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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 753, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce the global burden of tobacco use, clinical guidelines support behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy as preferred interventions for tobacco cessation. The evidence-based behavioral interventions has consistently shown to be impactful in community settings; however, its efficacy has not been established in hospital settings. The current study aims to investigate impact of trans-theoretical-based behavioral intervention package on tobacco users suffering from non-communicable diseases attending tertiary care settings of North India. METHODS/DESIGN: A two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a tertiary healthcare hospital will be performed. A total of 360 tobacco users attending NCD clinics in four departments, cardiology, neurology, pulmonary medicine, and ENT (otolaryngology), will be recruited over a period of 3 months. After ascertaining the eligibility criteria, they will be followed up to 6 months (1, 3, 6) for their tobacco use status, readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, stage of behavior change, and self-reported and biochemical validation (urine cotinine) for tobacco abstinence. Assignment of intervention including allocation concealment, sequence generation, and blinding will be done as per SPIRIT guidelines for RCT protocols. DISCUSSION: As no strong evidence exists about the effectiveness of tobacco cessation intervention in tertiary settings, the current study will build evidence about the similar interventions in such settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2019/09/021406.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Tabagismo , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia
2.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 188, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of obesity in youth, behavioural interventions to alter its modifiable risk factors such as physical activity can support the management of this epidemic. Digital behaviour changes interventions (DBCI) such as mobile applications, websites and wearables have the potential to reach many adolescents to promote physical activity as its use may be more accessible, effective and engaging compared to traditional face-to-face approaches. However, there is insufficient evidence on their use at promoting physical activity amongst overweight and obese adolescents. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of DBCIs aiming to increase physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents (aged 10-19 years) and the behaviour change techniques used in these interventions. METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane and Scopus) will be searched for English language studies from January 2000 to December 2022 using appropriate search terms relating to digital interventions, physical activity, adolescents and obesity. Experimental studies (either randomised or non-randomised controlled trials) assessing effects of DBCIs on physical activity behaviour, objectively or subjectively measured, in overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85th percentile for age) adolescents will be eligible for inclusion. Intervention characteristics will be coded using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and the BCT taxonomy v1. Risk of bias and the overall quality of the included studies will be assessed using Cochrane's Collaboration's tool and GRADE approach respectively. If the data allows, meta-analyses using random effect models will be conducted to assess the effects of DBCIs on physical activity. DISCUSSION: The proposed systematic review will summarise the effectiveness of digital behaviour change interventions aiming to increase physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents, as well as adding new information on the behaviour change techniques used in these interventions. The findings of this review will facilitate stakeholders with a current, rigorous and reliable research base to support the development and implementation of effective health promotion interventions for this population. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021270008.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
J Sch Psychol ; 94: 49-65, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064215

RESUMO

This study reviews findings for the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF) for school mental health (SMH) and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). Since its development in the late 2000s, the ISF has been supported by federally funded centers for SMH and PBIS, and, guided by a national workgroup, is being implemented in >50 communities in the United States. This experimental evaluation of the ISF involved an RCT implemented in 24 schools in two southeastern states, with the ISF implemented in eight schools, PBIS alone implemented in eight schools, and typically co-located PBIS+SMH implemented in eight schools. Related to very poor implementation, documented by two sources of fidelity data, two ISF schools were dropped from major analyses; hence, the study used a treatment on the treated (ToT; Rubin, 1974) as compared to a more traditional Intent-to-Treat approach (ITT; Lachin, 2000). This is the first paper from this large study, with emphasis here on proximal variables and school discipline. Within schools' multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS), ISF schools delivered more Tier 2 (early intervention) and Tier 3 (treatment) interventions to a greater proportion of students than the other two conditions by the second year of the intervention. There was also a dramatic difference in the provision of interventions by community mental health clinicians in ISF schools (almost half of interventions delivered) as compared to PBIS+SMH schools (around 3% of interventions delivered), underscoring the critical role of the ISF in integrating clinicians into MTSS teams and core school functions in SMH. As compared to the other two conditions, ISF schools also had reduced office discipline referrals (ODRs) and in-school suspensions, as well as reduced ODRs and out-of-school suspensions for African American students. Findings are discussed in relation to future directions of education-mental health system partnerships in improving the delivery and impact of SMH programs and services, demonstrated in the ISF.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes/psicologia , Suspensões
4.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 90(8): 601-612, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For individuals in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment, many argue that holistic indicators such as quality of life (QoL) should be more consistently used in addition to drinking-related indicators. QoL increases from pre- to post-AUD treatment, but the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined the roles of positive and negative affect in QoL change during AUD treatment and additionally explored the relationship between QoL change and medication adherence. METHOD: We examined the mediating roles of end-of-treatment positive affect (i.e., vigor) and negative affect (i.e., stress and tension) in the relationship between baseline (BL) and 26-week QoL among participants in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence study randomized to medication management (MM; n = 468) or medication management plus combined behavioral intervention (MMCBI; n = 479) for AUD. We also explored whether changes in QoL were associated with medication adherence. RESULTS: Change in psychological health QoL was mediated by increased vigor (i.e., positive affect) and decreased stress, and change in environmental QoL was mediated by decreased stress. There were also differences by treatment group, with stress mediating changes in environmental QoL among participants in MM, and vigor mediating changes in psychological health QoL among participants in MMCBI. Medication adherence was not associated with greater QoL after controlling for posttreatment alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified potential mechanisms of QoL change in AUD treatment, thus contributing to the growing knowledge surrounding alternative indicators of treatment success for AUD treatment and recovery. Targeting affective states and stress during treatment may improve QoL and recovery outcomes for persons with AUD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e8, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting the majority of patients worldwide, including in South Africa. The control of HTN and prevention of complications are major challenges for patients and healthcare workers. The proper control of the disease requires a multifactorial approach consisting of medical treatment, as well as lifestyle modification, with the assistance of healthcare workers. Addressing patients' beliefs, the practice of lifestyle and acceptance of change are some of the ways of aiding control. METHODS:  The researchers used a cross-sectional and descriptive survey to establish the knowledge and practices of lifestyle modifications in patients with hypertension. A validated questionnaire was adopted. A total of 250 participants from the Extension 6 Clinic in Middelburg, Mpumalanga, constituted the study population. RESULTS:  Most of the participants had borderline high blood pressure (37.2%) or uncontrolled high blood pressure (46%). The participants' knowledge of HTN and its complications was not adequate. The study established that increased age and long duration of HTN were associated with high numbers of uncontrolled HTN. Most of the participants (88.8%) had difficulty exercising. Also, most of the participants (90.8%) did not have a place or facility for exercises. Fifty per cent of the participants were unable to maintain a balanced healthy diet which included fruits and vegetables. CONCLUSION:  The study explored the participants' knowledge and practice of lifestyle modification. The participants lacked knowledge regarding the definition of HTN and the meaning of controlled HTN. To assist the patients and improve on the identified pitfalls, each consultation session should include some methods of education, and motivation for healthy behaviours and lifestyle modification. This should be extended to all the people visiting the health facilities for them to adopt a healthier diet, greater intake of vegetables and availability of fitness facilities for the community.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão , Terapia Comportamental , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida
6.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 67, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite extensive benefits and high intentions, few mothers breastfeed exclusively for the recommended duration. Maternal mental health is an important underlying factor associated with barriers and reduced rates of breastfeeding intent, initiation, and continuation. Given evidence of a bidirectional association between maternal mental health and breastfeeding, it is important to consider both factors when examining the efficacy of interventions to improve these outcomes. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature on the efficacy of behavioral interventions focused on both maternal mental health and breastfeeding outcomes, examining the intersection of the two. METHODS: This systematic review was completed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Studies were selected if they were available in English, used primary experimental design, and used a behavioral intervention type to examine maternal mental health and breastfeeding outcomes. Articles were identified from PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO from database inception to 3 March 2022. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results were synthesized by intervention success for 1. Mental health and breastfeeding, 2. Breastfeeding only, 3. Mental health only, and 4. No intervention effect. PROSPERO CRD42021224228. RESULTS: Thirty interventions reported in 33 articles were identified, representing 15 countries. Twelve studies reported statistically significant positive effect of the intervention on both maternal mental health and breastfeeding; most showing a decrease in self-report depressive and/or anxiety symptoms in parallel to an increase in breastfeeding duration and/or exclusivity. Common characteristics of successful interventions were a) occurring across pregnancy and postpartum, b) delivered by hospital staff or multidisciplinary teams, c) offered individually, and d) designed to focus on breastfeeding and maternal mental health or on breastfeeding only. Our results are not representative of all countries, persons, experiences, circumstances, or physiological characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that extend the perinatal period and offer individualized support from both professionals and peers who collaborate through a continuum of settings (e.g., health system, home, and community) are most successful in improving both mental health and breastfeeding outcomes. The benefits of improving these outcomes warrant continued development and implementation of such interventions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021224228.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Saúde Mental , Terapia Comportamental , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1740, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to physical activity is inadequate in adults with metabolic syndrome. Adherence to physical activity recommendations is crucial and can result in improved health outcomes and reduced medical burdens. A comprehensive behavior change intervention, including identifying determinants of adherence to physical activity recommendations, intervention options, intervention content and implementation options, was imperative for enhancing physical activity adherence. The aim of the study is to develop an intervention to increase physical activity adherence among individuals with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The study followed the eight steps of the Behavior Change Wheel guide, including defining the problem in behavioral terms (Step 1), selecting target behavior (Step 2), specifying target behavior (Step 3), identifying what needs to change (Step 4), identifying intervention functions (Step 5), identifying policy categories (Step 6), identifying behavior change techniques (Step 7), and determining model of delivery (Step 8). The semi-structured, in-depth interviews were employed to identify the determinants of adherence to physical activity among twenty-eight individuals with metabolic syndrome based on capability, opportunity, motivation and behavior model. Next, the intervention functions and policy categories were chosen to address these determinants. Finally, behavior change techniques were selected to assist in the delivery of the intervention functions and be translated into intervention content. RESULTS: Our study identified eighteen facilitators and fifteen barriers to physical activity adherence. It resulted in the selection of seven intervention functions and nineteen behavior change techniques for the intervention program. Then, the current study identified an app as the delivery mode. Finally, a behavioral change intervention was generated for individuals with metabolic syndrome to increase physical activity recommendation adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The Behavior Change Wheel provided a systematic approach to designing a behavior change intervention, which helped improve the health outcomes and reduce medical burdens and economic burdens among individuals with metabolic syndrome. The findings suggested that potential intervention should pay special attention to increasing knowledge in metabolic syndrome, imparting skills of physical activity, offering a supportive environment, and providing suggestions on regular physical activity using the appropriate behavior change techniques. A feasibility study will be undertaken to assess the acceptability and effectiveness of the intervention program in the future.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Exercício Físico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Motivação
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1763, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent car use contributes to health and environmental issues such as air pollution, climate change and obesity. Active and sustainable mobility (bike, walk, public transport, car sharing) may address these issues. Different strategies have been implemented in past research, involving hard levers, aimed at modifying the economical or geographical context (e.g., free public transport), and soft levers, aimed at modifying psychological processes (e.g., personalised transport advice). However, few studies have combined both hard and soft levers. In addition, few have used robust methodologies (e.g., randomised controlled trials), followed behavioural changes in the long-term, and been anchored in behaviour change theories. InterMob aims to address these limits by implementing a 24-month randomised controlled trial including hard and soft levers. The objectives of InterMob are to a) evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental arm versus an active controlled arm, and b) identify the processes of mobility change. METHODS: Regular car users living in Grenoble (N = 300) will be recruited and randomised to one of the two arms. The experimental arm consists in a six-month intervention combining hard levers (free access to transport/bikes), and soft levers (e.g., personalised transport advice). The control arm consists in a six-month intervention aimed at raising awareness on air pollution and its health effects. Both arms will include eight evaluation weeks (spread out over 24 months) based on a GPS, an accelerometer, and a pollution sensor. Moreover, participants will complete mobility logbooks and surveys measuring psychological constructs, socio-economical, and socio-spatial characteristics. DISCUSSION: InterMob will assess the effectiveness of two interventions aimed at reducing car use within regular car users in the short-, mid- and long-term. Moreover, InterMob will allow to better understand the psychological processes of behaviour change, and the socio-economical and geographical conditions under which the intervention is efficient in reducing car use. Finally, the benefits of mobility change in terms of physical activity, quality of life, and exposure to pollution will be quantified. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT05096000 on 27/10/2021 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Automóveis , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Terapia Comportamental , França , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2123093, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097888

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to explore participants' experiences of mental health during an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based guided self-help intervention to support weight management in adults with overweight or obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic (SWiM-C: Supporting Weight Management during COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with twenty participants and used reflexive thematic analysis to identify patterns of meaning across the dataset relevant to mental health. RESULTS: Four themes were conceptualized: i) Mental health changes associated with SWiM-C, ii) External factors negatively impacted mental health and intervention engagement, iii) Use and impact of coping responses, and iv) Intervention preferences based on psychological needs. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that participants were exposed to multiple factors, both related to and external to the intervention, that negatively impact their mental health, yet ACT-based aspects of the SWiM-C intervention appeared to support participants to adaptively manage the decline in their mental health. The findings can be used to inform the development of future weight management interventions, such as through intervention personalization and the inclusion of more strategies that target emotional regulation.Trial registration: ISRCTN 12107048, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12107048.


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , COVID-19 , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias
10.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12358, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is scattered evidence of the impact of workplace interventions in improving employees' physical activity. This systematic review was performed to evaluate the strategies of workplace interventions and their effectiveness, as reported in primary studies. METHOD: Primary experimental trials, both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs, which examined interventions to increase healthy adult employees' physical activity were included in this review. Studies in English or Persian published between 2009 and 2019 with access to full text of resources were considered. Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library, ProQuest (Thesis) and World Health Organization Clinical Trial Registration Databases and Persian databases such as SID, Magiran, IranMedex, Irandoc were searched. All the stages of review were conducted based on PRISMA. RoB and ROBINS-I were used to assess the risk of bias of the primary studies. RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies, with a total of 18 494 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 22 were RCTs, 17 were non-RCTs. Effective interventions were reported in 15 RCTs and 14 non-RCTs. Four main strategies of interventions were identified, consisting of motivation and support; monitoring and feedback; information and education; and activity. Thirteen different behavior change techniques (BCT) were identified with self-determination theory (SDT) being the most frequent behavior change theory used. CONCLUSION: It seems that a multi-strategy intervention that one of the strategies of which is physical activity in the workplace (Activity), the use of behavioral change theories, especially SDT, may be indicative of a more effective intervention. It is recommended that BCTs be considered when designing physical activity interventions.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Motivação
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078806

RESUMO

A healthy lifestyle among the elderly is associated with improved health. However, many older adults are not engaging in such behavior. The purpose of the study was to develop an individually tailored online/telephone program to increase healthy lifestyle behaviors among community-dwelling elderly people. The program includes individually tailored healthy lifestyle recommendations based on participants' functional level. Community-dwelling elderly people aged 60+ years (n = 77; mean age: 72.98 ± 6.49) participated in the study. Significant associations were observed between health promotion activities and health status (r = 0.23, p = 0.04) and physical functional level (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). Twenty-seven percent of participants claimed that they learned "a lot" of new things about themselves, and 31% claimed that the recommendations received were new to them. Most participants engaged in the recommendations at least 1-2 times a week. Regression analyses showed that barriers significantly predicted reduced compliance with the health-related recommendations received (adjusted R2 = 0.18). The main barrier for compliance was inaccessible information about services (32.46% of the participants). The most prevalent facilitator for compliance with the recommendation was health behavior motivation (59.74% of the participants). In conclusion, this study provided evidence on the effectiveness of a multicomponent tailored intervention program among the elderly in increasing health-related knowledge and behavior about the recommendations.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Idoso , Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
12.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(9): e33247, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The popularization of mobile health (mHealth) apps for public health or medical care purposes has transformed human life substantially, improving lifestyle behaviors and chronic condition management. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to identify behavior change techniques (BCTs) commonly used in mHealth, assess their effectiveness based on the evidence reported in interventions and reviews to highlight the most appropriate techniques to design an optimal strategy to improve adherence to data reporting, and provide recommendations for future interventions and research. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of studies published between 2010 and 2021 in relevant scientific databases to identify and analyze mHealth interventions using BCTs that evaluated their effectiveness in terms of user adherence. Search terms included a mix of general (eg, data, information, and adherence), computer science (eg, mHealth and BCTs), and medicine (eg, personalized medicine) terms. RESULTS: This systematic review included 24 studies and revealed that the most frequently used BCTs in the studies were feedback and monitoring (n=20), goals and planning (n=14), associations (n=14), shaping knowledge (n=12), and personalization (n=7). However, we found mixed effectiveness of the techniques in mHealth outcomes, having more effective than ineffective outcomes in the evaluation of apps implementing techniques from the feedback and monitoring, goals and planning, associations, and personalization categories, but we could not infer causality with the results and suggest that there is still a need to improve the use of these and many common BCTs for better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Personalization, associations, and goals and planning techniques were the most used BCTs in effective trials regarding adherence to mHealth apps. However, they are not necessarily the most effective since there are studies that use these techniques and do not report significant results in the proposed objectives; there is a notable overlap of BCTs within implemented app components, suggesting a need to better understand best practices for applying (a combination of) such techniques and to obtain details on the specific BCTs used in mHealth interventions. Future research should focus on studies with longer follow-up periods to determine the effectiveness of mHealth interventions on behavior change to overcome the limited evidence in the current literature, which has mostly small-sized and single-arm experiments with a short follow-up period.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Autorrelato , Telemedicina/métodos
13.
Trials ; 23(1): 765, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitions and perceptions of workers with chronic health problems, such as catastrophizing thoughts and fear-avoidance beliefs, can negatively influence work participation. The Progressive Goal Attainment Program (PGAP) is an intervention developed in Canada with the aim of decreasing limiting cognitions and perceptions and increasing work participation. The objective of this protocol article is to describe the design of a randomized controlled superiority trial to study whether PGAP is effective in decreasing limiting cognitions and perceptions and increasing workability and work participation of workers with chronic health problems in the Netherlands. METHODS: This study is a randomized controlled superiority trial with two (parallel) groups, in which workers on sick leave are randomly assigned to an intervention group (PGAP intervention) or to a waiting-list control group (care as usual). The PGAP intervention consists of a maximum of 10 weekly individual sessions provided by a trained PGAP professional in which the worker learns about staying active, planning activities, and setting goals. Participants in this risk-targeted behavioral activation intervention also learn to be more aware of their cognitions and perceptions and learn about solution-focused problem-solving skills in challenging situations. The primary outcome is the degree of catastrophizing. Secondary outcomes are other personal cognitions and perceptions (e.g., expectations regarding return to work, self-efficacy), health symptoms (e.g., fatigue, depression), work participation (e.g., sick leave status, work hours), and other work-related outcomes (e.g., workability, quality of working life). DISCUSSION: Although PGAP shows positive effects in Canada, we do not know whether this intervention is effective in the Netherlands. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the effect of PGAP on limiting cognitions and perceptions and on work participation of workers with chronic health problems in the Netherlands. If PGAP is effective it could be implemented in the Netherlands in order to stimulate workability and work participation of workers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol of this study is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL9832) in October 2021.


Assuntos
Cognição , Objetivos , Conscientização , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 929043, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979455

RESUMO

Introduction: Lifestyle modifications are the first-line interventions for metabolic syndrome (MetS) management. The effectiveness of lifestyle interventions depends mostly on participants' adherence to the interventions. The current study was to explore the experiences of MetS patients in attending lifestyle intervention program (LIP) and the factors that influenced their adherence to the interventions. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was designed following the COREQ guideline. Face-to-face semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a purposive sample from the participants who attended the LIP using the data saturation principle. Content analysis of transcripts was conducted following the methods proposed by Graneheim and Lundman. Results: The study recruited 27 participants, including 13 males and 14 females. Four themes were identified: (i) the positive and beneficial experiences of attending the LIP, including incorporating lifestyle modifications into daily life, improved physical and psychological health, and empowerment; (ii) facilitators of adherence, including individualized lifestyle education, regular follow-ups, and adequate interpersonal support; (iii) barriers to adherence, including personal resistance, competing demands, and contextual factors; (iv) suggestions for future interventions: with multidisciplinary team, longer term intervention, and more efficient approaches. The findings also indicated that young-to-middle aged patients faced more conflicts with role-related commitments, and were open for e-approaches in lifestyle interventions. Conclusion: The LIP provided positive and beneficial experiences for the participants. Actively incorporating lifestyle modifications into daily life is the key to maintain participants' adherence to the LIP. Culturally appropriate and psycho-behavioral strategies should be adopted to overcome personal and contextual barriers. Special attentions should be paid for the young-to-middle aged population in MetS management.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Terapia Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 872746, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35983357

RESUMO

Background: Implementation mapping is a systematic, collaborative, and contextually-attentive method for developing implementation strategies. As an exemplar, we applied this method to strategy development for Managed Problem Solving Plus (MAPS+), an adapted evidence-based intervention for HIV medication adherence and care retention that will be delivered by community health workers and tested in an upcoming trial. Methods: In Step 1: Conduct Needs Assessment, we interviewed 31 stakeholders to identify determinants of MAPS+ implementation in 13 clinics serving people with HIV in Philadelphia County. In Step 2: Develop Logic Model, we used these determinants as inputs for a working logic model guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. In Step 3: Operationalize Implementation Strategies, our team held a virtual stakeholder meeting to confirm determinants. We synthesized stakeholder feedback, then identified implementation strategies that conceptually matched to determinants using the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change taxonomy. Next, we operationalized implementation strategies with specific examples for clinic settings. We linked strategies to behavior change theories to allow for a mechanistic understanding. We then held a second virtual stakeholder meeting to present the implementation menu for feedback and glean generalizable insights for how these strategies could be operationalized in each stakeholder's clinic. In Step 4: Protocolize Strategies, we incorporated stakeholder feedback and finalized the implementation strategy menu. Findings: Implementation mapping produced a menu of 39 strategies including revise professional roles, identify and prepare champions, use warm handoffs, and change record systems. The process of implementation mapping generated key challenges for implementation strategy development: lack of implementation strategies targeting the outer setting (i.e., sociopolitical context); tension between a one-size-fits-all and individualized approach for all clinics; conceptual confusion between facilitators and strategies; and challenges in translating the implementation science lexicon for partners. Implications: This case exemplar advances both MAPS+ implementation and implementation science methods by furthering our understanding of the use of implementation mapping to develop strategies that enhance uptake of evidence-based interventions. The implementation menu will inform MAPS+ deployment across Philadelphia in an upcoming hybrid trial. We will carry out Step 5: Test Strategies to test the effectiveness and implementation of MAPS+.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Terapia Comportamental , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 934680, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923629

RESUMO

Weight regain after bariatric surgery is associated with problematic eating behaviors that have either recurred after a period of improvement or are new-onset behaviors. Problematic eating behaviors after bariatric surgery have been conceptualized in different ways in the literature, such as having a food addiction and experiencing a loss of control of eating. The intersection of these constructs appears to be driven overeating defined as patients' experiences of reduced control of their eating which results in overeating behavior. The purpose of this review is to define patient experiences of driven overeating through the behavioral expression of emotion-based eating, reward-based eating, and executive functioning deficits-namely impulsivity-which is associated with weight regain after having bariatric surgery. Delineating concepts in this way and determining treatment strategies accordingly may reduce distress related to the inevitable return of increased hunger, cravings, portion sizes, and tolerance for highly palatable foods after surgery. Along with standard behavioral weight maintenance strategies, topics including acceptance, motivation, emotion-based eating, reward-based/impulsive eating, physical activity, and self-compassion are discussed. These concepts have been adapted for patients experiencing weight regain after having bariatric surgery and may be particularly helpful in attenuating driven overeating and weight regain.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Hiperfagia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Aumento de Peso
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(9): 1778-1786, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Behavioral weight management programs (BWMPs) for adults lead to greater weight loss at 12 months than minimal-intervention control treatments. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the content of BWMPs and outcomes of treatment. This study assessed the contribution of individual components of BWMPs, using Bayesian component network meta-analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials of BWMPs in adults were identified (latest search: December 2019) and arms coded for presence or absence of 29 intervention components grouped by type, content, provider, mode of delivery, and intensity. RESULTS: A total of 169 studies (41 judged at high risk of bias) were included in the main analysis. Six components had effect estimates indicating clinically significant benefit and credible intervals (CrIs) excluding no difference: change in diet (mean difference [MD] = -1.84 kg, 95% CrI: -2.91 to -0.80); offering partial (MD = -2.12 kg, 95% CrI: -3.39 to -0.89) or total meal replacements (MD = -2.63 kg, 95% CrI: -4.58 to -0.73); delivery by a psychologist/counselor (MD = -1.45 kg, 95% CrI: -2.81 to -0.06) or dietitian (MD = -1.31 kg, 95% CrI: -2.40 to -0.24); and home setting (MD = -1.05 kg, 95% CrI: -2.02 to -0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Future program development should consider including these components; other approaches continue to warrant evaluation of effectiveness.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Redução de Peso , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Viés , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270356, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980969

RESUMO

In recent years, small objects detection has received extensive attention from scholars for its important value in application. Some effective methods for small objects detection have been proposed. However, the data collected in real scenes are often foggy images, so the models trained with these methods are difficult to extract discriminative object features from such images. In addition, the existing small objects detection algorithms ignore the texture information and high-level semantic information of tiny objects, which limits the improvement of detection performance. Aiming at the above problems, this paper proposes a texture and semantic integrated small objects detection in foggy scenes. The algorithm focuses on extracting discriminative features unaffected by the environment, and obtaining texture information and high-level semantic information of small objects. Specifically, considering the adverse impact of foggy images on recognition performance, a knowledge guidance module is designed, and the discriminative features extracted from clear images by the model are used to guide the network to learn foggy images. Second, the features of high-resolution images and low-resolution images are extracted, and the adversarial learning method is adopted to train the model to give the network the ability to obtain the texture information of tiny objects from low-resolution images. Finally, an attention mechanism is constructed between feature maps of the same scale and different scales to further enrich the high-level semantic information of small objects. A large number of experiments have been conducted on data sets such as "Cityscape to Foggy" and "CoCo". The mean prediction accuracy (mAP) has reached 46.2% on "Cityscape to Fogg", and 33.3% on "CoCo", which fully proves the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Semântica , Terapia Comportamental , Conhecimento , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 566, 2022 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low personal agency is the concept of attributing successes and failures to external factors rather than personal characteristics. Previous research supported links between low personal agency and symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present research followed patients in an outpatient dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) group from intake to 12 months follow up to examine the impact of personal agency on outcome. METHODS: Patients (N = 57, age 18-72, 91.5% female) were assessed at intake, after three months of DBT treatment, and 12 months follow up on measures of symptoms and personal agency. Three separate measures were used to assess treatment outcomes: the BPD Checklist, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). RESULTS: Mixed model analyses found BPD symptoms significantly reduced as a result of DBT treatment and were maintained at follow-up. However, 47% of participants continued to meet BPD criteria 12 months later, despite treatment. Regression analyses indicated that low personal agency at intake was associated with higher BPD symptom severity at post-treatment and 12 month follow up. In addition, low personal agency at intake was associated with greater levels of negative affectivity at post-treatment. Personal agency did not relate to levels of depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the reductions in BPD symptomology, personal agency did not significantly change over time. Those with lower agency at intake continued to do more poorly at follow up. We speculate that poor outcomes may be contributed to by patients' lack of engagement in recovery due to poor agency and an external locus of control. As such, therapeutic approaches, like DBT, may require additional strategies to appropriately target low personal agency. Further research is needed to understand if other treatment protocols may facilitate positive change in personal agency.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e066497, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998966

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression is common among community-dwelling older adults who make use of senior centre services yet remains undertreated due to a lack of acceptable and available treatments. Emerging evidence suggests that lay health providers can offer psychosocial interventions for mental health disorders experienced by older adults. We developed a streamlined Behavioural Activation intervention (called 'Do More, Feel Better'; DMFB) to be delivered by older adult volunteers and propose to compare its effectiveness to that of clinician-delivered behavioural activation (BA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a type I collaborative randomised effectiveness trial testing the effect of DMFB in comparison to BA among 288 senior centre clients (aged 60+). Participant clients will be recruited from 6 Seattle, 6 New York City and 6 Tampa area senior centres serving economically and ethnically diverse communities. Primary outcomes will be increased activity level (target) and decreased depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be functioning and client satisfaction, and an exploratory outcome will be treatment fidelity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received ethics approval from the University of Washington Institutional Review Board (STUDY00011434). Client, volunteer and clinician participants will all provide informed consent for study procedures through in-person or remote contact with investigators. Results of this study will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and at professional conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04621877; ClinicalTrials.gov.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Centros Comunitários para Idosos , Idoso , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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