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1.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 274-279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004726

RESUMO

Background: Parental acceptance of behavior management techniques (BMTs) in dental practice is important and subjected to change with the dynamics of the society. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the parental acceptance of eight selected BMTs: tell-show-do (TSD), voice control (VC), passive restraint (PR), active restraint (AR), parental presence/absence (PP/PA), oral sedation (OS), inhalation sedation nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O/O2), and general anesthesia (GA) and its associated factors in a group of Thai parents. Design: The cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 parents of preschool children in Bangkok metropolitan. Materials and Methods: Parents were asked to rate the BMTs demonstrated in video with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Possible relevant factors were collected via questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the samples. BMTs were ranked by mean VAS using the general linear model repeated measure. The association between the mean VASs and parental and child's factors was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Significant factors were further analyzed by multiple linear regression. The level of confidence was set at 95%. Results: All BMTs were acceptable. TSD was rated the highest, followed by PR, VC, AR, N2O/O2, OS, GA, and PP/PA, respectively. Parental dental anxiety was associated with less acceptance of PP/PA. Child's experience of VC, AR, OS, and PP/PA was related to better acceptance of the techniques. Conclusions: The BMTs were better accepted with similar pattern compared to past studies. PP/PA was the least accepted related to high parental anxiety. Child's experience with BMTs increased the acceptance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Pais , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tailândia
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003355, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions targeted at expectant fathers. We examined the effectiveness of a video-based smoking cessation intervention focusing on maternal and child health in promoting quitting among expectant fathers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A single-blind, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted at the obstetrics registration centers of 3 tertiary public hospitals in 3 major cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Foshan) in China. Smoking expectant fathers who registered with their pregnant partners were invited to participate in this study. Between 14 August 2017 to 28 February 2018, 1,023 participants were randomized to a video (n = 333), text (n = 322), or control (n = 368) group. The video and text groups received videos or text messages on the risks of smoking for maternal and child health via instant messaging. The control group received a leaflet with information on smoking cessation. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 week and at 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary outcome, by intention to treat (ITT), was validated abstinence from smoking at the 6-month follow-up. The secondary outcomes included 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) and level of readiness to quit at each follow-up. The mean age of participants was 32 years, and about half of them were first-time expectant fathers. About two-thirds of participants had completed tertiary education. The response rate was 79.7% (815 of 1,023) at 6 months. The video and text groups had higher rates of validated abstinence than the control group (video group: 22.5% [75 of 333], P < 0.001; text group: 14.9% [48 of 322], P = 0.02; control group: 9.2% [34 of 368]) with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 2.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-4.37, P < 0.001) in the video group and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.06-2.74, P = 0.03) in the text group. The video and text groups differed in the rates of validated abstinence (22.5% versus 14.9%, P = 0.008; adjusted OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.10-2.46, P = 0.02). The video and text groups had higher rates of 7-day PPA than the control group at 6 months (video group: 24.6% [82 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P < 0.001; text group: 17.4% [56 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P = 0.02). The video and text groups also differed in the rates of 7-day PPA (24.6% versus 17.4%, P = 0.02). Excluding the quitters, the video and text groups had higher levels of readiness to quit than the control group at 6 months (video group: 43.5% [109 of 251] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.002; text group: 40.6% [108 of 266] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.01), No such difference was detected between the video and text groups (43.5% versus 40.6%, P = 0.29). The study was limited in that the long-term effectiveness of the intervention is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: This smoking cessation intervention for expectant fathers that focused on explaining the ramifications of smoking on maternal and child health was effective and feasible in promoting quitting, and video messages were more effective than texts in delivering the information. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03236025.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Pai , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Fumar/epidemiologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21651, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Teaching has been found to be 1 of the most stressful occupations worldwide. Stress associated with teaching is more critical among teachers teaching children with special needs in general and those with autism specifically, partly due to the heterogeneous nature of the disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Occupational Health Coaching (REOHC) in minimizing job stress in teachers of children with autism (CWA). METHODS: A group-randomized waitlist control-trial design was adopted. A sample of 87 teachers of CWA who participated in the study was randomized into the immediate intervention group (IIG) and waitlist group (WLG). Participants were evaluated on 3 occasions: pretest, post-test and follow-up. Three instruments (Occupational Stress Index, Perceived Occupational Stress Scale and Stress Symptom Scale) were used to measure dimensions of job stress. After the pretest exercise, the IIG participated in a 2-hour REOHC programme weekly for a period of 12 weeks. Post- and follow-up evaluations were conducted respectively at 2 weeks and 3 months after the REOHC programme. Those in WLG were exposed to the REOHC after the follow-up assessment. Data collected were analysed using t-test statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance and bar charts. RESULTS: Results revealed that the perceived stress and stress symptoms of the REOHC group reduced significantly over WLG at post-test, and follow-up assessments. Changes in the occupational stress index scores across pre-, post- and follow-up measurements were minimal and could not account for a significant difference between the IIG and WLG. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that REOHC is effective in reducing subjective feelings and physiological symptoms of job stress, even when the objective stressors remain constant among teachers of CWA and other employees who work in stressful occupational environments.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crianças com Deficiência/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 45(9): 983-989, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We recently transitioned from in-person delivery of a brief behavioral parent intervention to telepsychology delivery to meet families' needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this topical review, we describe how we used treatment fidelity as a guiding principle to orient adaptations for telepsychology, as well as preliminary findings and early lessons learned in this implementation. Methods: Using rapid-cycle quality improvement methods, we adapted a brief parent training group (Bootcamp for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; BC-ADHD) to three groups of caregivers (i.e., 5-7 families) of school-aged children with ADHD (n = 20; 85% males). Families were from the following ethnic backgrounds: 75% White non-Hispanic, 15% White Hispanic, and 10% Black. Clinicians completed measures on their implementation experience. Observers completed measures on content/process fidelity and attendance. Caregivers completed measures on demographics, treatment satisfaction, and telepsychology experience. RESULTS: Telepsychology BC-ADHD can be implemented with comparably high levels of content and process fidelity and treatment satisfaction to in-person groups; and it appears to be feasible and acceptable to caregivers. Caregiver and clinician qualitative feedback revealed themes of appreciating the convenience of telepsychology, while experiencing some challenges in relating to others and sharing over video. CONCLUSIONS: When treatment fidelity is used as a guiding tool, telepsychology parent training groups can be delivered with high fidelity and appear to be acceptable and feasible to caregivers and clinicians. Future research using larger and more diverse samples, multimethod and multi-informant measurement approaches, and controlled designs is needed to further assess the generalizability and efficacy of telepsychology parent training groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21080, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic conditions are placing a serious burden on individuals as well as the health care system. Health coaching (HC) has emerged as a promising approach that can support effective lifestyle interventions for chronic conditions. However, until now there is no particularly comprehensive systematic review of HC impact on a chronic condition from the angle of patient improvement and detail coaching characteristics reported. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize available studies on the efficacy and current status of HC interventions on the health of chronically ill adult patients. METHODS: The literature search will be conducted for trials published in English within the past four years. Electronic databases CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and Scopus will be searched with keywords describing HC for chronic diseases. Randomized controlled trials that compare HC interventions to conventional care or other alternative therapies will be included. Data extraction will be conducted by two reviewers independently, and enrolled trials will be evaluated for quality and bias assessment. If appropriate, meta-analysis will be conducted on the last stage of the review; otherwise, the study findings will be described narratively. The software Review Manager (Revman version 5.3.5.) provided by the Cochrane Collaboration will be applied for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: This is the first study to comprehensively explore the effectiveness and current status of HC intervention for patients with chronic conditions. DISCUSSION: Study findings from this review will advance the appropriate utilization of coaching practice by determining whether HC is effective and feasible among patients with chronic disease. If proven effective, this approach may be applied more broadly through public health interventions. The current status findings will also provide evidence to inform decisions for integrating HC interventions into the current management pathway for individuals with chronic conditions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020153280.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Tutoria , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autogestão , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21164, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Both athletes with and without disabilities can develop burnout symptoms. However, athletes with disabilities may face different or more challenges compared to their counterparts without disabilities. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effect of digital storytelling intervention on burnout thoughts of adolescent-athletes with disabilities. METHOD: This study is a randomized controlled trial involving a total of 171 adolescent-athletes with disabilities who showed a high degree of burnout symptoms. These adolescent-athletes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 85) or a waitlisted control group (n = 86). The treatment intervention for the adolescent-athletes was digital stories which were created based on the framework of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire was used for gathering of data at three different times (baseline, post-test and follow up). Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance at a significant level of 0.05. RESULTS: Results showed that the digital storytelling intervention based on REBT significantly reduced burnout thoughts among disabled adolescent-athletes in the intervention group compared to athletes in the waitlisted control group as measured by the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Additionally, at follow-up evaluation, it was observed that the decrease in burnout scores was maintained by those athletes in the digital storytelling intervention. CONCLUSION: Digital storytelling intervention based on rational emotive behaviour therapy shows great potentials in addressing burnout among adolescent-athletes with disabilities.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Esgotamento Psicológico/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Narração , Adolescente , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
JAMA ; 324(7): 682-699, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809007

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing rates of preventable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US pose substantial burdens to health and well-being. Objective: To update evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) on effectiveness of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STIs. Data Sources: Studies from the previous USPSTF review (2014); literature published January 2013 through May 31, 2019, in MEDLINE, PubMed (for publisher-supplied records only), PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Ongoing surveillance through May 22, 2020. Study Selection: Good- and fair-quality randomized and nonrandomized controlled intervention studies of behavioral counseling interventions for adolescents and adults conducted in primary care settings were included. Studies with active comparators only or limited to individuals requiring specialist care for STI risk-related comorbidities were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Dual risk of bias assessment, with inconsistent ratings adjudicated by a third team member. Study data were abstracted into prespecified forms. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using the DerSimonian and Laird method or the restricted maximum likelihood method with Knapp-Hartung adjustment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in STI diagnoses, self-reported condom use, and self-reported unprotected sex at 3 months or more after baseline. Results: The review included 37 randomized trials and 2 nonrandomized controlled intervention studies (N = 65 888; 13 good-quality, 26 fair-quality) recruited from primary care settings in the US. Study populations were composed predominantly of heterosexual adolescents and young adults (12 to 25 years), females, and racial and ethnic minorities at increased risk for STIs. Nineteen trials (n = 52 072) reported STI diagnoses as outcomes (3 to 17 months' follow-up); intervention was associated with reduced STI incidence (OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.54-0.81; I2 = 74%]). Absolute differences in STI acquisition between groups varied widely depending on baseline population STI risk and intervention effectiveness, ranging from 19% fewer to 4% more people acquiring STI. Thirty-four trials (n = 21 417) reported behavioral change outcomes. Interventions were associated with self-reported behavioral change (eg, increased condom use) that reduce STI risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.10-1.56; I2 = 40%, n = 5253). There was limited evidence on persistence of intervention effects beyond 1 year. No harms were identified in 7 studies (n = 3458) reporting adverse outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Behavioral counseling interventions for individuals seeking primary health care were associated with reduced incidence of STIs. Group or individual counseling sessions lasting more than 2 hours were associated with larger reductions in STI incidence, and interventions of shorter duration also were associated with STI prevention, although evidence was limited on whether the STI reductions associated with these interventions persisted beyond 1 year.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
JAMA ; 324(7): 674-681, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809008

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 20 million new cases of bacterial or viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur each year in the US, and about one-half of these cases occur in persons aged 15 to 24 years. Rates of chlamydial, gonococcal, and syphilis infection continue to increase in all regions. Sexually transmitted infections are frequently asymptomatic, which may delay diagnosis and treatment and lead persons to unknowingly transmit STIs to others. Serious consequences of STIs include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, cancer, and AIDS. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STI acquisition. Population: This recommendation statement applies to all sexually active adolescents and to adults at increased risk for STIs. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions reduce the likelihood of acquiring STIs in sexually active adolescents and in adults at increased risk, including for example, those who have a current STI, do not use condoms, or have multiple partners, resulting in a moderate net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs. (B recommendation).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
13.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 118: 108102, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854983

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly spread across the world. Individuals with stimulant use disorder are a vulnerable population, who are particularly at risk of negative outcomes during this pandemic due to several risk factors, including mental and physical comorbidities, weakened immune responses, high-risk behaviors, and barriers to healthcare access. Engaging patients with stimulant use disorder in regular treatment has become even more difficult during this pandemic, which has resulted in many cuts to addiction treatment programs. The most effective treatment options for stimulant use disorder are psychosocial interventions, which rely heavily on in-person interactions, posing an added challenge during physical distancing. In particular, contingency management (CM) is a behavioral therapy that utilizes tangible reinforcements to incentivize targeted behavior changes, and is an effective treatment intervention used for stimulant use disorder. This paper highlights the treatment challenges for individuals with stimulant use disorder and the importance of adapting CM programs during COVID-19. We present strategies for how CM can be adapted and its role expanded in a safe way during the COVID-19 pandemic to help prevent infection spread, stimulant use relapse, and worsened psychosocial consequences.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007407, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic non-cancer pain, a disabling and distressing condition, is common in adults. It is a global public health problem and economic burden on health and social care systems and on people with chronic pain. Psychological treatments aim to reduce pain, disability and distress. This review updates and extends its previous version, published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical efficacy and safety of psychological interventions for chronic pain in adults (age > 18 years) compared with active controls, or waiting list/treatment as usual (TAU). SEARCH METHODS: We identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological therapies by searching CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO to 16 April 2020. We also examined reference lists and trial registries, and searched for studies citing retrieved trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs of psychological treatments compared with active control or TAU of face-to-face therapies for adults with chronic pain. We excluded studies of headache or malignant disease, and those with fewer than 20 participants in any arm at treatment end. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two or more authors rated risk of bias, extracted data, and judged quality of evidence (GRADE). We compared cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), behavioural therapy (BT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with active control or TAU at treatment end, and at six month to 12 month follow-up. We did not analyse the few trials of other psychological treatments. We assessed treatment effectiveness for pain intensity, disability, and distress. We extracted data on adverse events (AEs) associated with treatment. MAIN RESULTS: We added 41 studies (6255 participants) to 34 of the previous review's 42 studies, and now have 75 studies in total (9401 participants at treatment end). Most participants had fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, or mixed chronic pain. Most risk of bias domains were at high or unclear risk of bias, with selective reporting and treatment expectations mostly at unclear risk of bias. AEs were inadequately recorded and/or reported across studies. CBT The largest evidence base was for CBT (59 studies). CBT versus active control showed very small benefit at treatment end for pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.17 to -0.01; 3235 participants; 23 studies; moderate-quality evidence), disability (SMD -0.12, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.04; 2543 participants; 19 studies; moderate-quality evidence), and distress (SMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.00; 3297 participants; 24 studies; moderate-quality evidence). We found small benefits for CBT over TAU at treatment end for pain (SMD -0.22, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.10; 2572 participants; 29 studies; moderate-quality evidence), disability (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.19; 2524 participants; 28 studies; low-quality evidence), and distress (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.24; 2559 participants; 27 studies; moderate-quality evidence). Effects were largely maintained at follow-up for CBT versus TAU, but not for CBT versus active control. Evidence quality for CBT outcomes ranged from moderate to low. We rated evidence for AEs as very low quality for both comparisons. BT We analysed eight studies (647 participants). We found no evidence of difference between BT and active control at treatment end (pain SMD -0.67, 95% CI -2.54 to 1.20, very low-quality evidence; disability SMD -0.65, 95% CI -1.85 to 0.54, very low-quality evidence; or distress SMD -0.73, 95% CI -1.47 to 0.01, very low-quality evidence). At follow-up, effects were similar. We found no evidence of difference between BT and TAU (pain SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.17, low-quality evidence; disability SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.19, moderate-quality evidence; distress SMD 0.22, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.54, low-quality evidence) at treatment end. At follow-up, we found one to three studies with no evidence of difference between BT and TAU. We rated evidence for all BT versus active control outcomes as very low quality; for BT versus TAU. Evidence quality ranged from moderate to very low. We rated evidence for AEs as very low quality for BT versus active control. No studies of BT versus TAU reported AEs. ACT We analysed five studies (443 participants). There was no evidence of difference between ACT and active control for pain (SMD -0.54, 95% CI -1.20 to 0.11, very low-quality evidence), disability (SMD -1.51, 95% CI -3.05 to 0.03, very low-quality evidence) or distress (SMD -0.61, 95% CI -1.30 to 0.07, very low-quality evidence) at treatment end. At follow-up, there was no evidence of effect for pain or distress (both very low-quality evidence), but two studies showed a large benefit for reducing disability (SMD -2.56, 95% CI -4.22 to -0.89, very low-quality evidence). Two studies compared ACT to TAU at treatment end. Results should be interpreted with caution. We found large benefits of ACT for pain (SMD -0.83, 95% CI -1.57 to -0.09, very low-quality evidence), but none for disability (SMD -1.39, 95% CI -3.20 to 0.41, very low-quality evidence), or distress (SMD -1.16, 95% CI -2.51 to 0.20, very low-quality evidence). Lack of data precluded analysis at follow-up. We rated evidence quality for AEs to be very low. We encourage caution when interpreting very low-quality evidence because the estimates are uncertain and could be easily overturned. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found sufficient evidence across a large evidence base (59 studies, over 5000 participants) that CBT has small or very small beneficial effects for reducing pain, disability, and distress in chronic pain, but we found insufficient evidence to assess AEs. Quality of evidence for CBT was mostly moderate, except for disability, which we rated as low quality. Further trials may provide more precise estimates of treatment effects, but to inform improvements, research should explore sources of variation in treatment effects. Evidence from trials of BT and ACT was of moderate to very low quality, so we are very uncertain about benefits or lack of benefits of these treatments for adults with chronic pain; other treatments were not analysed. These conclusions are similar to our 2012 review, apart from the separate analysis of ACT.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Adulto , Afeto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Viés , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013461, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is common in people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory conditions. The co-existence of depression and NCDs may affect health behaviours, compliance with treatment, physiological factors, and quality of life. This in turn is associated with worse outcomes for both conditions. Behavioural activation is not currently indicated for the treatment of depression in this population in the UK, but is increasingly being used to treat depression in adults. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with any control group for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with each control group separately (no treatment, waiting list, other psychological therapy, pharmacological treatment, or any other type of treatment as usual) for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CCMD-CTR, CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, four other databases, and two trial registers on 4 October 2019 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural activation for depression in participants with NCDs, together with grey literature and reference checking. We applied no restrictions on date, language, or publication status to the searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in adults with one of four NCDs: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory conditions. Only participants with a formal diagnosis of both depression and an NCD were eligible. Studies were included if behavioural activation was the main component of the intervention. We included studies with any comparator that was not behavioural activation, and regardless of reported outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane, including independent screening of titles/abstracts and full-text manuscripts, data extraction, and risk of bias assessments in duplicate. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for more information. MAIN RESULTS: We included two studies, contributing data from 181 participants to the analyses. Both studies recruited participants from US hospital clinics; one included people who were recovering from a stroke and the other women with breast cancer. For both studies, the intervention consisted of eight weeks of face-to-face behavioural therapy, with one study comparing to poststroke treatment as usual and the other comparing to problem-solving therapy. Both studies were at risk of performance bias and potential conflict of interest arising from author involvement in the development of the intervention. For one study, risks of selection bias and reporting bias were unclear and the study was judged at high risk of attrition bias. Treatment efficacy (remission) was greater for behavioural activation than for comparators in the short term (risk ratio (RR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 2.38; low-certainty evidence) and medium term (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.08; moderate-certainty evidence), but these estimates lacked precision and effects were reduced in the long term (RR 1.42, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.23; moderate-certainty evidence). We found no evidence of a difference in treatment acceptability in the short term (RR 1.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.82) and medium term (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.25 to 3.10) (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in depression symptoms between behavioural activation and comparators (short term: MD -1.15, 95% CI -2.71 to 0.41; low-certainty evidence). One study found no difference for quality of life (short term: MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.96; low-certainty evidence), functioning (short term: MD 2.70, 95% CI -6.99 to 12.39; low-certainty evidence), and anxiety symptoms (short term: MD -1.70, 95% CI -4.50 to 1.10; low-certainty evidence). Neither study reported data on adverse effects. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this review was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the efficacy and acceptability of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. A future review may wish to include, or focus on, studies of people with subthreshold depression or depression symptoms without a formal diagnosis, as this may inform whether behavioural activation could be used to treat mild or undiagnosed (or both) depressive symptoms in people with NCDs. Evidence from low-resource settings including low- and middle-income countries, for which behavioural activation may offer a feasible alternative to other treatments for depression, would be of interest.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Viés , Conflito de Interesses , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Resolução de Problemas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 53(3): 1225-1236, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686131

RESUMO

Habit reversal training (HRT) has been a mainstay of behavior analysts' repertoire for nearly the last 50 years. HRT has been effective in treating a host of repetitive behavior problems. In the face of the current coronavirus pandemic, HRT has practical public health importance as a possible intervention for reducing hand-to-head behaviors that increase the risk of viral infection. The current paper provides a brief review of HRT for hand-to-head habits that is designed for a broad audience and concludes with practical suggestions, based on HRT, for reducing face-touching behaviors.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Hábitos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Face , Mãos , Cabeça , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
18.
Maturitas ; 138: 1-7, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631583

RESUMO

Traditional medical practice has suffered from male bias, which can lead to sub-optimal treatment options for female patients and increase the incidence of severe side-effects in this population. Mobile health applications, mHealth apps, represent one essential component of the shift towards consumer-centered self-administered individualized health. To prevent sex-specific bias it is important that trials consider sex and gender when developing mHealth apps. We evaluated the inclusion and reporting of sex and gender at all levels in mHealth randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To this end, we conducted a secondary analysis of a large study database addressing the effectiveness of app interventions on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic medical conditions. We followed the 5 steps described in the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and the guidelines of the PRISMA-ScR. Of the 72 app-based RCTs which reported information about sex overall, 62 included individuals of both sexes. The concept of gender was not addressed in any of the studies. The consideration of sex aspects in the design, execution and reporting of mHealth RCTs was minimal or absent. To adequately address the health and preventative needs of the mHealth user population, sex and gender should be systematically included in the research, development and evaluation of mHealth applications.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Aplicativos Móveis , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Telemedicina , Terapia Comportamental , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013305, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioural activation is a brief psychotherapeutic approach that seeks to change the way a person interacts with their environment. Behavioural activation is increasingly receiving attention as a potentially cost-effective intervention for depression, which may require less resources and may be easier to deliver and implement than other types of psychotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with other psychological therapies for depression in adults. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with medication for depression in adults. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/placebo no treatment for depression in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CCMD-CTR (all available years), CENTRAL (current issue), Ovid MEDLINE (1946 onwards), Ovid EMBASE (1980 onwards), and Ovid PsycINFO (1806 onwards) on the 17 January 2020 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of 'behavioural activation', or the main elements of behavioural activation for depression in participants with clinically diagnosed depression or subthreshold depression. We did not apply any restrictions on date, language or publication status to the searches. We searched international trials registries via the World Health Organization's trials portal (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression or symptoms of depression in adults aged 18 or over. We excluded RCTs conducted in inpatient settings and with trial participants selected because of a physical comorbidity. Studies were included regardless of reported outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened all titles/abstracts and full-text manuscripts for inclusion. Data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessments were also performed by two review authors in duplicate. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for more information. MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-three studies with 5495 participants were included; 51 parallel group RCTs and two cluster-RCTs. We found moderate-certainty evidence that behavioural activation had greater short-term efficacy than treatment as usual (risk ratio (RR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 1.78; 7 RCTs, 1533 participants), although this difference was no longer evident in sensitivity analyses using a worst-case or intention-to-treat scenario. Compared with waiting list, behavioural activation may be more effective, but there were fewer data in this comparison and evidence was of low certainty (RR 2.14, 95% CI 0.90 to 5.09; 1 RCT, 26 participants). No evidence on treatment efficacy was available for behavioural activation versus placebo and behavioural activation versus no treatment. We found moderate-certainty evidence suggesting no evidence of a difference in short-term treatment efficacy between behavioural activation and CBT (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07; 5 RCTs, 601 participants). Fewer data were available for other comparators. No evidence of a difference in short term-efficacy was found between behavioural activation and third-wave CBT (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.33; 2 RCTs, 98 participants; low certainty), and psychodynamic therapy (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.99; 1 RCT,60 participants; very low certainty). Behavioural activation was more effective than humanistic therapy (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.95; 2 RCTs, 46 participants; low certainty) and medication (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.76; 1 RCT; 141 participants; moderate certainty), but both of these results were based on a small number of trials and participants. No evidence on treatment efficacy was available for comparisons between behavioural activation versus interpersonal, cognitive analytic, and integrative therapies. There was moderate-certainty evidence that behavioural activation might have lower treatment acceptability (based on dropout rate) than treatment as usual in the short term, although the data did not confirm a difference and results lacked precision (RR 1.64, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.31; 14 RCTs, 2518 participants). Moderate-certainty evidence did not suggest any difference in short-term acceptability between behavioural activation and waiting list (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.93; 8 RCTs. 359 participants), no treatment (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.09; 3 RCTs, 187 participants), medication (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.16; 2 RCTs, 243 participants), or placebo (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.67; 1 RCT; 96 participants; low-certainty evidence). No evidence on treatment acceptability was available comparing behavioural activation versus psychodynamic therapy. Low-certainty evidence did not show a difference in short-term treatment acceptability (dropout rate) between behavioural activation and CBT (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.25; 12 RCTs, 1195 participants), third-wave CBT (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.10; 3 RCTs, 147 participants); humanistic therapy (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.20 to 5.55; 2 RCTs, 96 participants) (very low certainty), and interpersonal, cognitive analytic, and integrative therapy (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.20; 4 RCTs, 123 participants). Results from medium- and long-term primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses are summarised in the text. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review suggests that behavioural activation may be more effective than humanistic therapy, medication, and treatment as usual, and that it may be no less effective than CBT, psychodynamic therapy, or being placed on a waiting list. However, our confidence in these findings is limited due to concerns about the certainty of the evidence. We found no evidence of a difference in short-term treatment acceptability (based on dropouts) between behavioural activation and most comparison groups (CBT, humanistic therapy, waiting list, placebo, medication, no treatment or treatment as usual). Again, our confidence in all these findings is limited due to concerns about the certainty of the evidence. No data were available about the efficacy of behaioural activation compared with placebo, or about treatment acceptability comparing behavioural activation and psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal, cognitive analytic and integrative therapies. The evidence could be strengthened by better reporting and better quality RCTs of behavioural activation and by assessing working mechanisms of behavioural activation.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ajustamento Social , Listas de Espera
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635650

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a growing call for the prevention of excessive smartphone and social media use and the ensuing distraction that arises affecting academic achievement and productivity. A ten-day online randomized controlled trial with the use of smartphone apps, engaging participants in mindfulness exercises, self-monitoring and mood tracking, was implemented amongst UK university students (n = 143). Participants were asked to complete online pre- and post-intervention assessments. Results indicated high effect sizes in reduction of smartphone distraction and improvement scores on a number of self-reported secondary psychological outcomes. The intervention was not effective in reducing habitual behaviours, nomophobia, or time spent on social media. Mediation analyses demonstrated that: (i) emotional self-awareness but not mindful attention mediated the relationship between intervention effects and smartphone distraction, and (ii) online vigilance mediated the relationship between smartphone distraction and problematic social media use. The present study provides preliminary evidence of the efficacy of an intervention for decreased smartphone distraction and highlights psychological processes involved in this emergent phenomenon in the smartphone literature. Online interventions may serve as complementary strategies to reduce distraction levels and promote insight into online engagement. More research is required to elucidate the mechanisms of digital distraction and assess its implications in problematic use.


Assuntos
Atenção , Terapia Comportamental , Smartphone , Mídias Sociais , Afeto , Emoções , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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