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2.
Public Health ; 191: 48-54, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to examine the association between ART coverage scale-up on the changes in TB incidence in Africa from 2000 to 2018. STUDY DESIGN: The design of the study is a retrospective ecological study. METHODS: Data for 54 countries were obtained from several institutional-based sources, including the World Health Organization, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and the World Bank. A fixed-effects regression method of longitudinal data analysis was used to estimate the association between ART coverage and changes in TB incidence rate during 2000-2018. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA 15.0/IC. RESULTS: The TB incidence declined significantly, by an average of 2.3% per year during 2000-2018. The highest significant declines occurred in eastern and southern Africa. In adjusted analysis, each 1% increase in ART coverage was associated with a 3.97 per 100,000 decline of TB incidence. However, the marginal effects of ART on overall population TB incidence was dependent on the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Investment in the widespread scale-up of ART may contribute to the control of the TB epidemic in Africa. However, interventions are also needed to augment the effect of ART on population TB incidence.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Epidemias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408101

RESUMO

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically lowered rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission among patients with access to treatment. Barriers to complete viral suppression increase rates of transmission, even with only low levels of viral replication. Here, we present the case of a pregnant patient who developed a detectable viral load in pregnancy, thought to be related to calcium supplement consumption or emesis while using a dolutegravir-based HAART regimen. Ultimately, with adjustments, the patient again reached an undetectable viral load and had an uncomplicated perinatal and neonatal outcome. We discuss new data on the use of dolutegravir in pregnancy and precautions for maintaining viral suppression while on antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/farmacologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Carbonato de Cálcio/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
5.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(1): 23-30, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400587

RESUMO

Medications for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are currently daily pill regimens, which pose barriers to long-term adherence. Long-acting injectable (LAI) modalities have been developed for ART and PrEP, but minimal LAI-focused research has occurred among women. Thus, little is known about how women's history of injection for medical or nonmedical purposes may influence their interest in LAI. We conducted 89 in-depth interviews at 6 sites (New York, NY; Chicago, IL; San Francisco, CA; Atlanta, GA; Chapel Hill, NC; Washington, DC) of the Women's Interagency HIV study. Interviews occurred with women living with HIV (n = 59) and HIV-negative women (n = 30) from November 2017 to October 2018. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Women's prior experiences with injections occurred primarily through substance use, physical comorbidities, birth control, or flu vaccines. Four primary categories of women emerged; those who (1) received episodic injections and had few LAI-related concerns; (2) required frequent injections and would refuse additional injections; (3) had a history of injection drug use, of whom some feared LAI might trigger a recurrence, while others had few LAI-related concerns; and (4) were currently injecting drugs and had few LAI-related concerns. Most women with a history of injectable medication would prefer LAI, but those with other frequent injections and history of injection drug use might not. Future research needs to address injection-related concerns, and develop patient-centered approaches to help providers best identify which women could benefit from LAI use.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Criança , Cidades , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23853, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with Burkitt lymphoma is related to the presence of Epstein Barr virus infection and the impact of the HIV antigen on the expansion of B-polyclonal cells. In Southeast Europe, the association is rare, and recognizing this is important in the therapeutic decision to increase patient survival rate. The association of HIV with Burkitt lymphoma and tuberculosis is even more rarely described in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present the case of a 40-year-old patient who presented with a 3-week history of fever (max. 38.7 °C), painful axillary swelling on the right side, lumbar pain, gait disorders, headache, and night sweats. Clinical manifestations included marked weight loss (about 30 kg in the last 2 months before his admission). DIAGNOSIS: A LyCD4 count of 38/µL and a HIV1 viral load of 384,000/mm3, classified the patient into a C3 stage. A biopsy of the right axillary lymph node was performed for suspected ganglionic tuberculosis due to immunodeficiency. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. Cultures on Löwenstein-Jensen medium from sputum harvested at first admission were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. INTERVENTIONS: Highly active antiretroviral therapy, chemotherapeutic agents for Burkitt lymphoma, anti-tuberculous drug therapy, neurosurgical intervention of spinal cord decompression, and antibiotic therapy of the associated bacterial infection. OUTCOME: Burkitt lymphoma disseminated rapidly, with central nervous system, spinal cord, osteomuscular, adrenal, and spleen involvement. The evolution under treatment was unfavorable, with patient death occurring 6 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The association of HIV infection with Burkitt lymphoma and tuberculosis is rare in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, posing prompt and multidisciplinary therapeutic management issues. Similar cases of HIV-TB and Burkitt lymphoma association have been described, but none of the other cases showed the involvement of the central nervous system or of the bilateral adrenal glands.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo , Linfoma de Burkitt , Infecções por HIV , Medula Espinal , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/complicações , Linfoma de Burkitt/patologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/fisiopatologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/cirurgia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Deterioração Clínica , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Evolução Fatal , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Carga Viral/métodos
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and evaluate the factors associated with this outcome in people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a prospective concurrent cohort of 462 individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy at three HIV/AIDS specialized services in Belo Horizonte between 2015 and 2017. The following smoking status were used: current smoker (CS), former smoker (FS) and non-smoker (NS). Multinomial logistic regression was performed with NS as the reference category. RESULTS: Most participants were men (81.4%), young (up to 34 years old; 57.2%) and non-white (75.7%). Of the total number of individuals, 27.7% were CS, 22.9% FS, and 49.4% NS. Most smokers were light smokers (65.1%), consumed up to 10 cigarettes per day and had been smoking for more than 10 years (63.3%), starting on average at 17.2 years of age (SD = 5.1). In the multivariate analysis, higher chances of being CS were associated with: being female, having up to 9 years of schooling, current or prior use of alcohol and illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine and crack) and presenting signs and/or symptoms of anxiety or depression. Higher chances of being FS were associated with having up to 9 years of schooling and current or prior use of alcohol and illicit drugs (marijuana and crack). CONCLUSIONS: The results show that smoking is highly prevalent among PLHIV, indicating the need for HIV specialized services to prioritize smoking cessation interventions. These interventions should consider the use of alcohol and illicit drugs and be targeted especially to young people, those with low schooling and with signs and/or symptoms of anxiety or depression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e677-e687, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Updated WHO guidelines recommend a dolutegravir-based regimen as the preferred first-line treatment for HIV infection and low-dose efavirenz (400 mg) as an alternative. We aimed to report the non-inferior efficacy of dolutegravir compared with efavirenz 400 mg at week 96. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, open label, phase 3 trial in in three hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral-naive adults with an HIV RNA viral load of greater than 1000 copies per mL to compare dolutegravir 50 mg with efavirenz 400 mg (reference treatment), both combined with lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The primary endpoint was the proportion with a viral load of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48 (10% non-inferiority margin). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02777229 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between July, 2016, and August, 2019, of 820 patients assessed, 613 were randomly assigned to receive at least one dose of study medication, with 310 in the dolutegravir group and 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group. At week 96 in the intention-to-treat analysis, 229 (74%) of 310 patients receiving dolutegravir and 219 (72%) of 303 patients receiving efavirenz, achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL (difference 1·6%, 95% CI -5·4 to 8·6; p=0.66). Viral load suppression was reached significantly more rapidly in the dolutegravir group (p<0·001). Virological failure (>1000 copies per mL) was observed in 27 patients (eight in the dolutegravir group, among which, three women switched to efavirenz 600 mg because of the dolutegravir teratogeneicity signal, and 19 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). No acquired resistance mutations to dolutegravir were observed against 17 mutations to efavirenz with or without mutations to lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among the 19 efavirenz 400 mg participants with virological failure. Weight gain was greater in the dolutegravir group (median weight gain, 5·0 kg in the dolutegravir group and 3·0 kg in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p<0·001, and incidence of obesity, 22% in the dolutegravir group and 16% in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p=0·043). The incidence of new WHO HIV-related stage 3 and 4 events was similar in each group (12 [4%] in each group). The two groups had similar rates of serious adverse events (28 [9%] of 310 in the dolutegravir group and 21 [7%] of 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). 18 deaths were observed during the 96-week follow-up (eight in the dolutegravir group and ten in the efavirenz 400 mg group). INTERPRETATION: The non-inferior efficacy of the dolutegravir-based regimen and non-emergence of dolutegravir resistance at 96 weeks supports its use as a first-line regimen for antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection. Viral load suppression was reached more quickly in the dolutegravir group and weight gain was significantly higher. FUNDING: UNITAID and the French National Agency for AIDS Research.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Ciclopropanos , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Piridonas , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22416, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019418

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) supresses immune system, primarily cell-mediated immunity. Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count, viral load, and oral lesions are the most important laboratory parameters to evaluate the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The present study aims to determine the incidence of HIV-related oral lesions with CD4 cell count and viral load in Yunnan, China.A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2007 to December 2009, in 1812 HIV positive patients from Department of Infectious Diseases in Kunming Third People's Hospital. CD4, CD8, and viral load data were collected and analyzed statistically using SPSS 11.3.Out of 1812 HIV positive patients, 929 (51.27%) were associated with 1 or more oral lesions. The most common oral lesions observed were Candida Pseudomembranous (13.75%), Candida erythematous (10.93%), Oral hairy leukoplakia (7.95%), Aphthous ulcer (6.18%), Herpes simplex infection (5.58%). In most patients with oral lesions, the CD4 cell count was < 200/µL. The incidence of oral lesions was lower when CD4 count was > 200/µL and with undetectable (P < .01) HIV viral load. Almost no oral lesions was observed when CD4 count > 500/µL (P < .01). With highly active antiretroviral therapy, reduction in HIV-related oral lesions was observed especially in Candida erythematous, Candida Pseudomembranous, Oral hairy leukoplakia, and Aphthous ulcer.The higher incidence of oral lesions with lower CD4 count (<200/µL) in HIV-infected patients indicated importance of CD4 cell count in identifying disease progression.


Assuntos
Contagem de Linfócito CD4/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/fisiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/patologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22889, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120835

RESUMO

To determine the surgical outcomes and prognostic factors of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis-related retinal detachment (RD) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients following vitrectomy.A retrospective charts review was carried out on AIDS patients who were diagnosed with CMV retinitis-related RD and treated with vitrectomy between 2002 and 2016. The main outcome measures were the rates of primary anatomical success and final visual acuity (VA) success defined as postoperative VA ≥20/200. Kaplan-Meier curves on the time to retinal redetachment were performed. Multivariate logistic regression models based on a directed acyclic graph were used to identify independent factors associated with achieving VA success.Forty five AIDS patients (52 eyes) were included. Over a mean follow-up period of 41.7 months, primary anatomical success was achieved in 44 eyes (84.6%) and VA success was achieved in 34 eyes (65.4%). Receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to RD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.9, P = .043), better preoperative VA (aOR = 4.3, P = .006), undergoing vitrectomy within 3 months (aOR=6.7, P = .008), absence of optic atrophy (aOR=58.1, P < .001), and absence of retinal redetachment (aOR=38.1, P = .007) increased the odds of achieving final VA success.Vitrectomy provided favorable anatomical reattachment in AIDS patients with CMV retinitis-related RD. Majority of patients was able to retain functional vision postoperatively. The use of HAART and early vitrectomy increased the probability of achieving both anatomical and VA success.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Descolamento Retiniano/etiologia , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Vitrectomia/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citomegalovirus/genética , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Vitrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitrectomia/tendências
11.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(5): e2962, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144688

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: En el Tratamiento Antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA), la prevalencia de la adherencia terapéutica es un proceso complejo influido por múltiples factores relacionados con el paciente, la enfermedad, el fármaco, el entorno y el médico. Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de adherencia a la TARGA en personas con VIH/sida de un área de salud y algunas variables relacionadas. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado en 153 pacientes de 18 y más años, con diagnóstico de VIH/sida, del Policlínico "Marcos Manduley", municipio Centro Habana, de enero a diciembre de 2018. La fuente de datos fueron las historias clínicas individuales y se aplicó el cuestionario SMAQ para complementar la información. Se utilizó la prueba de Chi cuadrado ((2) con significación estadística, ɒ = 0,05, se identificaron variables cuyos coeficientes fueron significativamente diferentes de 0 (p < 0,05) y el grado de correlación entre variables utilizando el coeficiente tau-b de Kendall. Resultados: El 70,5 por ciento tuvo buena adherencia a la TARGA. Se encontró asociación estadística y moderada relación directa entre la adherencia terapéutica y la menor edad de los pacientes, débil relación directa con el mayor tiempo bajo tratamiento y ligera relación directa con la presencia de reacciones adversa. Conclusiones: El estudio permitió identificar que el nivel de adherencia terapéutica a la TARGA fue adecuado, usando el cuestionario SMAQ y se relaciona con algunas variables, resultados que concuerdan con otros estudios consultados(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The prevalence of therapeutic adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a complex process influenced by multiple factors related to the patient, the disease, the drug, the environment and the doctor. Objective: To identify the level of adherence to HAART and some related variables in people with HIV / AIDS in a health area. Material and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in 153 patients aged 18 and over with HIV / AIDS diagnosis that received medical assistance at "Marcios Manduley" Polyclinic in Centro Habana municipality from January to December 2018. Data were obtained from individual medical records; the simplified medication adherence questionnaire (SMAQ) was applied to complement the information. The Chi-square test ((2) was used with statistical significance, p = 0.05; variables whose coefficients were significantly different from 0 (p <0.05) were identified and the degree of correlation between variables was obtained using Kendall's correlation coefficient. Results: The results show that 70.5 percent of people had good adherence to HAART. There was statistical association and moderate direct relationship between therapeutic adherence and younger age patients, weak direct relationship with the longest duration of treatment and a slight direct relationship with the presence of adverse reactions. Conclusions: The study allowed us to identify that the level of therapeutic adherence to HAART was adequate using the SMAQ questionnaire. It is related to some variables, showing results that are consistent with other studies consulted(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudo Observacional
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22335, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon and aggressive large B-cell lymphoma commonly diagnosed in human immunodeficiency viruses -positive patients. Oral cavity is the most commonly PBL affected site. Most oral PBLs presented as asymptomatic swellings, frequently associated with ulcerations and bleeding. Most cases lacked B-symptoms, suggesting a more local involvement of the disease. No standard treatment is yet for oral PBL. Five-year survival rate recorded no more than 33.5%. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old male presented to Dental Clinic with 1 month swelling of the oral cavity, in absence of any other symptoms or signs. He followed antibiotic therapy just on suspicion of an oral abscess and later oral surgical treatment on suspicion of bone neoplasm. DIAGNOSIS: Surgical specimen analysis highlighted a diffuse infiltrate of large-sized atypical cells with plasmablastic appearance and plasma cell phenotype. Oral cavity PBL was diagnosed. Blood tests recorded mild lymphopenia and positive human immunodeficiency viruses serology. INTERVENTIONS: Patient underwent chemotherapy including intrathecal methotrexate prophylaxis, in addition to a highly active antiretroviral therapy. OUTCOMES: At 12 months from diagnosis, patient recorded complete hematological remission. CONCLUSIONS: Oral PBL diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and awareness both by physicians and pathologists. They should be aware of the extent of such disease which is often mistaken as oral abscess or infected tooth, thus leading to delay the most appropriate diagnostic evaluation. As PBL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a delayed diagnosis might negatively impact on both treatment and survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Boca/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Edema/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Plasmócitos/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22352, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has transformed the highly infectious virus to a stable chronic condition, with the advent of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The longterm effects of HAART on the oral health of children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on oral health indicators (dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children from the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2017 among children aged 5 to 7 years from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12174 randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00640263) implemented between 2009 and 2012 in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. The intervention was lopinavir-ritonavir or lamuvudine treatment to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission. One hundred thirty-seven and 139 children were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine treatment at day 7 postpartum to compare efficacy of prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission. At follow up, the children underwent oral examination using the World Health Organization methods for field conditions. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the early childhood oral health impact scale. Negative binomial and logistic regression were used for the analysis of data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries was 48% in the study sample: 49% in the lopinavir-ritonavir arm and 48% in the lamivudine treatment group. The corresponding mean decayed missing filled teeth and standard deviation was 1.7 (2.4) and 2.3 (3.7) The mean number (standard deviation) of erupted permanent teeth was 3.8 (3.7) and 4.6 (3.9) teeth in the lopinavir- and lamivudine group, respectively. The prevalence of reported impacts on oral health was 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 18% in the lamivudine group. Gingivitis had a prevalence of 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 14% lamivudine treatment group. The regression analysis revealed 70% less reported impacts on oral health in lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine treatment group with an incidence rate ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: HIV exposed uninfected infants in the lopinavir-ritonavir group reported less impacts on oral health than the lamivudine treatment group. Dental caries, gingivitis, and tooth eruption were not significantly affected by the treatment lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00640263.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003325, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current World Health Organization (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines define virologic failure as two consecutive viral load (VL) measurements ≥1,000 copies/mL, triggering empiric switch to next-line ART. This trial assessed if patients with sustained low-level HIV-1 viremia on first-line ART benefit from a switch to second-line treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This multicenter, parallel-group, open-label, superiority, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients on first-line ART containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) with two consecutive VLs ≥100 copies/mL, with the second VL between 100-999 copies/mL, from eight clinics in Lesotho. Consenting participants were randomly assigned (1:1), stratified by facility, demographic group, and baseline VL, to either switch to second-line ART (switch group) or continued first-line ART (control group; WHO guidelines). The primary endpoint was viral suppression (<50 copies/mL) at 36 weeks. Analyses were by intention to treat, using logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic group and baseline VL. Between August 1, 2017, and August 7, 2019, 137 individuals were screened, of whom 80 were eligible and randomly assigned to switch (n = 40) or control group (n = 40). The majority of participants were female (54 [68%]) with a median age of 42 y (interquartile range [IQR] 35-51), taking tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/lamivudine/efavirenz (49 [61%]) and on ART for a median of 5.9 y (IQR 3.3-8.6). At 36 weeks, 22/40 (55%) participants in the switch versus 10/40 (25%) in the control group achieved viral suppression (adjusted difference 29%, 95% CI 8%-50%, p = 0.009). The switch group had significantly higher probability of viral suppression across different VL thresholds (<20, <100, <200, <400, and <600 copies/mL) but not for <1,000 copies/mL. Thirty-four (85%) participants in switch group and 21 (53%) in control group experienced at least one adverse event (AE) (p = 0.002). No hospitalization or death or other serious adverse events were observed. Study limitations include a follow-up period too short to observe differences in clinical outcomes, missing values in CD4 cell counts due to national stockout of reagents during the study, and limited generalizability of findings to other than NNRTI-based first-line ART regimens. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, switching to second-line ART among patients with sustained low-level HIV-1 viremia resulted in a higher proportion of participants with viral suppression. These results endorse lowering the threshold for virologic failure in future WHO guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03088241.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral
15.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 104-111, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920612

RESUMO

Candida dubliniensis (Cd) and Candida albicans (Ca) are the most frequently isolated yeasts in HIV+ patients. Some of the enzymes produced by these yeasts are considered virulence factors since they contribute to pathogenicity of Candida spp. The aim of the present study was to compare production of enzymes such as phospholipase (Ph), proteinase (P), and hemolysin (H) by Cd and Ca strains isolated from periodontal HIV-positive patients receiving and not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using paper points, and a sample of oral mucosa was taken using a swab. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used to isolate 39 strains of Candida, including 25 strains of Cd and 14 strains of Ca, obtained from 33 periodontal pocket samples and 6 oral mucosa samples collected from 15 HIV+ patients (8 receiving and 7 not receiving HAART). Malt egg-yolk agar, albumin agar and blood agar were used to evaluate pH, P and H production respectively. The strains were inoculated in duplicate and incubated at 37 ºC. Colony and halo diameters were measured. A greater proportion of Ca was observed in patients not receiving HAART, and a higher proportion of Cd was observed in those under HAART, Chi2 p< 0.001. Phospholipase production was observed in 92.9% percent of isolated Ca strains but in none of the isolated Cd strains. Proteinase production was high in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. Hemolysin production was observed in all the studied strains, though it was significantly higher (p=0.04) in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. To sum up, the proportion of Candida dubliniensis strains was highest in the subgingival biofilm of patients receiving HAART, and Cd strains were found to express fewer virulence factors than Ca strains.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/enzimologia , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida/enzimologia , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida albicans/genética , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Virulência/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237013, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is a standard of HIV management to suppress viral load and delay progression to AIDS. However, questions have been raised about the use of antiretroviral therapy and how it affects quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study hence aimed to assess the QoL of PLWHA who were taking HAART at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital (MTUTH) and identify factors associated with QoL. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among PLWHA receiving HAART at MTUTH from March 04-April 1, 2018. Patients were recruited consecutively and interviewed with structured questionnaire. A data abstraction tool was used to extract data from patient medical records. Quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life HIV- BREF (WHOQOL-HIV-BREF) standard tool. Data was entered to Epi-Info version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 22 for windows. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify factors associated with QoL. A statistical significance was established at a p value <0.05. RESULTS: A total of 240 participants with the mean age of 35.11 (SD = 9.08) years were included in the study. This study found that 57.1% of the patients had high global score of QoL. Patients with normal current health (AOR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.56-7.31)) and having family support (AOR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.51-6.46) were positively associated with high global score of QoL, while patients with low HAART adherence (AOR = 0.40, 95%, CI = 0.19-0.86) were negatively associated with high global score of QoL. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that more than half of the participants had high global score of QoL. Normal current health and family support were associated with better global score of QoL, while low HAART adherence was found to be associated with the lower global score of QoL.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/metabolismo , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, interventions are needed to address the impact of hazardous drinking on antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV (PLWH). Participant feedback about these interventions can identify ways to enhance their acceptability. We interviewed participants in a randomized controlled trial of a brief motivational interviewing and problem-solving therapy (MI-PST) intervention about their perceptions of this alcohol-reduction intervention. METHODS: The trial was conducted in HIV treatment clinics operating from six hospitals in the Tshwane region of South Africa. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with a random selection of participants. Twenty-four participants were interviewed after the final intervention session and 25 at the six-month follow up. RESULTS: Participants believed that it was acceptable to offer PLWH, an alcohol reduction intervention during HIV treatment. They described how the MI-PST intervention had helped them reduce their alcohol consumption. Intervention components providing information on the health benefits of reduced consumption and building problem-solving and coping skills were perceived as most beneficial. Despite these perceived benefits, participants suggested minor modifications to the dosage, content, and delivery of the intervention for greater acceptability and impact. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the acceptability and usefulness of this MI-PST intervention for facilitating reductions in alcohol consumption among PLWH.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Entrevista Motivacional , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 8-12, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733653

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite increasing life expectancy among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), anti-retroviral therapy (ART) side effects, HIV chronic inflammation and co-morbidities may limit functional abilities and reduced participation in exercises and physical activity (PA). PA improves wellbeing and overall quality of life of PLWHIV. In Malawi, there is paucity of information regarding PA levels among Malawians living with HIV and receiving ART. Therefore, this study aimed at determining PA levels among PLWHIV and receiving ART in Malawi. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional design was employed. Eligible participants were male and female adults aged 18-45 years living with HIV receiving ART for at least 1 year. The participants were recruited from Limbe Health Center, Gateway Health Center and Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess the PA levels. A Stadiometer (HS-DBS00361, Model: 1127154) was used to measure weight (kg) and height (cm) of the participants. Results: A total of 213 participants were recruited. There were more females than male participants (n=132 females). Overall, the mean age of all participants was 37±6.5 years and they were within normal body weight (BMI=23±4.0). Many participants (n=85, 40%) had low PA levels followed by those who were moderately physically active (n=75, 36%). A larger proportion of the female participants (51%) had low PA levels compared to males (22%). Forty-two percent of participants with 1-3 years of ART had low PA whereas 39% with >3 years ART had low PA. Conclusion: Most PLWHIV and receiving ART in the sample have low PA levels. The study has also revealed that proportionally more females than males had low PA levels.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Exercício Físico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854292

RESUMO

In the last decade, reliable scientific evidence has emerged to support the concept that undetectable viral loads prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Undetectable equals untransmissible (U = U) is a simple message that everyone can understand. The success of this concept depends on strict adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the attainment of suppressed viral loads (VLs). To achieve U = U in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), poor adherence to ART, persistent low-level viremia, and the emergence of drug-resistant mutants are challenges that cannot be overlooked. Short of a cure for HIV, U = U can substantially reduce the burden and change the landscape of HIV epidemiology on the continent. From a public health perspective, the U = U concept will reduce stigmatization in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in SSA and strengthen public opinion to accept that HIV infection is not a death sentence. This will also promote ART adherence because PLWHIV will aim to achieve U = U within the shortest possible time. This article highlights challenges and barriers to achieving U = U and suggests how to promote the concept to make it beneficial and applicable in SSA. This concept, if expertly packaged by policy-makers, clinicians, health service providers, and HIV control programs, will help to stem the tide of the epidemic in SSA.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação
20.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(5): B6-B11, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861690

RESUMO

Optimal management of HIV-positive pregnant individuals involves many specific interventions made by many healthcare professionals at specific time-points before, during, and after pregnancy. Errors of omission are likely unless those professionals use a cognitive aid such as a checklist as a reminder of critical steps. In this document, SMFM presents updated and expanded checklists to help ensure that all relevant elements are considered for every person with HIV during prepregnancy, antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. The checklists are intended to be used as tools to facilitate the care of individuals with HIV during all phases of pregnancy care. Their use should improve the safety of HIV-positive patients by ensuring that appropriate treatment is given and relevant information is shared with consultative services. Routine use should also facilitate improved documentation, communication, and continuity of care before, during, and after pregnancy.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Cardiotocografia/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Carga Viral
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