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1.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 104-111, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920612

RESUMO

Candida dubliniensis (Cd) and Candida albicans (Ca) are the most frequently isolated yeasts in HIV+ patients. Some of the enzymes produced by these yeasts are considered virulence factors since they contribute to pathogenicity of Candida spp. The aim of the present study was to compare production of enzymes such as phospholipase (Ph), proteinase (P), and hemolysin (H) by Cd and Ca strains isolated from periodontal HIV-positive patients receiving and not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using paper points, and a sample of oral mucosa was taken using a swab. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used to isolate 39 strains of Candida, including 25 strains of Cd and 14 strains of Ca, obtained from 33 periodontal pocket samples and 6 oral mucosa samples collected from 15 HIV+ patients (8 receiving and 7 not receiving HAART). Malt egg-yolk agar, albumin agar and blood agar were used to evaluate pH, P and H production respectively. The strains were inoculated in duplicate and incubated at 37 ºC. Colony and halo diameters were measured. A greater proportion of Ca was observed in patients not receiving HAART, and a higher proportion of Cd was observed in those under HAART, Chi2 p< 0.001. Phospholipase production was observed in 92.9% percent of isolated Ca strains but in none of the isolated Cd strains. Proteinase production was high in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. Hemolysin production was observed in all the studied strains, though it was significantly higher (p=0.04) in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. To sum up, the proportion of Candida dubliniensis strains was highest in the subgingival biofilm of patients receiving HAART, and Cd strains were found to express fewer virulence factors than Ca strains.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/enzimologia , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida/enzimologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida albicans/genética , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Virulência/genética
2.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e620-e628, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa combined with weak routine virological monitoring has driven increasing HIV drug resistance. We investigated ART failure, drug resistance, and early mortality among patients with HIV admitted to hospital in Malawi. METHODS: This observational cohort study was nested within the rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis to reduce AIDS-related mortality in hospitalised patients in Africa (STAMP) trial, which recruited unselected (ie, irrespective of clinical presentation) adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with HIV-1 at admission to medical wards. Patients were included in our observational cohort study if they were enrolled at the Malawi site (Zomba Central Hospital) and were taking ART for at least 6 months at admission. Patients who met inclusion criteria had frozen plasma samples tested for HIV-1 viral load. Those with HIV-1 RNA of at least 1000 copies per mL had drug resistance testing by ultra-deep sequencing, with drug resistance defined as intermediate or high-level resistance using the Stanford HIVDR program. Mortality risk was calculated 56 days from enrolment. Patients were censored at death, at 56 days, or at last contact if lost to follow-up. The modelling strategy addressed the causal association between HIV multidrug resistance and mortality, excluding factors on the causal pathway (most notably, CD4 cell count, clinical signs of advanced HIV, and poor functional and nutritional status). FINDINGS: Of 1316 patients with HIV enrolled in the STAMP trial at the Malawi site between Oct 26, 2015, and Sept 19, 2017, 786 had taken ART for at least 6 months. 252 (32%) of 786 patients had virological failure (viral load ≥1000 copies per mL). Mean age was 41·5 years (SD 11·4) and 528 (67%) of 786 were women. Of 237 patients with HIV drug resistance results available, 195 (82%) had resistance to lamivudine, 128 (54%) to tenofovir, and 219 (92%) to efavirenz. Resistance to at least two drugs was common (196, 83%), and this was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·7, 95% CI 1·2-2·4; p=0·0042). INTERPRETATION: Interventions are urgently needed and should target ART clinic, hospital, and post-hospital care, including differentiated care focusing on patients with advanced HIV, rapid viral load testing, and routine access to drug resistance testing. Prompt diagnosis and switching to alternative ART could reduce early mortality among inpatients with HIV. FUNDING: Joint Global Health Trials Scheme of the Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , HIV-1/genética , Hospitalização , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , RNA Viral , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22335, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon and aggressive large B-cell lymphoma commonly diagnosed in human immunodeficiency viruses -positive patients. Oral cavity is the most commonly PBL affected site. Most oral PBLs presented as asymptomatic swellings, frequently associated with ulcerations and bleeding. Most cases lacked B-symptoms, suggesting a more local involvement of the disease. No standard treatment is yet for oral PBL. Five-year survival rate recorded no more than 33.5%. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old male presented to Dental Clinic with 1 month swelling of the oral cavity, in absence of any other symptoms or signs. He followed antibiotic therapy just on suspicion of an oral abscess and later oral surgical treatment on suspicion of bone neoplasm. DIAGNOSIS: Surgical specimen analysis highlighted a diffuse infiltrate of large-sized atypical cells with plasmablastic appearance and plasma cell phenotype. Oral cavity PBL was diagnosed. Blood tests recorded mild lymphopenia and positive human immunodeficiency viruses serology. INTERVENTIONS: Patient underwent chemotherapy including intrathecal methotrexate prophylaxis, in addition to a highly active antiretroviral therapy. OUTCOMES: At 12 months from diagnosis, patient recorded complete hematological remission. CONCLUSIONS: Oral PBL diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and awareness both by physicians and pathologists. They should be aware of the extent of such disease which is often mistaken as oral abscess or infected tooth, thus leading to delay the most appropriate diagnostic evaluation. As PBL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a delayed diagnosis might negatively impact on both treatment and survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Boca/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Edema/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Plasmócitos/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22352, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has transformed the highly infectious virus to a stable chronic condition, with the advent of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The longterm effects of HAART on the oral health of children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on oral health indicators (dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children from the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2017 among children aged 5 to 7 years from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12174 randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00640263) implemented between 2009 and 2012 in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. The intervention was lopinavir-ritonavir or lamuvudine treatment to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission. One hundred thirty-seven and 139 children were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine treatment at day 7 postpartum to compare efficacy of prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission. At follow up, the children underwent oral examination using the World Health Organization methods for field conditions. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the early childhood oral health impact scale. Negative binomial and logistic regression were used for the analysis of data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries was 48% in the study sample: 49% in the lopinavir-ritonavir arm and 48% in the lamivudine treatment group. The corresponding mean decayed missing filled teeth and standard deviation was 1.7 (2.4) and 2.3 (3.7) The mean number (standard deviation) of erupted permanent teeth was 3.8 (3.7) and 4.6 (3.9) teeth in the lopinavir- and lamivudine group, respectively. The prevalence of reported impacts on oral health was 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 18% in the lamivudine group. Gingivitis had a prevalence of 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 14% lamivudine treatment group. The regression analysis revealed 70% less reported impacts on oral health in lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine treatment group with an incidence rate ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: HIV exposed uninfected infants in the lopinavir-ritonavir group reported less impacts on oral health than the lamivudine treatment group. Dental caries, gingivitis, and tooth eruption were not significantly affected by the treatment lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00640263.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003325, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current World Health Organization (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines define virologic failure as two consecutive viral load (VL) measurements ≥1,000 copies/mL, triggering empiric switch to next-line ART. This trial assessed if patients with sustained low-level HIV-1 viremia on first-line ART benefit from a switch to second-line treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This multicenter, parallel-group, open-label, superiority, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients on first-line ART containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) with two consecutive VLs ≥100 copies/mL, with the second VL between 100-999 copies/mL, from eight clinics in Lesotho. Consenting participants were randomly assigned (1:1), stratified by facility, demographic group, and baseline VL, to either switch to second-line ART (switch group) or continued first-line ART (control group; WHO guidelines). The primary endpoint was viral suppression (<50 copies/mL) at 36 weeks. Analyses were by intention to treat, using logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic group and baseline VL. Between August 1, 2017, and August 7, 2019, 137 individuals were screened, of whom 80 were eligible and randomly assigned to switch (n = 40) or control group (n = 40). The majority of participants were female (54 [68%]) with a median age of 42 y (interquartile range [IQR] 35-51), taking tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/lamivudine/efavirenz (49 [61%]) and on ART for a median of 5.9 y (IQR 3.3-8.6). At 36 weeks, 22/40 (55%) participants in the switch versus 10/40 (25%) in the control group achieved viral suppression (adjusted difference 29%, 95% CI 8%-50%, p = 0.009). The switch group had significantly higher probability of viral suppression across different VL thresholds (<20, <100, <200, <400, and <600 copies/mL) but not for <1,000 copies/mL. Thirty-four (85%) participants in switch group and 21 (53%) in control group experienced at least one adverse event (AE) (p = 0.002). No hospitalization or death or other serious adverse events were observed. Study limitations include a follow-up period too short to observe differences in clinical outcomes, missing values in CD4 cell counts due to national stockout of reagents during the study, and limited generalizability of findings to other than NNRTI-based first-line ART regimens. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, switching to second-line ART among patients with sustained low-level HIV-1 viremia resulted in a higher proportion of participants with viral suppression. These results endorse lowering the threshold for virologic failure in future WHO guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03088241.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral
7.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(9): 582-587, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909408

RESUMO

The antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven its effectiveness in improving the life expectancy of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Based on the inhibition of HIV replication, ART ensures the reduction of plasma viral load to undetectable levels on long-term. Unfortunately, once ART is interrupted, the viral load rises up. Consequently, the therapy remains not curative. The reasons for this failure lie in the presence of latent reservoirs of the virus and/or the presence of ongoing replication, responsible for the persistence of the virus. This ongoing replication despite ongoing therapy has been demonstrated in sanctuary sites where the penetration of antiretroviral drugs is suboptimal. Moreover, some treatment intensification studies, mostly through addition of an integrase inhibitor, transiently resulted in increases in HIV replication by-products, highlighting that such strategies could reduce ongoing replication. Although the debate is still open, confirming the presence of this ongoing replication and finding strategies to eliminate it would be part of the key to a cure for HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Humanos , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
8.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(9): 23-26, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798341

RESUMO

Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a chronic multisystem disease and about 70% develop neurologic complications (including distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) any time during their life. DSPN is also a very common toxicity of drugs used to treat HIV infection. Little is known about the impact of HIV per se or other factors (apart from drugs) on the occurrence of DSPN in these patients. Methods: It was a cross sectional, observational study, done at the department of Medicine, PGIMER, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India. Ninety consecutive 18-40 years old HIV infected but treatment naïve (ART naïve) cases and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited for this study. Results: Out of 90 cases, 12 (13.4%) had DSPN (8 males and 4 females). The mean CD4 counts of these cases with and without DSPN was 294.73/µl and 370.84/µl respectively. Only 3 out of these 12 cases were symptomatic on presentation and rest nine were diagnosed on NCV study. No control had abnormal NCV. Presence of DSPN was found to be directly associated with infection with HIV per se (p<0.001) along with duration of HIV infection (p<0.01) and level of immunodeficiency (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that DSPN is already present in 13.4% of treatment naive patients with HIV/AIDS and even with milder immunodeficiency and at early stages of disease. Not only HAART but HIV by itself is a major causative risk factor for DSPN in these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Polineuropatias , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 8-12, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733653

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite increasing life expectancy among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), anti-retroviral therapy (ART) side effects, HIV chronic inflammation and co-morbidities may limit functional abilities and reduced participation in exercises and physical activity (PA). PA improves wellbeing and overall quality of life of PLWHIV. In Malawi, there is paucity of information regarding PA levels among Malawians living with HIV and receiving ART. Therefore, this study aimed at determining PA levels among PLWHIV and receiving ART in Malawi. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional design was employed. Eligible participants were male and female adults aged 18-45 years living with HIV receiving ART for at least 1 year. The participants were recruited from Limbe Health Center, Gateway Health Center and Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess the PA levels. A Stadiometer (HS-DBS00361, Model: 1127154) was used to measure weight (kg) and height (cm) of the participants. Results: A total of 213 participants were recruited. There were more females than male participants (n=132 females). Overall, the mean age of all participants was 37±6.5 years and they were within normal body weight (BMI=23±4.0). Many participants (n=85, 40%) had low PA levels followed by those who were moderately physically active (n=75, 36%). A larger proportion of the female participants (51%) had low PA levels compared to males (22%). Forty-two percent of participants with 1-3 years of ART had low PA whereas 39% with >3 years ART had low PA. Conclusion: Most PLWHIV and receiving ART in the sample have low PA levels. The study has also revealed that proportionally more females than males had low PA levels.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Exercício Físico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet HIV ; 7(8): e545-e553, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring that individuals who are living with HIV rapidly initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an essential step in meeting the 90-90-90 targets. We evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of rapid ART initiation in the Botswana Combination Prevention Project (BCPP). We aimed to establish whether simplified ART initiation with the offer of same-day treatment could increase uptake and reduce time from clinic linkage to treatment initiation, while maintaining rates of retention in care and viral suppression. METHODS: We did a quasi-experimental before and after study with use of data from the BCPP. The BCPP was a community-randomised HIV-prevention trial done in 30 communities across Botswana from Oct 1, 2013, to June 30, 2018. Participants in the 15 intervention clusters, who were HIV-positive and not already taking ART were offered universal HIV-treatment and same-day ART with a dolutegravir-based regimen at first clinic visit. This rapid ART intervention was implemented mid-way through the trial on June 1, 2016, enabling us to determine the effect of rapid ART guidelines on time to ART initiation and rates of retention in care and viral suppression at 1 year in the BCPP intervention group. FINDINGS: We assessed 1717 adults linked to study clinics before rapid ART introduction and 800 after rapid ART introduction. During the rapid ART period, 457 (57·1%, 95% CI 53·7-60·6) individuals initiated ART within 1 day of linkage, 589 (73·7%, 70·6-76·7) of 799 within 1 week, 678 (84·9%, 82·4-87·3) of 799 within 1 month, and 744 (93·5%, 91·6-95·1) of 796 within 1 year. Before the introduction of rapid ART, 163 (9·5%, 95% CI 8·2-11·0) individuals initiated ART within 1 day of linkage, 276 (16·1%, 14·4-17·9) within 1 week, 839 (48·9%, 46·5-51·3) within 1 month, and 1532 (89·2%, 87·7-90·6) within 1 year. 1 year after ART initiation, 1472 (90·5%, 87·4-92·8) of 1627 individuals who linked in the standard ART period were in care and had a viral load of less than 400 copies per mL, compared with 578 (91·6%, 88·1-94·1) of 631 in the rapid ART period (risk ratio 1·01, 95% CI 0·92-1·11). INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide support for the WHO recommendations for rapid ART initiation, and add to the accumulating evidence showing the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of rapid ART initiation in low-income and middle-income country settings. FUNDING: US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Botsuana , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Lancet HIV ; 7(8): e565-e573, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low CD4/CD8 ratio during antiretroviral therapy (ART) identifies people with heightened immunosenescence and increased risk of mortality. We aimed to assess the effects of integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based, protease inhibitor-based, or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line ART on long-term CD4/CD8 ratio recovery. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 13 026 individuals with HIV registered in the Spanish HIV Research Network (CoRIS) cohort recruited from 45 Spanish hospitals. We included HIV-positive people who started triple ART (two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTI] with a NNRTI, protease inhibitor, or INSTI) and had HIV RNA suppression within 48 weeks. We used piecewise linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders to compare longitudinal changes in the CD4/CD8 ratio between people receiving three different types of ART. We used Cox proportional-hazard models to compare the times to CD4/CD8 normalisation between the treatment groups, using cutoff ratios of 0·4, 1·0, and 1·5. FINDINGS: 6804 individuals contributing 37 149 persons-years and 37 680 observations were analysed; median follow-up was 49 months (IQR 22-89). INSTI-based ART was associated with greater CD4/CD8 gain (change per year compared with INSTI was coefficient -0·07 [95% CI -0·08 to -0·06] for NNRTI and was -0·08 [-0·09 to -0·08] for protease inhibitors). Differences were observed from the first year of therapy and were driven by changes in both CD4 and CD8 cell counts. Subanalyses at different time periods suggested that these differences were driven by changes during the first year of ART without significant differences in the adjusted CD4/CD8 ratio trajectories after the second year of ART (change per year compared with INSTI was coefficient -0·03 [95% CI -0·05 to -0·13] for NNRTI and was -0·06 [95% CI -0·08 to -0·04] for protease inhibitors). Although no differences in the time until CD4/CD8 normalisation at a cutoff ratio of no less than 0·4 were reported between any of the groups, compared with the INSTI group, both the NNRTI and protease inhibitor groups showed lower rates of normalisation at cutoff ratios of 1·0 or more (adjusted hazard ratio 0·80 [95% CI 0·72-0·89] for the NNRTI group and 0·79 [0·69-0·89] for the protease inhibitor group), and 1·5 or more (0·79 [0·65-0·95] for the NNRTI group and 0·78 [0·64-0·97] for the protease inhibitor group). No differences were found between the different integrases in the time until CD4/CD8 normalisation. Subanalyses adjusted for the backbone NRTIs and allowing observations after virological failure yielded similar results. INTERPRETATION: This study provides new evidence that reinforces the positioning of INSTI-based therapies as a first choice and underlines the importance of analysing the effects of therapeutic interventions on biomarkers linked with morbidity and mortality beyond the plasma HIV RNA and the CD4 cell counts. FUNDING: Spanish AIDS Research Network (Instituto de Salud Carlos III), European Development Regional Fund "A way to achieve Europe".


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Relação CD4-CD8 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
12.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 705-711, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734734

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the recent antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, a large proportion of Korean patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were shown to have low CD4 cell counts at diagnosis and during ART initiation. We investigated the survival trends in patients living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Korea who started ART in the 2000s, and evaluated the risk factors for mortality to elucidate the association between survival and low CD4 cell counts at ART initiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with HIV infection who were aged >18 years and had started ART between 2001 and 2015 in the Korean HIV/AIDS cohort study were enrolled. We compared the clinical characteristics, mortality, and causes of death among the enrolled subjects based on the time of ART initiation. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios of mortality based on the time of ART initiation. RESULTS: Among the 2474 patients enrolled, 105 (4.24%) died during the follow-up period of 9568 patient-years. Although CD4 cell counts at the time of ART initiation significantly increased from 161 [interquartile range (IQR), 73.5-303] in 2001-2003 to 273 (IQR, 108-399) in 2013-2015 (p<0.001), they remained low during the study period. The incidence of all-cause mortality was 10.97 per 1000 patient-years during the study period. There was no decreasing trend in mortality between 2001 and 2015. Age >40 years [adjusted hazard ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.35-5.84] and low CD4 counts (<100 cells/mm³: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.44-6.23) were significant risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Despite excellent HIV care available in the recent ART era, the survival of patients with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART did not improve between 2001 and 2015 in Korea.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The long-term prognosis of HIV-2-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still challenging, due to the intrinsic resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and the suboptimal response to some protease inhibitors (PI). The objective was to describe the 5-years outcomes among HIV-2 patients harboring drug-resistant viruses. METHODS: A clinic-based cohort of HIV-2-patients experiencing virologic failure, with at least one drug resistance mutation was followed from January 2012 to August 2017 in Côte d'Ivoire. Follow-up data included death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), immuno-virological responses. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 31 HIV-2 patients with virologic failure and with at least one drug resistance mutation were included. Two-third of them were men, 28(90.3%) were on PI-based ART-regimen at enrolment and the median age was 50 years (IQR = 46-54). The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 456 cells/mm3 and 3.7 log10 c/mL respectively, and the participants have been followed-up in median 57 months (IQR = 24-60). During this period, 21 (67.7%) patients switched at least one antiretroviral drug, including two (6.5%) and three (9.7%) who switched to a PI-based and an integrase inhibitor-based regimen respectively. A total of 10(32.3%) patients died and 4(12.9%) were LTFU. The 36 and 60-months survival rates were 68.5% and 64.9%, respectively. Among the 17 patients remaining in care, six(35.3%) had an undetectable viral load (<50 c/mL) and for the 11 others, the viral load ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 log10 c/mL. Twelve patients were receiving lopinavir at the time of first genotype, five(42%) had a genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) ≤1 and 4(33%) a GSS >2. CONCLUSIONS: The 36-months survival rate among ART-experienced HIV-2 patients with drug-resistant viruses is below 70%,lower than in HIV-1. There is urgent need to improve access to second-line ART for patients living with HIV-2 in West Africa.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-2/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 43, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that viral load ([VL) is a primary tool that clinicians and researchers have used to monitor patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), an antiviral drug against retroviruses. Whereas, CD4 cell counts can only be used to monitor clinical response to ART in the absence of VL testing service. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess the level of immunological status and virological suppression, and identify associated factors among human immunodeficiency virus ([HIV)-infected adults who were taking antiretroviral drugs of combination regimen know as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized referral hospital from February to April 2018. A total of 323 adult participants on HAART were selected using a systematic random sampling technique and enrolled into the study. Blood samples for viral load determination and CD4 cell count were collected. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with immunologic status and virological suppression in HIV patients on HAART. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to measure the strength of association. RESULTS: Virological suppression (VL level < 1000 copies/ml) was found in 82% (95% CI 77.7, 86.1) of study participants, and it has been associated with CD4 cell count between 350 and 499 cells/mm3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.56; 95% CI 1.14, 5.75) and > 499 cells/mm3 (AOR = 7.71; 95% CI 3.48, 17.09) at VL testing and current age > 45 years old (AOR = 5.99; 95% CI 2.12, 16.91). Similarly, favorable immunological status (≥ 400 cells/mm3 for male and ≥ 466 cells/mm3 for female) was observed in 52.9% (95% CI 47.4, 58.8) of the study participants. Baseline CD4 cell count of > 200 cells/mm3, age at enrollment of 26 through 40 years old, and urban residence were significantly associated with favorable immunological status. CONCLUSION: Though the majority of HIV-infected adults who were on HAART had shown viral suppression, the rate of suppression was sub-optimal according to the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target to help end the AIDS pandemic by 2020. Nonetheless, the rate of immunological recovery in the study cohort was low. Hence, early initiation of HAART should be strengthened to achieve good virological suppression and immunological recovery.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Carga Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of HIV infection and combined antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) on various proatherogenic biomarkers and lipids and to investigate their relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis in a cohort of treatment-naive HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective, comparative, multicenter study of 2 groups of treatment-naive HIV-infected patients (group A, CD4>500 cells/µL, not starting c-ART; and group B, CD4<500 cells/µL, starting c-ART at baseline) and a healthy control group. Laboratory analyses and carotid ultrasound were performed at baseline and at months 12 and 24. The parameters measured were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle phenotype, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), sCD14, sCD163, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). A linear mixed model based on patient clusters was used to assess differences in biomarkers between the study groups and over time. RESULTS: The study population comprised 62 HIV-infected patients (group A, n = 31; group B, n = 31) and 22 controls. Age was 37 (30-43) years, and 81% were men. At baseline, the HIV-infected patients had a worse LDL particle phenotype and higher plasma concentration of sCD14, sCD163, hs-CRP, and LDL-Lp-PLA2 than the controls. At month 12, there was an increase in total cholesterol (p = 0.002), HDL-c (p = 0.003), and Apo A-I (p = 0.049) and a decrease in sCD14 (p = <0.001) and sCD163 (p<0.001), although only in group B. LDL particle size increased in group B at month 24 (p = 0.038). No changes were observed in group A or in the healthy controls. Common carotid intima-media thickness increased in HIV-infected patients at month 24 (Group A p = 0.053; group B p = 0.048). Plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163, and hs-CRP correlated with lipid values. CONCLUSIONS: In treatment-naive HIV-infected patients, initiation of c-ART was associated with an improvement in LDL particle phenotype and inflammatory/immune biomarkers, reaching values similar to those of the controls. HIV infection was associated with progression of carotid intima-media thickness.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/sangue , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/virologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Colesterol/sangue , Grupos Controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/virologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e629-e640, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic could lead to disruptions to provision of HIV services for people living with HIV and those at risk of acquiring HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, where UNAIDS estimated that more than two-thirds of the approximately 38 million people living with HIV resided in 2018. We aimed to predict the potential effects of such disruptions on HIV-related deaths and new infections in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used five well described models of HIV epidemics (Goals, Optima HIV, HIV Synthesis, an Imperial College London model, and Epidemiological MODeling software [EMOD]) to estimate the effect of various potential disruptions to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services on HIV-related deaths and new infections in sub-Saharan Africa lasting 6 months over 1 year from April 1, 2020. We considered scenarios in which disruptions affected 20%, 50%, and 100% of the population. FINDINGS: A 6-month interruption of supply of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs across 50% of the population of people living with HIV who are on treatment would be expected to lead to a 1·63 times (median across models; range 1·39-1·87) increase in HIV-related deaths over a 1-year period compared with no disruption. In sub-Saharan Africa, this increase amounts to a median excess of HIV deaths, across all model estimates, of 296 000 (range 229 023-420 000) if such a high level of disruption occurred. Interruption of ART would increase mother-to-child transmission of HIV by approximately 1·6 times. Although an interruption in the supply of ART drugs would have the largest impact of any potential disruptions, effects of poorer clinical care due to overstretched health facilities, interruptions of supply of other drugs such as co-trimoxazole, and suspension of HIV testing would all have a substantial effect on population-level mortality (up to a 1·06 times increase in HIV-related deaths over a 1-year period due to disruptions affecting 50% of the population compared with no disruption). Interruption to condom supplies and peer education would make populations more susceptible to increases in HIV incidence, although physical distancing measures could lead to reductions in risky sexual behaviour (up to 1·19 times increase in new HIV infections over a 1-year period if 50% of people are affected). INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the primary priority for governments, donors, suppliers, and communities should focus on maintaining uninterrupted supply of ART drugs for people with HIV to avoid additional HIV-related deaths. The provision of other HIV prevention measures is also important to prevent any increase in HIV incidence. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Preservativos/provisão & distribução , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Saúde Global/tendências , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e652-e660, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791046

RESUMO

Haemopoietic cell transplantation is established as a standard treatment approach for people living with HIV who have haematological malignancies with poor prognosis. Studies with autologous and allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation suggest that HIV status does not adversely affect outcomes, provided that there is adequate infection prophylaxis. Attention to possible drug-drug interactions is important. Allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation substantially reduces the long-term HIV reservoir when complete donor chimerism is established. When transplants from CCR5Δ32 homozygous donors are used, HIV cure is possible.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Receptores CCR5 , Transplante Autólogo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Arch. med ; 20(2): 269-281, 20200703.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118575

RESUMO

Objetivo: determinar el efecto del cambio en la terapia antirretroviral sobre el control virológico en una cohorte de pacientes VIH positivos de una institución prestadora de servicios de salud en Medellín, Antioquia (Colombia) en el año 2017. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional analítico transversal, comparativo entre pacientes que cambiaron y no cambiaron el esquema inicial de terapia antirretroviral. Se realizó en una cohorte de 1245 pacientes que conviven con el VIH. Resultados: un total de 322 pacientes fueron evaluados. El principal motivo de cambio fue la presencia de efectos adversos a la terapia antirretroviral, seguido de la falla virológica sin genotipo e intolerancia a la terapia antirretroviral. La falla virológica, RP 1,4 IC95% (1,2-1,6, p0,00), el tener genotipo, RP 1,2 IC95% (1,1-1,3, p 0,00) y el padecer una infección oportunista, RP 1,3 IC95% (1,0-1,6, p 0,03), se asociaron a mayor número de cambios a la TAR. La adherencia a la terapia antirretroviral, RP 0,18 IC95% (0,1-0,3, p 0,00) y la toma de otros medicamentos no relacionados al VIH (RP 0,6, IC95% 0,4-0,8, p 0,005) se asociaron a menor frecuencia de cambio de la terapia antirretroviral. El cambio de la terapia antirretroviral (OR ajustado 3,4, IC 95% (2,0-5,8), continúa siendo el factor pronóstico más importante para falla virológica. Conclusión: el cambio de la terapia antirretroviral, definida en este estudio como la principal variable de exposición, representa el principal factor de riesgo para falla virológica, incluso cuando fue ajustado por otras variables..Au


Objective: to determine the effect of the change in antiretroviral therapy on virological control in a cohort of HIV positive patients corresponding to a healthcare institution in Medellín, Antioquia (Colombia) in 2017. Materials and methods: cross-sectional,comparative analytical observational study. It was performed in a cohort of 1245 patients living with HIV. Results: a total of 322 patients were evaluated. The main reason for change was the presence of adverse effects to antiretroviral therapy, followed by virological failure without genotype and antiretroviral therapy intolerance. Virological failure, PR 1.4 95% CI (1.2-1.6, p 0,00), having genotype, PR 1.2 95% CI (1.1-1.3, p0,00 ) and suffering from an opportunistic infection, PR 1.3 95% CI (1.0-1.6, p 0,03),were associated with a greater number of changes to antiretroviral therapy. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy, PR 0.18 95% CI (0.1-0.3, p 0,00) and taking other non-HIVrelated medications (PR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0 , 8, p 0,005) were associated with a lower frequency of change of antiretroviral therapy. The change in antiretroviral therapy (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI (2.0-5.8)) remains the most important prognostic factor for virological failure. Conclusion: the change in antirretroviral therapy, defined in this study as the main exposure variable, represents the main risk factor for virological failure, even when was adjusted for other variables..Au


Assuntos
HIV , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade
19.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 313-319, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress viral replication to undetectable levels. These low viral load (VL) levels may not be attained in some patients, a situation representing potential virological failure during the course of treatment. OBJECTIVES: To present the results of a Markov model exploring how virological failure and active tuberculosis (TB) affect the progression of HIV in patients on ART. METHODS: A continuous-time non-homogeneous Markov model was used to model the progression of HIV/AIDS in patients on combination ART (cART). We define seven states in our model. The first five states are based on VL levels and the other two are absorbing states: death and withdrawal from the study. The effects of TB co-infection, baseline VL, lactic acidosis and treatment failure on transition intensities were assessed. RESULTS: The model shows that VL-based transition intensities do not follow a constant rate; rather, there are two different trends in HIV/AIDS progression. The first trend is an increase in the prevalence of state 1 (undetectable VL levels) in the first 0.5 years of treatment. The second trend follows thereafter and shows a slow decrease. Within the first 0.5 years of therapeutic intervention, the undetectable VL state is therefore attainable from any VL state. However, when virological failure occurs, there is an increased risk of death. Developing active TB while on cART increases the risk of viral rebound from undetectable levels to VLs between 50 and 10 000 copies/mL by ~1.03-fold. From a VL between 10 000 and 100 000 copies/mL, developing TB while on cART increases the rate of viral rebound by ~2.5-fold. However, if TB is detected and treated at enrolment, rates of viral rebound from undetectable levels are reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The model confirms that virological failure, coupled with developing active TB while on cART, increases mortality rates irrespective of patient CD4+ count status. It also suggests that while TB at the time of cART initiation does not increase the risk of viral rebound, development of active TB after cART initiation does increase this risk. These findings highlight the importance of strengthening VL monitoring, which should be performed every 2 months, especially in patients with TB, and addressing unsuppressed VLs appropriately if they are detected.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Progressão da Doença , Interações Medicamentosas , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/complicações , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , População Rural , África do Sul , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among people living with HIV (PLWH), and current evidence suggests that heavy alcohol users have an increased risk of developing TB disease compared to non-drinkers. Not known is whether the increased risk for TB disease among alcohol users may reflect higher rates of latent TB infection (LTBI) among this population. We assessed the latent TB infection prevalence based on tuberculin skin testing (TST) and examined association with current alcohol use among HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in south-western Uganda. METHODS: We included PLWH at the Mbarara Regional Hospital HIV clinic, who were either current alcohol consumers (prior 3 months) or past year abstainers (2:1 enrolment ratio). Participants were recruited for a study of isoniazid preventive therapy for LTBI. TST was performed using 5 tuberculin units of purified protein derivative. The primary outcome was a positive TST reading (≥5mm induration), reflecting LTBI. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the cross-sectional association between self-reported current alcohol use and a positive TST. RESULTS: Of the 295 of 312 (95%) who returned for TST reading, 63% were females and 63% were current alcohol drinkers. The TST positive prevalence was 27.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.6% - 32.9%). The odds of a positive TST for current alcohol users compared to abstainers was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.41, 1.41), controlling for gender, age, body mass index, history of smoking, and prior unhealthy alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of LTBI among PLWH on ART in south-western Uganda was moderate and LTBI poses a risk for future infectious TB. Although alcohol use is common, we did not detect an association between current drinking or prior unhealthy alcohol use and LTBI. Further studies to evaluate the association between LTBI and different levels of current drinking (heavy versus not) are needed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Tuberculose Latente/etiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico , Uganda/epidemiologia
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