in contrast, elicited stronger association with the upwind end of the wind tunnel in mated females than in virgin females from the fifth minute onwards. Also, mated females were observed on the fruit for longer periods than virgin females. EAG responses to pheromones and fruit odours were similar in virgin and mated females, indicating that changes in preferences are not a consequence of changes in peripheral sensitivity of antennae to odours but instead appear to be mediated by post-receptor processing. Our results show that mating reduces attraction to male-produced pheromones and increases attraction to fruit stimuli in B. tryoni females. We propose that this behavioural switch from mating stimuli to oviposition stimuli is an important mediator of mating-induced sexual inhibition in this species.


Assuntos
Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Olfato/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Frutas , Masculino , Odorantes , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(2): 167-174, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475941

RESUMO

The study of insect semiochemicals, especially pheromones, is of fundamental importance for the development of strategies for controlling agricultural pests. In this study, volatile compounds involved in the communication between males and females of the fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae), for mating purposes were characterized to develop attractant formulations for females of this species. Extracts containing volatile compounds released by males of A. obliqua were obtained by the dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in the aeration extracts of males. Five of them caused EAD responses from the antennae of females: 1-heptanol, linalool, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, (E,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-ol, and (Z,E)-α-farnesene. Six synthetic mixtures of these compounds, including the five-component blend and all possible four-component blends, were formulated in a biopolymer and used in behavioral bioassays conducted in the laboratory arena with conspecific virgin females. One blend of 1-heptanol, linalool, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, and (Z,E)-α-farnesene attracted more females than the collection of volatiles from virgin males used as control. The other mixtures were as attractive to A. obliqua females as the control treatment. This study indicates potential for use of these compounds in monitoring and control strategies for this pest.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Heptanol/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Atrativos Sexuais/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Tephritidae/química
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(7): 2756-2766, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mangoes are tropical fruits appreciated worldwide but are extremely perishable, being susceptible to decay, pest infestation and fungal diseases. Using the flavorful and highly valued 'Manila' cultivar, we examined the effect of second-generation chitosan coatings on shelf-life, phenolic compound variation, phytohormones, pest infestation by fruit flies (Anastrepha obliqua) and anthracnose disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. RESULTS: We observed almost total elimination of A. obliqua eggs with 10 and 20 g L-1 chitosan in diluted acetic acid and a five- to sixfold reduction in anthracnose damage. Treatment with 20 g L-1 chitosan also extended the shelf-life. External (skin) and internal (pulp) discoloration processes were delayed. Fruit firmness was higher when compared with control and acetic acid treatments, and total soluble solids were lower in chitosan-treated fruit. Targeted and non-targeted metabolomics analyses on chitosan-coated fruit identified some phenolic compounds related to the tannin pathway. In addition, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in the peel were downregulated in chitosan-coated mango peels. Both phytohormones and phenolic content may explain the reduced susceptibility of mangoes to anthracnose development and A. obliqua egg eclosion or larval development. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that chitosan coatings represent an effective postharvest treatment that significantly reduces anthracnose disease, inhibits A. obliqua egg eclosion and significantly extends 'Manila' mango shelf-life, a key factor currently inhibiting large-scale commercialization of this valuable fruit. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Mangifera/microbiologia , Mangifera/parasitologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Frutas/microbiologia , Frutas/parasitologia , Mangifera/química
18.
Insect Sci ; 28(2): 363-376, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091660

RESUMO

Fruit flies usually harbor diverse communities of bacteria in their digestive systems, which are known to play a significant role in their fitness. However, little information is available on Zeugodacus tau, a polyphagous pest worldwide. This study reports the first extensive analysis of bacterial communities in different life stages and their effect on the development and reproduction of laboratory-reared Z. tau. Cultured bacteria were identified using the conventional method, and all bacteria were identified by high-throughput technologies (16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of V3-V4 region). A total of six bacterial phyla were identified in larvae, pupae, and male and female adult flies, which were distributed into 14 classes, 32 orders, 58 families and 96 genera. Proteobacteria was the most represented phylum in all the stages except larvae. Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Providencia, and Pseudomonas were identified by conventional and next-generation sequencing analysis in both male and female adult flies, and Enterobacter was found to be the main genus. After being fed with antibiotics from the first instar larvae, bacterial diversity changed markedly in the adult stage. Untreated flies laid eggs and needed 20 days before oviposition while the treated flies showed ovary development inhibited and were not able to lay eggs, probably due to the alteration of the microbiota. These findings provide the cornerstone for unexplored research on bacterial function in Z. tau, which will help to develop an environmentally friendly management technique for this kind of harmful insect.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Tephritidae/microbiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/microbiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Reprodução , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(2): 210-216, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967739

RESUMO

For purposes of mass-rearing fruit flies, nutrient intake through artificial diets is a challenge, artificial food content and processing should promote sufficient absorption and availability to ensure fly fitness. Bulking agents play an essential role in creating a quality diet, but its physical characteristics, such as particle size, may establish a better microenvironment for feeding and development. Currently, there is a lack of information about protein metabolism in mass-reared fruit flies. Therefore, we evaluated whether the particle size of the bulking agent affects the absorption and excretion of the proteins, as well as their effect on the life-history traits of Anastrepha obliqua. We determined the protein content of hemolymph and feces, as well as the presence of nitrogen end-products as indicators of their level of absorption in a diet elaborated with coarse and fine corn cob particles as a bulking agent. The bromatological composition showed that coarse particles increased the bioavailability and content of crude, digestible, and soluble protein for the diet and hemolymph protein of larvae alike. We found an inverse relationship between the protein content of the hemolymph and feces of the larvae. Ammonium was determined to be a product of the catabolism of proteins. Also, A. obliqua improved its development (yield and pupal weight) and fitness (adult emergence and flight ability) when larvae were reared on a coarse particle diet. In conclusion, a diet elaborated with a coarse bulking agent features increased protein bioavailability and nutritional quality, which, in turn, increases the life-history traits of A. obliqua.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Tephritidae , Animais , Sangue/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
20.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(2): 238-245, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967744

RESUMO

With the purpose of broadening knowledge on the evolution of life history strategies and behaviour of fruit flies within the tribe Carpomyini, the natural history and mating behaviour of the poorly known species Rhagoletotrypeta pastranai Aczél, are described for the first time. Larvae of R. pastranai were recovered from infested Celtis tala Gillies ex Planch and Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. during a 2-month fruiting period. Adults emerged from the recovered pupae after an average of 144.9 ± 3.9 days for females and 143.2 ± 3.38 days for males, suggesting that most individuals became dormant. Results of a variable winter length study suggested that environmental factors other than winter length may regulate dormancy/diapause duration in this subtropical species. Under laboratory conditions, R. pastranai adults lived an average of 51.13 ± 3.06 days in case of females and 48.08 ± 3.76 days in case of males, and required 5-15 days to reach sexual maturity. Behavioural observations under confinement revealed scarce sexual activity but sufficed to determine that, as in other members of the tribe Carpomyini, R. pastranai exhibits a male resource defence mating system. We discuss our findings emphasizing the importance of documenting the natural history and behaviour of unknown species of family Tephritidae and additionally, we highlight the necessity of future research to understand factors regulating dormancy/diapause and the evolution of life history strategies and sexual behaviour of subtropical species.


Assuntos
Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Diapausa , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Masculino , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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