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1.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 391-398, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047162

RESUMO

Introdução: Queloides surgem de resposta excessiva à lesão da derme, resultando em proliferação de fibroblastos, produção exagerada de colágeno e comprometimento da pele sadia adjacente. O diagnóstico é clínico e muitos métodos conservadores e cirúrgicos já foram utilizados para tratamento. Porém, dados da eficácia desses tratamentos são limitados e não há consenso na literatura quanto a melhor técnica a ser empregada, permanecendo uma lacuna que necessita ser preenchida, a fim de que seus usos sejam indicados com maior confiabilidade, em um modelo de medicina baseada em evidências. Métodos: Revisão não sistemática da literatura sobre "queloides" nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, MEDLINE, UptoDate e livros-texto das áreas de Dermatologia e Cirurgia Dermatológica. Revisão de Literatura: Foram enumeradas e abordadas as principais informações sobre técnicas cirúrgicas e adjuvantes empregadas para essas lesões, que são: excisão, injeções intralesionais, crioterapia, laserterapia, revestimento com gel de silicone, radioterapia e pressoterapia. Torna-se relevante o levantamento dessas informações, tendo em vista que, além de poder causar dor, prurido e restrição de movimento, o principal motivo da procura de assistência médica para queloide é devido ao aspecto cosmético/estético, e as taxas de reincidência e falha terapêutica ainda são altas, sendo necessário conscientizar o paciente sobre o procedimento e seus efeitos. Conclusão: São muitos os tratamentos disponíveis para o queloide, sejam cirúrgicos ou não, todavia não há consenso sobre uma abordagem universalmente aceita. São necessários mais estudos, com a finalidade de definir a melhor conduta e atingir melhores resultados, visto a qualidade mediana das evidências apresentadas nos estudos.


Introduction: Keloids are characterized by an abnormal response to dermal trauma, resulting in fibroblast proliferation, excessive collagen production, and impairment of adjacent healthy tissue. The diagnosis is clinical, and many conservative and surgical methods can be used as treatments. However, data on the efficacy of these treatments are limited, and there is no consensus regarding the best treatment option. This gap needs to be filled by developing comprehensive evidence-based therapies. Methods: A non-systematic literature review of keloid scars was carried out using PubMed, Scielo, MEDLINE, UptoDate, and dermatology and dermatological surgery textbooks. Literature review: The search retrieved relevant information on surgical and adjuvant therapies used for keloids, including excision, intralesional injections, cryotherapy, laser therapy, silicone gel sheeting, radiation therapy, and pressure therapy. These data are crucial because, in addition to complaints of pain, itching, and restriction of movement, the main reason for seeking treatment for keloids is for cosmetic and aesthetic improvement, and the rates of recurrence and treatment failure are high, emphasizing the importance of creating awareness regarding the available procedures and their effectiveness. Conclusion: Many surgical and adjuvant therapies for keloids are available. Nonetheless, there is no consensus on a universally accepted treatment. Therefore, additional high-quality studies are needed to identify the most effective therapeutic approaches to achieve better results.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XXI , Recidiva , Cirurgia Plástica , Terapêutica , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Fibroblastos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Queloide , Cirurgia Plástica/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Terapêutica/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/análise , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/efeitos adversos , Cicatriz , Cicatriz/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos/métodos , Queloide/cirurgia
3.
Value Health ; 22(6): 648-655, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent regulatory approvals of potentially curative but high-cost treatments have made these therapies a focus of health policy discussions. Cures present new challenges to healthcare payers because they have high upfront costs but have life-long health benefits. The objectives of this study are to understand how healthcare payers define and manage cures. We investigated payers' views on key features of curative treatments and the affordability and value challenges they present. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews in 2016 with key informants in US payer organizations. Interviewees were directly involved in coverage determination for highly effective and curative therapies. RESULTS: We contacted 24 individuals and 18 participated. When asked what aspects of cures were important for coverage determination, an equal percentage of respondents (61% each) mentioned clinical and economic factors. In defining a cure, half of respondents included an economic element such as no downstream costs associated with the disease. When asked about challenges, 72% of respondents mentioned uncertainty regarding long-term outcomes and 56% mentioned membership churn and competition. CONCLUSIONS: Payers expressed a novel definition of a cure-which we call a "healthcare cost cure"-that captures both the clinical and economic consequences of treatment. This definition may be more pertinent in fragmentary financing systems that unevenly distribute cure costs and benefits across payers. Overall findings indicate that decision makers desire evidence to ensure that the long-term real-world consequences of covering cures match the expected benefits. Future policies need to balance upfront acquisition costs with downstream financial benefits.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde/tendências , Terapêutica/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Terapêutica/métodos , Terapêutica/tendências
4.
J Clin Apher ; 34(3): 171-354, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180581

RESUMO

The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Journal of Clinical Apheresis (JCA) Special Issue Writing Committee is charged with reviewing, updating and categorizing indications for the evidence-based use of therapeutic apheresis (TA) in human disease. Since the 2007 JCA Special Issue (Fourth Edition), the committee has incorporated systematic review and evidence-based approaches in the grading and categorization of apheresis indications. This Eighth Edition of the JCA Special Issue continues to maintain this methodology and rigor in order to make recommendations on the use of apheresis in a wide variety of diseases/conditions. The JCA Eighth Edition, like its predecessor, continues to apply the category and grading system definitions in fact sheets. The general layout and concept of a fact sheet that was introduced in the Fourth Edition, has largely been maintained in this edition. Each fact sheet succinctly summarizes the evidence for the use of TA in a specific disease entity or medical condition. The Eighth Edition comprises 84 fact sheets for relevant diseases and medical conditions, with 157 graded and categorized indications and/or TA modalities. The Eighth Edition of the JCA Special Issue seeks to continue to serve as a key resource that guides the utilization of TA in the treatment of human disease.


Assuntos
Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Terapêutica/métodos , Estados Unidos , Redação
5.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2): 133-136, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1009419

RESUMO

As doenças cardiovasculares, principalmente as decorrentes de casos de acidente vascular cerebral e infarto agudo do miocárdio, têm importante impacto na mortalidade global e nas internações hospitalares em todo o mundo. A despeito do vasto conhecimento dos diversos fatores de risco implicados na gênese da doença cardiovascular, o número de eventos ainda se mantém elevado e a instituição de medidas de prevenção primária e secundária são essenciais e complementares. Nos últimos anos, importantes avanços no campo do tratamento farmacológico de aterosclerose e insuficiência cardíaca, predominantemente em decorrência de cardiopatia isquêmica, foram publicados e seus principais resultados são destacados no presente artigo


Cardiovascular diseases, particularly those arising from cases of stroke and acute myocardial infarction, have a significant impact on global mortality and hospital admissions around the world. Despite the vast knowledge of the various risk factors involved in the genesis of cardiovascular disease, the number of events remains high and institution of primary and secondary prevention measures is essential and complementary. In recent years, important advances in the field of pharmacological treatment of atherosclerosis and heart failure, particularly those arising from ischemic heart disease, have been published. The main results are highlighted in this article


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Terapêutica/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus , Aterosclerose , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Atividade Motora
6.
Nurs Philos ; 20(2): e12236, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891891

RESUMO

In this paper, I will explore the concept that healing activities shape the objects of therapy and seek to construct those objects through therapeutic activities. Objects of therapy are the persons, patients, human bodies, diseases, physiological processes and personal suffering-that which clinical medicine constructs through its distinctive formative processes, practices and knowledge. The rationale for choice of philosophical sources namely, Cassirer, Foucault, the anthropological perspective of Good and the sociological account of Frank will be discussed. The claim articulated by Good will be examined and its relationship to culture, illness, medical knowledge, practice, truth, and science. I then focus on Frank's concepts of the patient and the body and how medical knowledge and practices affects it. The concept that the medicalization of the illness narrative silences the patient's voice requiring an ethic of listening will be emphasized, described and further supported by Charon's (2006, Narrative medicine: Honoring the stories of illness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press) and Cassell's (2015, The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. New York, NY: Oxford University Press) thoughts on narrative of illness in clinical medicine. My position concludes that healing activities construct the objects of therapy: as the medical culture's way of seeking truth; as medicine's way of mediating and organizing forms of reality through culture and symbolic forms; and, as medicine's way of entering the body and constructing the disease. Lastly, I suggest that in spite of the remarkable progress in the control of disease, the failure to address the interpretation of illness meanings is a fundamental flaw in the work of "doctoring." The experience and meanings of illness are at the centre of clinical practice and is a moral, political, ethical and professional obligation. The person is a cultural construct, a complex and culturally shaped way of experiencing self and other, and cultural "work" is required to constitute the person who is the object of medical attention and it also necessitates the ethic of listening.


Assuntos
Ética em Enfermagem , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Terapêutica/métodos , Humanos , Comportamento de Doença , Terapêutica/normas , Terapêutica/tendências
7.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 76: 53-58, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792169

RESUMO

Thalassemia is a common inherited monogenic disease. It is characterized by chronic hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis (IE) and iron overload. Despite advances in transfusion practices and chelation therapy, still many limitations in delivering these standard therapies exist. Challenges of currently available standard care and advances in understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in thalassemia stimulated research towards development of novel therapeutic targets. Agents reducing IE as Jak 2 inhibitors and Activin II receptor traps are promising and are currently in clinical trials. Other approaches targeting iron dysregulation as mini-hepcidins, exogenous transferrin and erythroferrone inhibitors are in preclinical studies. Gene therapy, a rapidly evolving field, has exhibited remarkable progress in recent years. Studies have focused on ß or γ-globin addition, over expression of endogenous γ-globin-activating transcription factors, silencing of γ-globin repressors and genome editing of ß-globin mutations or γ-globin repressors. In this article we provide an overview of emerging recent trends in treatment of thalassemia targeting IE, iron dysregulation and novel curative treatments as gene therapy and gene editing.


Assuntos
Talassemia/terapia , Terapêutica/tendências , Eritropoese , Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Talassemia/complicações , Terapêutica/métodos
9.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(1): 66-71, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs. Value assessments for all medical technologies and interventions are an important consideration in current debates on access and affordability of health care in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To identify practicing physician impressions of the historical effect of postdiagnosis innovations in medical technology on patient outcomes within the 8 health conditions that have the largest effect on health in the United States. METHODS: National statistics were used to identify the 8 conditions responsible for the most mortality and morbidity within the United States between 1990 and 2014. A physician survey was developed for each major condition to obtain physician opinion on the extent to which pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, medical devices, diagnostics, and surgical procedures contributed to improvements in postdiagnosis mortality and morbidity outcomes over the evaluated period. Respondents were provided with a fifth category, "cannot allocate," to account for postdiagnosis outcome gains resulting from other factors such as public health interventions. RESULTS: The conditions identified as having the greatest effect on morbidity and mortality since 1990 were breast cancer, ischemic heart disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes, unipolar depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lung cancer. After excluding other factors, physicians specializing in these conditions, with a mean of 21.4 years in practice, considered pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals as having the greatest postdiagnosis effect across all 8 conditions, with 56% of outcome gains attributed to this innovation category. Diagnostics was the second biggest contributor at 20%. CONCLUSIONS: Physician perceptions indicated that attention should be paid to value assessments of innovative diagnostics, devices, and surgical procedures, as well as to pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, before goals for allocating health care expenditures among the different innovations are determined. DISCLOSURES: Funding for this study was provided by the National Pharmaceutical Council, a health policy research group that receives its funding from biopharmaceutical manufacturers. Wamble is employed by RTI Health Solutions, which received funding from the National Pharmaceutical Council to conduct this research. Ciarametaro and Dubois are employed by the National Pharmaceutical Council.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Alocação de Custos , Invenções/economia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/economia , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/instrumentação , Tratamento Farmacológico/economia , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Terapêutica/economia , Terapêutica/instrumentação , Terapêutica/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 162: 679-734, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496988

RESUMO

Sulfur (SVI) based moieties, especially, the sulfonyl or sulfonamide based analogues have showed a variety of pharmacological properties, and its derivatives propose a high degree of structural diversity that has established useful for the finding of new therapeutic agents. The developments of new less toxic, low cost and highly active sulfonamides containing analogues are hot research topics in medicinal chemistry. Currently, more than 150 FDA approved Sulfur (SVI)-based drugs are available in the market, and they are widely used to treat various types of diseases with therapeutic power. This comprehensive review highlights the recent developments of sulfonyl or sulfonamides based compounds in huge range of therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, carbonic anhydrase, antimalarial, anticancer and other medicinal agents. We believe that, this review article is useful to inspire new ideas for structural design and developments of less toxic and powerful Sulfur (SVI) based drugs against the numerous death-causing diseases.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Enxofre/uso terapêutico , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Humanos , Ácidos Sulfínicos/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Terapêutica/métodos
11.
Dev Dyn ; 248(1): 21-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016584

RESUMO

Astrocytes exhibit dynamic and complex reactions to various insults. Recently, investigations into the transitions that occur during cellular specification, differentiation, maturation, and disease responses have provided insights into understanding the mechanisms that underlie these altered states of reactivity and function. Here we summarize current concepts in how astrocyte state transitions, termed astroplasticity, are regulated, as well as how this affects neural circuit function through extracellular signaling. We postulate that a promising future approach toward enhancing functional repair after injury and disease would be to steer astrocytes away from an inhibitory response and toward one that is beneficial to neuroplasticity and neuroregeneration. Toward this goal, we discuss emerging biotechnological advancements, with a focus on human pluripotent stem cell bioengineering, which has high potential for effective manipulation and control of astroplasticity. Highlights include innovations in cellular transdifferentiation techniques, nanomedicine, organoid and three-dimensional (3D) spheroid microcircuit development, and the use of biomaterials to influence the extracellular environment. Current barriers and future applications are also summarized in order to augment the design of future preclinical trials aimed toward astrocyte-targeted neuroregeneration with a concept termed astrocellular therapeutics. Developmental Dynamics 248:21-33, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Bioengenharia/tendências , Plasticidade Celular , Regeneração Nervosa , Animais , Bioengenharia/métodos , Transdiferenciação Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Terapêutica/métodos , Terapêutica/tendências
12.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 353-359, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984335

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects millions of people, however, there is still no effective treatment. The use of focused ultrasound with microbubbles (FUS-MB) for the opening of the blood-brain barrier has been recently studied and may become a promising therapeutic target. Objective: To discuss the use of FUS-MB for the treatment of AD and to present some of the techniques used. Methods: A systematic review was performed of MEDLINE/PubMed and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) services, using the keywords: focused ultrasound, Alzheimer, amyloid-b. Original articles were included in the study; studies that did not focus on Alzheimer's treatment were excluded. Results: Fifteen original studies were selected. Preclinical trials were able to reduce amyloid-b plaques and tau phosphorylation, improving cognitive performance in AD animals. Conclusion: The results are very promising, but the therapy still requires maturation. Further studies are needed to systematize all the techniques used and their effects in order to enable use in humans.


RESUMO A doença de Alzheimer (DA) afeta milhões de pessoas, porém, ainda não há um tratamento efetivo. O uso de ultrassonografia focalizada com microbolhas (FUS-MB) para a abertura da barreira hematoencefálica (BHE) tem sido objeto de estudos recentes, podendo tornar-se um alvo terapêutico bastante promissor. Objetivo: Discutir o uso da FUS-MB para o tratamento da DA e apresentar algumas das técnicas utilizadas. Métodos: Revisão sistemática através dos serviços MEDLINE/PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), através das seguintes palavras-chaves: focused ultrasound, Alzheimer, amyloid-b. Foram incluídos no estudo artigos originais. Foram excluídos estudos que não tinham o tratamento do Alzheimer como foco. Resultados: Foram selecionados 15 estudos originais. Os resultados pré-clínicos são positivos para redução de placas amiloides, fosforilação da proteína tau e sobre desempenho cognitivo de animais com DA. Conclusão: Os resultados são promissores, mas terapia ainda necessita de aperfeiçoamento, necessitando de mais estudos que sistematize todas as técnicas e seus efeitos, para ser possível o seu uso em humanos.


Assuntos
Terapia por Ultrassom , Doença de Alzheimer , Terapêutica/métodos , Barreira Hematoencefálica
13.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 33(4): 580-585, out.-dez. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-980166

RESUMO

Estrias de distensão são cicatrizes na derme que constrangem os pacientes e oferecem desafios ao tratamento clínico. Resultam do rápido estiramento da pele, frequentemente presente em adolescentes, gestantes, obesos e indivíduos com rápida mudança de peso. Apresentam-se inicialmente como placas eritematosas e edemaciadas (estrias rubras) e, conforme amadurecem, tornam-se esbranquiçadas e atróficas (estrias albas), devido à degradação e reorganização de fibras de elastina e de colágeno. Atualmente, lasers representam modalidade terapêutica não invasiva emergente, que já demonstrou sucesso na redução da vascularização excessiva das estrias rubras, e no estímulo à produção de colágeno e elastina nas albas. Foi realizada revisão da literatura no PubMed referente ao tratamento de estrias atróficas com laser de janeiro de 2000 até dezembro de 2016. Os autores encontraram 28 artigos que se enquadraram nos critérios de inclusão. Existem poucos estudos clínicos randomizados avaliando a eficácia ao longo prazo e a segurança de aparelhos à base de energia. Baseado em casos clínicos e revisões sistemáticas, ambos os lasers - ablativo e não ablativo - fracionados demonstraram melhora modesta do aspecto das estrias distensas. Há tendência a sugestão do laser não ablativo fracionado de 1.540 nanômetro como sendo opção de primeira escolha para tratamento das estrias distensas. Porém, estudos futuros devem focar em desenhos de pesquisa com duração mais longa, medidas objetivas e padronizadas da avaliação dos resultados como biópsias e estudos moleculares, que demonstrem aumento nas fibras elásticas e fibras de colágeno, que correlacionem com a melhora do aspecto clínico das estrias após aplicação de lasers com parâmetros sistematizados.


Stretch marks are scars on the dermis that cause patients to be self-conscious and that pose challenges in clinical treatment. They result from rapid stretching of the skin and often observed in adolescents, pregnant women, obese individuals, and people experiencing rapid change in weight. They initially appear as erythematous and edematous plaques (red striae), and as they mature, they become whitish and atrophic (striae alba) due to the degradation and reorganization of elastin and collagen fibers. Currently, laser treatment is an emerging noninvasive therapeutic modality that is successful in reducing the excessive vascularization of red striae and in stimulating the production of collagen and elastin in the alba. In the present literature review, PubMed was searched for articles on the treatment of atrophic striations with laser that were published from January 2000 to December 2016. The authors have found 28 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Only few randomized clinical trials have evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of energybased treatments. Based on clinical cases and systematic reviews, both ablative and non-ablative fractional lasers caused moderate improvement in the appearance of distending striae. The 1540-nm non-ablative fractional laser is more likely to be considered the first-line treatment for stretch marks. However, future studies should focus on research with longer duration, studies with objective and standardized measures for the evaluation of results, such as biopsy results, and molecular studies showing an increase in elastic and collagen fibers that correlate to the improvement in the clinical appearance of the striae after using lasers with systematized parameters.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Terapêutica/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Dermatologia/métodos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Estrias de Distensão/cirurgia , Estrias de Distensão/prevenção & controle , Estrias de Distensão/terapia
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(6): 652-661, nov.- dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-979988

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) has become the main phenotypic model of heart failure (HF) in community and referral patients in Brazil and in the world. Despite advances in the development of new drugs for HF treatment, there has been no significant improvement in mortality of this condition. According to many studies, this can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of HF physiopathology, whose basic mechanisms may result in different clinical presentations, culminating in the emerging of different phenogroups in this syndrome. In this context, phenotype mapping of HFPEF has emerged as a possible solution, since it enables the development of clinical trials that establish specific therapeutic strategies for each phenotypic profile. New technologies in the field of artificial intelligence have enabled the assessment of a large volume of data and infer intrinsic patterns and different outcomes. Thereby, it is possible to obtain mutually exclusive categories of HFPEF, with a phenotype mapping of the syndrome and grouping of patients according to their phenotypic features. Besides, other diseases can have the same clinical phenotype but different pathophysiological basis, the so called "phenocopies". These tools enable the analysis and categorization of the wide spectrum of heart failure, contributing to solve the dilemmas of the treatment of this syndrome


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fenótipo , Volume Sistólico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial , Terapêutica/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Obesidade
17.
Transfusion ; 58(10): 2453-2462, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208220

RESUMO

ADAMTS13 is an enzyme that acts by cleaving prothrombotic von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers from the vasculature in a highly regulated manner. In pathologic states such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and other thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), VWF can bind to the endothelium and form large multimers. As the anchored VWF chains grow, they provide a greater surface area to bind circulating platelets (PLTs), generating unique thrombi that characterize TTP. This results in microvasculature thrombosis, obstruction of blood flow, and ultimately end-organ damage. Initial presentations of TTP usually occur in an acute manner, typically developing due to an autoimmune response toward, or less commonly a congenital deficiency of, ADAMTS13. Triggers for TMAs that can be associated with ADAMTS13 deficiency, including TTP, have been linked to events that place a burden on hemostatic regulation, such as major trauma and pregnancy. The treatment plan for cases of suspected TTP consists of emergent therapeutic plasma exchange that is continued on a daily basis until normalization of PLT counts. However, a subset of these patients does not respond favorably to standard therapies. These patients necessitate a better understanding of their diseases for the advancement of future therapeutic options. Given ADAMTS13's key role in the cleavage of VWF and the prevention of PLT-rich thrombi within the microvasculature, future treatments may include anti-VWF therapeutics, recombinant ADAMTS13 infusions, and ADAMTS13 expression via gene therapy.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS13/fisiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Proteína ADAMTS13/deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Troca Plasmática , Gravidez , Terapêutica/métodos , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/terapia , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-914765

RESUMO

Background: To reduce mortality of acute myocardial infarction, medical care must be provided within the first hours of the event. Objective: To identify the "front door" to medical care of acute coronary patients and the time elapsed between patients'admission and performance of myocardial reperfusion in the public health system of the city of Joinville, Brazil. Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 112 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction by coronary angiography. We identified the place of the first medical contact and calculated the time between admission to this place and admission to the referral hospital, as well as the time until coronary angiography, with or without percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. A descriptive analysis of data was made using mean and standard deviation, and a p < 0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results: Only 16 (14.3%) patients were admitted through the cardiology referral unit. Door-to-angiography time was shorter than 90 minutes in 50 (44.2%) patients and longer than 270 minutes in 39 (34.5%) patients. No statistically significant difference was observed in door-to-angiography time between patients transported directly to the referral hospital and those transferred from other health units (p < 0.240). Considering the time between pain onset and angiography, only 3 (2.9%) patients may have benefited from myocardial reperfusion performed within less than 240 minutes. Conclusion: Management of patients with acute myocardial infarction is not in conformity with current guidelines for the treatment of this condition. The structure of the healthcare system should be urgently modified so that users in need of emergency services receive adequate care in accordance with local conditions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Falha da Terapia de Resgate , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Terapêutica/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Angioplastia/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Procedimentos Clínicos/tendências , Morte Súbita/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Assistência Hospitalar/métodos , Reperfusão Miocárdica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Estatística , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Sistema Único de Saúde
19.
Am J Hematol ; 93(12): 1551-1560, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039550

RESUMO

DISEASE OVERVIEW: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that is often but not always accompanied by JAK2, CALR, or MPL mutations; additional disease features include bone marrow stromal reaction including reticulin fibrosis, abnormal cytokine expression, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), constitutional symptoms, cachexia, leukemic progression, and shortened survival. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis of PMF is based on bone marrow morphology. Presence of JAK2, CALR, or MPL mutation, expected in ∼ 90% of the patients, is supportive but not essential for diagnosis. The revised 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system distinguishes "prefibrotic" from "overtly fibrotic" PMF; the former might mimic ET in its presentation and it is prognostically relevant to distinguish the two. RISK STRATIFICATION: Two new prognostic systems for PMF have recently been introduced: GIPSS (genetically inspired prognostic scoring system) and MIPSS70+ version 2.0 (mutation- and karyotype-enhanced international prognostic scoring system). GIPSS is based exclusively on mutations and karyotype. MIPSS70+ version 2.0 utilizes both genetic and clinical risk factors. GIPSS features four and MIPSS70+ version 2.0 five risk categories. MIPSS70+ version 2.0 requires an online score calculator (http://www.mipss70score.it) while GIPPS offers a lower complexity prognostic tool. RISK-ADAPTED THERAPY: Observation alone is advised for MIPSS70+ version 2.0 "low" and "very low" risk disease (estimated 10-year survival 56%-92%); allogeneic stem cell transplant is the preferred treatment of choice for "very high" and "high" risk disease (estimated 10-year survival 0-13%); treatment-requiring patients with intermediate-risk disease (estimated 10-year survival 30%) are best served by participating in clinical trials. All other treatment approaches, including the use of JAK2 inhibitors, are mostly palliative and should not be used in the absence of clear treatment indications. Conventional treatment for anemia includes androgens, prednisone, thalidomide and danazol, for symptomatic splenomegaly hydroxyurea and ruxolitinib and for constitutional symptoms ruxolitinib. Splenectomy is considered for drug-refractory splenomegaly and involved field radiotherapy for nonhepatosplenic EMH and extremity bone pain.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Mielofibrose Primária/diagnóstico , Humanos , Cariótipo , Mutação , Mielofibrose Primária/classificação , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Terapêutica/métodos
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