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1.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009050, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444376

RESUMO

HIV can evolve remarkably quickly in response to antiretroviral therapies and the immune system. This evolution stymies treatment effectiveness and prevents the development of an HIV vaccine. Consequently, there has been a great interest in using population genetics to disentangle the forces that govern the HIV adaptive landscape (selection, drift, mutation, and recombination). Traditional population genetics approaches look at the current state of genetic variation and infer the processes that can generate it. However, because HIV evolves rapidly, we can also sample populations repeatedly over time and watch evolution in action. In this paper, we demonstrate how time series data can bound evolutionary parameters in a way that complements and informs traditional population genetic approaches. Specifically, we focus on our recent paper (Feder et al., 2016, eLife), in which we show that, as improved HIV drugs have led to fewer patients failing therapy due to resistance evolution, less genetic diversity has been maintained following the fixation of drug resistance mutations. Because soft sweeps of multiple drug resistance mutations spreading simultaneously have been previously documented in response to the less effective HIV therapies used early in the epidemic, we interpret the maintenance of post-sweep diversity in response to poor therapies as further evidence of soft sweeps and therefore a high population mutation rate (θ) in these intra-patient HIV populations. Because improved drugs resulted in rarer resistance evolution accompanied by lower post-sweep diversity, we suggest that both observations can be explained by decreased population mutation rates and a resultant transition to hard selective sweeps. A recent paper (Harris et al., 2018, PLOS Genetics) proposed an alternative interpretation: Diversity maintenance following drug resistance evolution in response to poor therapies may have been driven by recombination during slow, hard selective sweeps of single mutations. Then, if better drugs have led to faster hard selective sweeps of resistance, recombination will have less time to rescue diversity during the sweep, recapitulating the decrease in post-sweep diversity as drugs have improved. In this paper, we use time series data to show that drug resistance evolution during ineffective treatment is very fast, providing new evidence that soft sweeps drove early HIV treatment failure.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Seleção Genética/genética
3.
Lancet HIV ; 8(1): e33-e41, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir has been widely available in Brazil since 2017. Following the signal that infants born to women with dolutegravir exposure at conception in Botswana had a higher risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), public health leaders initiated a national investigation to evaluate periconception dolutegravir exposure among all pregnant Brazilian women with HIV and its potential association with risk of NTDs, stillbirth, or miscarriage before 22 weeks (also called spontaneous abortion). METHODS: In this retrospective, observational, national, cohort study, we identified all women with pregnancies and possible dolutegravir exposure within 8 weeks of estimated date of conception between Jan 1, 2017, and May 31, 2018, and approximately 3:1 matched pregnant women exposed to efavirenz between Jan 1, 2015, and May 31, 2018, using the Brazilian antiretroviral therapy database. We did detailed chart reviews for identified women. The primary outcomes were NTD and a composite measure of NTD, stillbirth, or miscarriage. NTD incidences were calculated with 95% CI. The composite outcome was examined with logistic regression using propensity score matching weights to balance confounders. FINDINGS: Of 1427 included women, 382 were exposed to dolutegravir within 8 weeks of estimated date of conception. During pregnancy, 183 (48%) of 382 dolutegravir-exposed and 465 (44%) of 1045 efavirenz-exposed women received folic acid supplementation. There were 1452 birth outcomes. There were no NTDs in either dolutegravir-exposed (0, 95% CI 0-0·0010) or efavirenz-exposed groups (0, 95% CI 0-0·0036). There were 23 (6%) stillbirths or miscarriages in 384 dolutegravir-exposed fetuses and 28 (3%) in the 1068 efavirenz-exposed fetuses (p=0·0037). Logistic regression models did not consistently indicate an association between dolutegravir exposure and risk of stillbirths or miscarriages. After study closure, two confirmed NTD outcomes in fetuses with periconception dolutegravir exposure were reported to public health officials. An updated estimate of NTD incidence incorporating these cases and the estimated number of additional dolutegravir-exposed pregnancies between Jan 1, 2015 and Feb 28, 2019, is 0·0018 (95% CI 0·0005-0·0067). INTERPRETATION: Neither dolutegravir nor efavirenz exposure was associated with NTDs in our national cohort; incidence of NTDs is probably well under 1% in dolutegravir-exposed HIV-positive women but still slightly above HIV-uninfected women (0·06%) in Brazil. FUNDING: The Brazilian Ministry of Health and the United States' National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to systematically quantify adverse events (AE) will assist in the improvement of medical care and the QoL of patients living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported side effects and other PROs, demographics and laboratory data, and further evaluate the Health Questionnaire (HQ) as a tool for following trends in patient-reported side effects over time in relation to trends in prescribed third agent in ART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Swedish National Registry InfCareHiv includes an annual self-reported nine-item HQwhich is used in patient-centered HIV care in all Swedish HIV units. In this study, the experience of side effects was addressed. We analyzed 9,476 HQs completed by 4,186 PLWH together with details about their prescribed ART and relevant biomarkers collected during 2011-2017. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and mixed logistic regression. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis of the HQs showed that the frequency of reported side effects decreased from 32% (2011) to 15% (2017). During the same period, there was a shift in ART prescription from efavirenz (EFV) to dolutegravir (DTG) (positive correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p = 0.0016). Further, PLWH who reported being satisfied with their physical health (OR: 0.47, p = <0.001) or psychological health (OR: 0.70, p = 0.001) were less likely to report side effects than those less satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported side effects were found to have a close relationship with the patient's ratings of their overall health situation and demonstrated a strong correlation with the sharp decline in use of EFV and rise in use of DTG, with reported side effects being halved. This study supports the feasibility of using the HQ as a tool for longitudinal follow up of trends in PROs.


Assuntos
Alquinos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Alquinos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Suécia
5.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e677-e687, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Updated WHO guidelines recommend a dolutegravir-based regimen as the preferred first-line treatment for HIV infection and low-dose efavirenz (400 mg) as an alternative. We aimed to report the non-inferior efficacy of dolutegravir compared with efavirenz 400 mg at week 96. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, open label, phase 3 trial in in three hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral-naive adults with an HIV RNA viral load of greater than 1000 copies per mL to compare dolutegravir 50 mg with efavirenz 400 mg (reference treatment), both combined with lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The primary endpoint was the proportion with a viral load of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48 (10% non-inferiority margin). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02777229 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between July, 2016, and August, 2019, of 820 patients assessed, 613 were randomly assigned to receive at least one dose of study medication, with 310 in the dolutegravir group and 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group. At week 96 in the intention-to-treat analysis, 229 (74%) of 310 patients receiving dolutegravir and 219 (72%) of 303 patients receiving efavirenz, achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL (difference 1·6%, 95% CI -5·4 to 8·6; p=0.66). Viral load suppression was reached significantly more rapidly in the dolutegravir group (p<0·001). Virological failure (>1000 copies per mL) was observed in 27 patients (eight in the dolutegravir group, among which, three women switched to efavirenz 600 mg because of the dolutegravir teratogeneicity signal, and 19 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). No acquired resistance mutations to dolutegravir were observed against 17 mutations to efavirenz with or without mutations to lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among the 19 efavirenz 400 mg participants with virological failure. Weight gain was greater in the dolutegravir group (median weight gain, 5·0 kg in the dolutegravir group and 3·0 kg in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p<0·001, and incidence of obesity, 22% in the dolutegravir group and 16% in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p=0·043). The incidence of new WHO HIV-related stage 3 and 4 events was similar in each group (12 [4%] in each group). The two groups had similar rates of serious adverse events (28 [9%] of 310 in the dolutegravir group and 21 [7%] of 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). 18 deaths were observed during the 96-week follow-up (eight in the dolutegravir group and ten in the efavirenz 400 mg group). INTERPRETATION: The non-inferior efficacy of the dolutegravir-based regimen and non-emergence of dolutegravir resistance at 96 weeks supports its use as a first-line regimen for antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection. Viral load suppression was reached more quickly in the dolutegravir group and weight gain was significantly higher. FUNDING: UNITAID and the French National Agency for AIDS Research.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Ciclopropanos , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Piridonas , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239758, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People with HIV (PWH) continue to experience sensory neuropathy and neuropathic pain in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era for unclear reasons. This study evaluated the role of iron in a previously reported association of iron-loading hemochromatosis (HFE) gene variants with reduced risk of neuropathy in PWH who received more neurotoxic cART, since an iron-related mechanism also might be relevant to neuropathic symptoms in PWH living in low-resource settings today. DESIGN: This time-to-event analysis addressed the impact of systemic iron levels on the rapidity of neuropathy onset in PWH who initiated cART. METHODS: Soluble transferrin receptor (sTFR), the sTFR-ferritin index of iron stores, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were determined in stored baseline sera from participants of known HFE genotype from AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study 384, a multicenter randomized clinical trial that evaluated cART strategies. Associations with incident neuropathy were evaluated in proportional-hazards, time-to-event regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 151 eligible participants with stored serum who were included in the original genetic study, 43 had cART-associated neuropathy; 108 had sufficient serum for analysis, including 30 neuropathy cases. Carriers of HFE variants had higher systemic iron (lower sTFR and sTFR-ferritin index) and lower hsCRP levels than non-carriers (all p<0.05). Higher sTFR or iron stores, the HFE 187C>G variant, and lower baseline hsCRP were associated with significantly delayed neuropathy in self-reported whites (n = 28; all p-values<0.05), independent of age, CD4+ T-cell count, plasma HIV RNA, and cART regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Higher iron stores, the HFE 187C>G variant, and lower hsCRP predicted delayed onset of neuropathy among self-reported white individuals initating cART. These findings require confirmation but may have implications for cART in HIV+ populations in areas with high endemic iron deficiency, especially those PWH in whom older, more neurotoxic antiretroviral drugs are occasionally still used.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Variação Genética/genética , Proteína da Hemocromatose/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/genética , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Ferritinas/genética , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hemocromatose/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality at all stages of infection and reduced transmission of HIV. Currently, the immediate start of HAART is recommended for all HIV patients, regardless of the CD4 count. There are several concerns, however, about starting treatment in critically ill patients. Unpredictable absorption of medication by the gastrointestinal tract, drug toxicity, drug interactions, limited reserve to tolerate the dysfunction of other organs resulting from hypersensitivity to drugs or immune reconstitution syndrome, and the possibility that subtherapeutic levels of drug may lead to viral resistance are the main concerns. The objective of our study was to compare the early onset (up to 5 days) with late onset (after discharge from the ICU) of HAART in HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU. METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label clinical trial enrolling HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Patients randomized to the intervention group had to start treatment with HAART within 5 days of ICU admission. For patients in the control group, treatment should begin after discharge from the ICU. The patients were followed up to determine mortality in the ICU, in the hospital and at 6 months. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was mortality at 6 months. RESULTS: The calculated sample size was 344 patients. Unfortunately, we decided to discontinue the study due to a progressively slower recruitment rate. A total of 115 patients were randomized. The majority of admissions were for AIDS-defining illnesses and low CD4. The main cause of admission was respiratory failure. Regarding the early and late study groups, there was no difference in hospital (66.7% and 63.8%, p = 0.75) or 6-month (68.4% and 79.2%, p = 0.20) mortality. After multivariate analysis, the only independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were shock and dialysis during the ICU stay. For the mortality outcome at 6 months, the independent variables were shock and dialysis during the ICU stay and tuberculosis at ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Although the early termination of the study precludes definitive conclusions being made, early HAART administration for HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU compared to late administration did not show benefit in hospital mortality or 6-month mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01455688. Registered 20 October 2011, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01455688.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estado Terminal , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/etiologia , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The long-term prognosis of HIV-2-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still challenging, due to the intrinsic resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and the suboptimal response to some protease inhibitors (PI). The objective was to describe the 5-years outcomes among HIV-2 patients harboring drug-resistant viruses. METHODS: A clinic-based cohort of HIV-2-patients experiencing virologic failure, with at least one drug resistance mutation was followed from January 2012 to August 2017 in Côte d'Ivoire. Follow-up data included death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), immuno-virological responses. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 31 HIV-2 patients with virologic failure and with at least one drug resistance mutation were included. Two-third of them were men, 28(90.3%) were on PI-based ART-regimen at enrolment and the median age was 50 years (IQR = 46-54). The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 456 cells/mm3 and 3.7 log10 c/mL respectively, and the participants have been followed-up in median 57 months (IQR = 24-60). During this period, 21 (67.7%) patients switched at least one antiretroviral drug, including two (6.5%) and three (9.7%) who switched to a PI-based and an integrase inhibitor-based regimen respectively. A total of 10(32.3%) patients died and 4(12.9%) were LTFU. The 36 and 60-months survival rates were 68.5% and 64.9%, respectively. Among the 17 patients remaining in care, six(35.3%) had an undetectable viral load (<50 c/mL) and for the 11 others, the viral load ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 log10 c/mL. Twelve patients were receiving lopinavir at the time of first genotype, five(42%) had a genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) ≤1 and 4(33%) a GSS >2. CONCLUSIONS: The 36-months survival rate among ART-experienced HIV-2 patients with drug-resistant viruses is below 70%,lower than in HIV-1. There is urgent need to improve access to second-line ART for patients living with HIV-2 in West Africa.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-2/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of HIV infection and combined antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) on various proatherogenic biomarkers and lipids and to investigate their relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis in a cohort of treatment-naive HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective, comparative, multicenter study of 2 groups of treatment-naive HIV-infected patients (group A, CD4>500 cells/µL, not starting c-ART; and group B, CD4<500 cells/µL, starting c-ART at baseline) and a healthy control group. Laboratory analyses and carotid ultrasound were performed at baseline and at months 12 and 24. The parameters measured were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle phenotype, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), sCD14, sCD163, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). A linear mixed model based on patient clusters was used to assess differences in biomarkers between the study groups and over time. RESULTS: The study population comprised 62 HIV-infected patients (group A, n = 31; group B, n = 31) and 22 controls. Age was 37 (30-43) years, and 81% were men. At baseline, the HIV-infected patients had a worse LDL particle phenotype and higher plasma concentration of sCD14, sCD163, hs-CRP, and LDL-Lp-PLA2 than the controls. At month 12, there was an increase in total cholesterol (p = 0.002), HDL-c (p = 0.003), and Apo A-I (p = 0.049) and a decrease in sCD14 (p = <0.001) and sCD163 (p<0.001), although only in group B. LDL particle size increased in group B at month 24 (p = 0.038). No changes were observed in group A or in the healthy controls. Common carotid intima-media thickness increased in HIV-infected patients at month 24 (Group A p = 0.053; group B p = 0.048). Plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163, and hs-CRP correlated with lipid values. CONCLUSIONS: In treatment-naive HIV-infected patients, initiation of c-ART was associated with an improvement in LDL particle phenotype and inflammatory/immune biomarkers, reaching values similar to those of the controls. HIV infection was associated with progression of carotid intima-media thickness.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/sangue , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/virologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Colesterol/sangue , Grupos Controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/virologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Oral Dis ; 26 Suppl 1: 153-157, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862543

RESUMO

The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a rare acute complication presenting in people living with HIV (PLWH) within the first 6 months of starting combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While there is relevant information about its pathogenesis and clinical spectrum, IRIS-oral lesions (IRIS-OLs) have been scarcely described. Thus, to establish the incidence and clinical characteristics of IRIS-OLs, data from a cohort of 158 HIV individuals starting cART, followed for 6 months, were obtained retrospectively. IRIS-OLs developed in 11.4% of the individuals, in a median time of 87.5 days, with oral candidiasis being the most frequent manifestation detected in eight individuals (5.1%). The study emphasizes the importance of the correct diagnosis and management of these lesions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/epidemiologia , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/etiologia , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(9): 1478-1485, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584609

RESUMO

Combined antiretroviral therapy has improved quality and life expectancy of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, this therapy increases oxidative stress (OS), which in turn causes alterations in lipid and carbon metabolism, kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The Klotho gene has been implicated in cardiovascular risk increase. Klotho protein expression at X level decreases the risk of heart disease. HIV-positive people usually present low plasma levels of Klotho; thus, contributing to some extent to an increase in cardiovascular risk for these types of patients, mostly by favoring atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim is to provide an overview of the effect of OS on Klotho protein and its consequent cardiometabolic alterations in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Glucuronidase/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
13.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(2): 104-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360120

RESUMO

HIV infection may be considered a chronic condition for people living with HIV with access to antiretrovirals and this has effectively increased survival. Moreover, this has also facilitated the emergence of other comorbidities increasing the risk for drug-drug interactions and polypharmacy. The profile of these interactions as well as their consequences for people living with HIV are still not completely elucidated. The objectives of this study were to describe the profile of these interactions, their prevalence and their classification according to the potential for significant or non-significant drug-drug interactions. From June 2015 to July 2016, people living with HIV on follow-up at an Infectious Diseases Referral Center in Belo Horizonte, Brazil have been investigated for the presence of drug-drug interactions. A total of 304 patients were included and the majority (75%) had less than 50 years of age, male (66.4%), and 37.8% self-defined as brown skinned. Approximately 24% were on five or more medications and half of them presented with drug-drug interactions. Patients older than 50 years had a higher frequency of antiretrovirals drug-drug interactions with other drugs compared to younger patients (p=0.002). No relationship was found between the number of drug-drug interactions and the effectiveness of antiretrovirals. As expected, the higher the number of non-HIV medications used (OR=1.129; 95%CI 1.004-1.209; p=0.04) was associated with an increase in drug-drug interactions. The high prevalence of drug-drug interactions found and the data collected should be useful to establish measures of quaternary prevention and to increase the medication security for people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459822

RESUMO

Uganda adopted the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) as part its preferred first-line HIV treatment regimen in 2018. Prior to the national rollout, the Uganda Ministry of Health and Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) launched a pilot study in July 2017 aimed at better understanding patients' and prescribers' experience and acceptability of DTG. Patients were enrolled in the study if they were newly initiating treatment or switched from an NNRTI regimen due to intolerance. Patients were followed up for 6 months after initiation onto DTG and acceptability and experiences were assessed through questionnaires at one-month and six-month follow-up visits. In addition to acceptability side effects of patients on DTG regimens were assessed. Analysis was conducted using MS Excel and SAS 9.4 and confidence intervals were adjusted for facility level clustering. A total of 365 patients from 6 study sites were enrolled in the study, of whom 50% were treatment-experienced and 50% treatment naïve. 325 patients completed the 6 months of follow-up. Survey results showed a high level of acceptability (more than 90%) of DTG-containing regimens for both categories of patients during the from one-month and six-months interviews. The rate of self-reported side effects amongst patients was 33% overall and higher for experienced (37%) than naïve (29%) patients at 6 months. Although frequencies declined between month-1 and month-6, the changes were not statistically significant. Almost all patients (94%) were virally suppressed at 6 months. Overall, the study findings showed a very high level of acceptability of Dolutegravir-based regimens across both experienced and naïve patients. The overall viral suppression rate in this cohort was 94% at six months of taking DTG-based regimen.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Piperazinas , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridonas , Uganda , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229757, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Even though use of antiretroviral therapy (HAART) decreases the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) they are continuing to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Studies concerning this problem are scarce in Eastern Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of OIs after initiation of HAART in Ethiopia. METHODS: A health facility based single centered cohort study using structured data extraction sheet was conducted. The study population was all HIV positive ART naive adolescents and adults who started HAART between January 2009 and May 2012. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 317 patients from the record. Multivariate binary logistic regression model was used to determine factors for the occurrence of OIs after initiation of HAART. RESULTS: The incidence of OIs after HAART was 7.5 cases/100person years. Tuberculosis, oral candidiasis, pneumonia and toxoplasmosis were the leading OIs after HAART. A bed ridden functional status at initiation of HAART, presence of OIs before HAART, non-adherence and low hemoglobin level were predictors for the occurrence of OIs after HAART. CONCLUSION: The incidence of OIs after HAART was higher than in previous studies. Patients with the identified risk factors need strict follow up to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributed to OIs. Earlier initiation of HAART before advanced immune suppression, better management of TB and extended baseline assessment could help to reduce opportunistic infections and mortality after the initiation of HAART in Ethiopian patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Candidíase/complicações , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/virologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(1): 81-86, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The systematic review included articles indexed in MEDLINE (by PubMed), Web of Science, IBECS, and LILACS. Studies eligible included the year of publication, diagnose criteria of NAFLD and HIV, and were published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish from 2006 to 2018. The exclusion criteria were studies with HIV-infection patients and other liver diseases. Two reviewers were involved in the study and applied the same methodology, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen papers were selected, including full articles, editorial letters, and reviews. Twenty-seven articles were excluded because they did meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 89 articles were read, and 13 were considered eligible for this review. Four case series used imaging methods to identify NAFLD, and nine included histology. The prevalence of NAFLD in HIV-patients ranged from 30%-100% and, in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), from 20% to 89%. A positive association between dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and body mass index was observed. There was no agreement between the studies that evaluated the relationship between antiretroviral drugs and NAFLD. CONCLUSION: This systematic review showed a high prevalence of NAFLD in HIV-patients, which was associated with metabolic risk factors. The possible association between antiretroviral therapy and NAFLD needs further studies.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 158, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has improved significantly due to antiretroviral treatment (ART), ART-related adverse events (AEs) remain an issue. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with ART-related AEs may provide vital information for monitoring risks. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among adult patients (aged 18 years or older) with HIV who received Tenofovir (TDF) + Lamivudine (3TC) + Efavirenz (EFV) as first-line ART regimens. All AEs during the first 12 months of therapy were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with AEs. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-four patients receiving TDF+ 3TC+ EFV ART regimens between March 2017 and October 2017 were included in the study analysis. Among them, 472 (99.6%) experienced at least one AE, 436 (92.0%) patients experienced at least one AE within 1 month of treatment, 33 (7.0%) between one and 3 months of treatment, and three (0.6%) patients after 3 months of treatment. The most commonly reported AE was nervous system (95.6%) related, followed by dyslipidemia (79.3%), and impaired liver function (48.1%). Patients with baseline body mass index (BMI) greater than 24 kg/m2 (adjusted OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.03-3.02), pre-existing multiple AEs (adjusted OR 2.72, 95%CI 1.59-4.64), and pre-existing severe AEs (adjusted OR 5.58, 95%CI 2.65-11.73) were at increased odds of developing a severe AE. Patients with baseline BMI greater than 24 kg/m2 (adjusted OR 2.72, 95%CI 1.25-5.89) were more likely to develop multiple AEs. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ART-related adverse events over a 12-month period in China was high. Baseline BMI greater than 24 kg/m2, pre-existing multiple AEs, and pre-existing severe AEs were shown to be independent risk factors for developing a severe AE.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Ciclopropanos , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cobertura de Condição Pré-Existente , Estudos Prospectivos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 65-72, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089327

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the outcome of patients with HIV infection, providing virological control and reducing mortality. However, there are several reasons as to why patients may discontinue their antiretroviral therapy, with adverse events being one of the main reasons reported in the literature. This is a case-control nested in a cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS, conducted to identify the incidence of ART modification due to adverse events and the associated factors, in two referral services in Recife, Brazil, between 2011 and 2014. Of the modifications occurred in the first year of ART, 25.7% were driven by adverse events. The median time elapsed between initiating ART and the first modification due to adverse events was 70.5 days (95% CI: 26-161 days). The main adverse events were dermatological, neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal. Dermatological events were the earliest to appear after initiating ART. Efavirenz was the most prescribed and most modified drug during the study period. The group of participants who used zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz had a 2-fold greater chance (adjusted OR: 2.16 95% CI: 1.28-3.65) of switching ART due to adverse events when compared to the group that used tenofovir with lamivudine and efavirenz.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil , Zidovudina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos
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