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1.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003355, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions targeted at expectant fathers. We examined the effectiveness of a video-based smoking cessation intervention focusing on maternal and child health in promoting quitting among expectant fathers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A single-blind, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted at the obstetrics registration centers of 3 tertiary public hospitals in 3 major cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Foshan) in China. Smoking expectant fathers who registered with their pregnant partners were invited to participate in this study. Between 14 August 2017 to 28 February 2018, 1,023 participants were randomized to a video (n = 333), text (n = 322), or control (n = 368) group. The video and text groups received videos or text messages on the risks of smoking for maternal and child health via instant messaging. The control group received a leaflet with information on smoking cessation. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 week and at 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary outcome, by intention to treat (ITT), was validated abstinence from smoking at the 6-month follow-up. The secondary outcomes included 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) and level of readiness to quit at each follow-up. The mean age of participants was 32 years, and about half of them were first-time expectant fathers. About two-thirds of participants had completed tertiary education. The response rate was 79.7% (815 of 1,023) at 6 months. The video and text groups had higher rates of validated abstinence than the control group (video group: 22.5% [75 of 333], P < 0.001; text group: 14.9% [48 of 322], P = 0.02; control group: 9.2% [34 of 368]) with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 2.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-4.37, P < 0.001) in the video group and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.06-2.74, P = 0.03) in the text group. The video and text groups differed in the rates of validated abstinence (22.5% versus 14.9%, P = 0.008; adjusted OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.10-2.46, P = 0.02). The video and text groups had higher rates of 7-day PPA than the control group at 6 months (video group: 24.6% [82 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P < 0.001; text group: 17.4% [56 of 333] versus 11.4% [42 of 368], P = 0.02). The video and text groups also differed in the rates of 7-day PPA (24.6% versus 17.4%, P = 0.02). Excluding the quitters, the video and text groups had higher levels of readiness to quit than the control group at 6 months (video group: 43.5% [109 of 251] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.002; text group: 40.6% [108 of 266] versus 31.6% [103 of 326], P = 0.01), No such difference was detected between the video and text groups (43.5% versus 40.6%, P = 0.29). The study was limited in that the long-term effectiveness of the intervention is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: This smoking cessation intervention for expectant fathers that focused on explaining the ramifications of smoking on maternal and child health was effective and feasible in promoting quitting, and video messages were more effective than texts in delivering the information. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03236025.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Pai , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Fumar/epidemiologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21651, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Teaching has been found to be 1 of the most stressful occupations worldwide. Stress associated with teaching is more critical among teachers teaching children with special needs in general and those with autism specifically, partly due to the heterogeneous nature of the disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Occupational Health Coaching (REOHC) in minimizing job stress in teachers of children with autism (CWA). METHODS: A group-randomized waitlist control-trial design was adopted. A sample of 87 teachers of CWA who participated in the study was randomized into the immediate intervention group (IIG) and waitlist group (WLG). Participants were evaluated on 3 occasions: pretest, post-test and follow-up. Three instruments (Occupational Stress Index, Perceived Occupational Stress Scale and Stress Symptom Scale) were used to measure dimensions of job stress. After the pretest exercise, the IIG participated in a 2-hour REOHC programme weekly for a period of 12 weeks. Post- and follow-up evaluations were conducted respectively at 2 weeks and 3 months after the REOHC programme. Those in WLG were exposed to the REOHC after the follow-up assessment. Data collected were analysed using t-test statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance and bar charts. RESULTS: Results revealed that the perceived stress and stress symptoms of the REOHC group reduced significantly over WLG at post-test, and follow-up assessments. Changes in the occupational stress index scores across pre-, post- and follow-up measurements were minimal and could not account for a significant difference between the IIG and WLG. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that REOHC is effective in reducing subjective feelings and physiological symptoms of job stress, even when the objective stressors remain constant among teachers of CWA and other employees who work in stressful occupational environments.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crianças com Deficiência/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 45(9): 983-989, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We recently transitioned from in-person delivery of a brief behavioral parent intervention to telepsychology delivery to meet families' needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this topical review, we describe how we used treatment fidelity as a guiding principle to orient adaptations for telepsychology, as well as preliminary findings and early lessons learned in this implementation. Methods: Using rapid-cycle quality improvement methods, we adapted a brief parent training group (Bootcamp for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; BC-ADHD) to three groups of caregivers (i.e., 5-7 families) of school-aged children with ADHD (n = 20; 85% males). Families were from the following ethnic backgrounds: 75% White non-Hispanic, 15% White Hispanic, and 10% Black. Clinicians completed measures on their implementation experience. Observers completed measures on content/process fidelity and attendance. Caregivers completed measures on demographics, treatment satisfaction, and telepsychology experience. RESULTS: Telepsychology BC-ADHD can be implemented with comparably high levels of content and process fidelity and treatment satisfaction to in-person groups; and it appears to be feasible and acceptable to caregivers. Caregiver and clinician qualitative feedback revealed themes of appreciating the convenience of telepsychology, while experiencing some challenges in relating to others and sharing over video. CONCLUSIONS: When treatment fidelity is used as a guiding tool, telepsychology parent training groups can be delivered with high fidelity and appear to be acceptable and feasible to caregivers and clinicians. Future research using larger and more diverse samples, multimethod and multi-informant measurement approaches, and controlled designs is needed to further assess the generalizability and efficacy of telepsychology parent training groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21164, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Both athletes with and without disabilities can develop burnout symptoms. However, athletes with disabilities may face different or more challenges compared to their counterparts without disabilities. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effect of digital storytelling intervention on burnout thoughts of adolescent-athletes with disabilities. METHOD: This study is a randomized controlled trial involving a total of 171 adolescent-athletes with disabilities who showed a high degree of burnout symptoms. These adolescent-athletes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 85) or a waitlisted control group (n = 86). The treatment intervention for the adolescent-athletes was digital stories which were created based on the framework of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire was used for gathering of data at three different times (baseline, post-test and follow up). Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance at a significant level of 0.05. RESULTS: Results showed that the digital storytelling intervention based on REBT significantly reduced burnout thoughts among disabled adolescent-athletes in the intervention group compared to athletes in the waitlisted control group as measured by the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Additionally, at follow-up evaluation, it was observed that the decrease in burnout scores was maintained by those athletes in the digital storytelling intervention. CONCLUSION: Digital storytelling intervention based on rational emotive behaviour therapy shows great potentials in addressing burnout among adolescent-athletes with disabilities.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Esgotamento Psicológico/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Narração , Adolescente , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
JAMA ; 324(7): 682-699, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809007

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing rates of preventable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US pose substantial burdens to health and well-being. Objective: To update evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) on effectiveness of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STIs. Data Sources: Studies from the previous USPSTF review (2014); literature published January 2013 through May 31, 2019, in MEDLINE, PubMed (for publisher-supplied records only), PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Ongoing surveillance through May 22, 2020. Study Selection: Good- and fair-quality randomized and nonrandomized controlled intervention studies of behavioral counseling interventions for adolescents and adults conducted in primary care settings were included. Studies with active comparators only or limited to individuals requiring specialist care for STI risk-related comorbidities were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Dual risk of bias assessment, with inconsistent ratings adjudicated by a third team member. Study data were abstracted into prespecified forms. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using the DerSimonian and Laird method or the restricted maximum likelihood method with Knapp-Hartung adjustment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in STI diagnoses, self-reported condom use, and self-reported unprotected sex at 3 months or more after baseline. Results: The review included 37 randomized trials and 2 nonrandomized controlled intervention studies (N = 65 888; 13 good-quality, 26 fair-quality) recruited from primary care settings in the US. Study populations were composed predominantly of heterosexual adolescents and young adults (12 to 25 years), females, and racial and ethnic minorities at increased risk for STIs. Nineteen trials (n = 52 072) reported STI diagnoses as outcomes (3 to 17 months' follow-up); intervention was associated with reduced STI incidence (OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.54-0.81; I2 = 74%]). Absolute differences in STI acquisition between groups varied widely depending on baseline population STI risk and intervention effectiveness, ranging from 19% fewer to 4% more people acquiring STI. Thirty-four trials (n = 21 417) reported behavioral change outcomes. Interventions were associated with self-reported behavioral change (eg, increased condom use) that reduce STI risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.10-1.56; I2 = 40%, n = 5253). There was limited evidence on persistence of intervention effects beyond 1 year. No harms were identified in 7 studies (n = 3458) reporting adverse outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Behavioral counseling interventions for individuals seeking primary health care were associated with reduced incidence of STIs. Group or individual counseling sessions lasting more than 2 hours were associated with larger reductions in STI incidence, and interventions of shorter duration also were associated with STI prevention, although evidence was limited on whether the STI reductions associated with these interventions persisted beyond 1 year.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA ; 324(7): 674-681, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809008

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 20 million new cases of bacterial or viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur each year in the US, and about one-half of these cases occur in persons aged 15 to 24 years. Rates of chlamydial, gonococcal, and syphilis infection continue to increase in all regions. Sexually transmitted infections are frequently asymptomatic, which may delay diagnosis and treatment and lead persons to unknowingly transmit STIs to others. Serious consequences of STIs include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, cancer, and AIDS. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STI acquisition. Population: This recommendation statement applies to all sexually active adolescents and to adults at increased risk for STIs. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions reduce the likelihood of acquiring STIs in sexually active adolescents and in adults at increased risk, including for example, those who have a current STI, do not use condoms, or have multiple partners, resulting in a moderate net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs. (B recommendation).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
7.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 118: 108102, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854983

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly spread across the world. Individuals with stimulant use disorder are a vulnerable population, who are particularly at risk of negative outcomes during this pandemic due to several risk factors, including mental and physical comorbidities, weakened immune responses, high-risk behaviors, and barriers to healthcare access. Engaging patients with stimulant use disorder in regular treatment has become even more difficult during this pandemic, which has resulted in many cuts to addiction treatment programs. The most effective treatment options for stimulant use disorder are psychosocial interventions, which rely heavily on in-person interactions, posing an added challenge during physical distancing. In particular, contingency management (CM) is a behavioral therapy that utilizes tangible reinforcements to incentivize targeted behavior changes, and is an effective treatment intervention used for stimulant use disorder. This paper highlights the treatment challenges for individuals with stimulant use disorder and the importance of adapting CM programs during COVID-19. We present strategies for how CM can be adapted and its role expanded in a safe way during the COVID-19 pandemic to help prevent infection spread, stimulant use relapse, and worsened psychosocial consequences.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007407, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic non-cancer pain, a disabling and distressing condition, is common in adults. It is a global public health problem and economic burden on health and social care systems and on people with chronic pain. Psychological treatments aim to reduce pain, disability and distress. This review updates and extends its previous version, published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical efficacy and safety of psychological interventions for chronic pain in adults (age > 18 years) compared with active controls, or waiting list/treatment as usual (TAU). SEARCH METHODS: We identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological therapies by searching CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO to 16 April 2020. We also examined reference lists and trial registries, and searched for studies citing retrieved trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs of psychological treatments compared with active control or TAU of face-to-face therapies for adults with chronic pain. We excluded studies of headache or malignant disease, and those with fewer than 20 participants in any arm at treatment end. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two or more authors rated risk of bias, extracted data, and judged quality of evidence (GRADE). We compared cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), behavioural therapy (BT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with active control or TAU at treatment end, and at six month to 12 month follow-up. We did not analyse the few trials of other psychological treatments. We assessed treatment effectiveness for pain intensity, disability, and distress. We extracted data on adverse events (AEs) associated with treatment. MAIN RESULTS: We added 41 studies (6255 participants) to 34 of the previous review's 42 studies, and now have 75 studies in total (9401 participants at treatment end). Most participants had fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, or mixed chronic pain. Most risk of bias domains were at high or unclear risk of bias, with selective reporting and treatment expectations mostly at unclear risk of bias. AEs were inadequately recorded and/or reported across studies. CBT The largest evidence base was for CBT (59 studies). CBT versus active control showed very small benefit at treatment end for pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.17 to -0.01; 3235 participants; 23 studies; moderate-quality evidence), disability (SMD -0.12, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.04; 2543 participants; 19 studies; moderate-quality evidence), and distress (SMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.00; 3297 participants; 24 studies; moderate-quality evidence). We found small benefits for CBT over TAU at treatment end for pain (SMD -0.22, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.10; 2572 participants; 29 studies; moderate-quality evidence), disability (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.19; 2524 participants; 28 studies; low-quality evidence), and distress (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.24; 2559 participants; 27 studies; moderate-quality evidence). Effects were largely maintained at follow-up for CBT versus TAU, but not for CBT versus active control. Evidence quality for CBT outcomes ranged from moderate to low. We rated evidence for AEs as very low quality for both comparisons. BT We analysed eight studies (647 participants). We found no evidence of difference between BT and active control at treatment end (pain SMD -0.67, 95% CI -2.54 to 1.20, very low-quality evidence; disability SMD -0.65, 95% CI -1.85 to 0.54, very low-quality evidence; or distress SMD -0.73, 95% CI -1.47 to 0.01, very low-quality evidence). At follow-up, effects were similar. We found no evidence of difference between BT and TAU (pain SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.17, low-quality evidence; disability SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.19, moderate-quality evidence; distress SMD 0.22, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.54, low-quality evidence) at treatment end. At follow-up, we found one to three studies with no evidence of difference between BT and TAU. We rated evidence for all BT versus active control outcomes as very low quality; for BT versus TAU. Evidence quality ranged from moderate to very low. We rated evidence for AEs as very low quality for BT versus active control. No studies of BT versus TAU reported AEs. ACT We analysed five studies (443 participants). There was no evidence of difference between ACT and active control for pain (SMD -0.54, 95% CI -1.20 to 0.11, very low-quality evidence), disability (SMD -1.51, 95% CI -3.05 to 0.03, very low-quality evidence) or distress (SMD -0.61, 95% CI -1.30 to 0.07, very low-quality evidence) at treatment end. At follow-up, there was no evidence of effect for pain or distress (both very low-quality evidence), but two studies showed a large benefit for reducing disability (SMD -2.56, 95% CI -4.22 to -0.89, very low-quality evidence). Two studies compared ACT to TAU at treatment end. Results should be interpreted with caution. We found large benefits of ACT for pain (SMD -0.83, 95% CI -1.57 to -0.09, very low-quality evidence), but none for disability (SMD -1.39, 95% CI -3.20 to 0.41, very low-quality evidence), or distress (SMD -1.16, 95% CI -2.51 to 0.20, very low-quality evidence). Lack of data precluded analysis at follow-up. We rated evidence quality for AEs to be very low. We encourage caution when interpreting very low-quality evidence because the estimates are uncertain and could be easily overturned. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found sufficient evidence across a large evidence base (59 studies, over 5000 participants) that CBT has small or very small beneficial effects for reducing pain, disability, and distress in chronic pain, but we found insufficient evidence to assess AEs. Quality of evidence for CBT was mostly moderate, except for disability, which we rated as low quality. Further trials may provide more precise estimates of treatment effects, but to inform improvements, research should explore sources of variation in treatment effects. Evidence from trials of BT and ACT was of moderate to very low quality, so we are very uncertain about benefits or lack of benefits of these treatments for adults with chronic pain; other treatments were not analysed. These conclusions are similar to our 2012 review, apart from the separate analysis of ACT.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Adulto , Afeto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Viés , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013461, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is common in people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory conditions. The co-existence of depression and NCDs may affect health behaviours, compliance with treatment, physiological factors, and quality of life. This in turn is associated with worse outcomes for both conditions. Behavioural activation is not currently indicated for the treatment of depression in this population in the UK, but is increasingly being used to treat depression in adults. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with any control group for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with each control group separately (no treatment, waiting list, other psychological therapy, pharmacological treatment, or any other type of treatment as usual) for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CCMD-CTR, CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, four other databases, and two trial registers on 4 October 2019 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural activation for depression in participants with NCDs, together with grey literature and reference checking. We applied no restrictions on date, language, or publication status to the searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in adults with one of four NCDs: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory conditions. Only participants with a formal diagnosis of both depression and an NCD were eligible. Studies were included if behavioural activation was the main component of the intervention. We included studies with any comparator that was not behavioural activation, and regardless of reported outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane, including independent screening of titles/abstracts and full-text manuscripts, data extraction, and risk of bias assessments in duplicate. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for more information. MAIN RESULTS: We included two studies, contributing data from 181 participants to the analyses. Both studies recruited participants from US hospital clinics; one included people who were recovering from a stroke and the other women with breast cancer. For both studies, the intervention consisted of eight weeks of face-to-face behavioural therapy, with one study comparing to poststroke treatment as usual and the other comparing to problem-solving therapy. Both studies were at risk of performance bias and potential conflict of interest arising from author involvement in the development of the intervention. For one study, risks of selection bias and reporting bias were unclear and the study was judged at high risk of attrition bias. Treatment efficacy (remission) was greater for behavioural activation than for comparators in the short term (risk ratio (RR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 2.38; low-certainty evidence) and medium term (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.08; moderate-certainty evidence), but these estimates lacked precision and effects were reduced in the long term (RR 1.42, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.23; moderate-certainty evidence). We found no evidence of a difference in treatment acceptability in the short term (RR 1.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.82) and medium term (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.25 to 3.10) (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in depression symptoms between behavioural activation and comparators (short term: MD -1.15, 95% CI -2.71 to 0.41; low-certainty evidence). One study found no difference for quality of life (short term: MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.96; low-certainty evidence), functioning (short term: MD 2.70, 95% CI -6.99 to 12.39; low-certainty evidence), and anxiety symptoms (short term: MD -1.70, 95% CI -4.50 to 1.10; low-certainty evidence). Neither study reported data on adverse effects. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this review was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the efficacy and acceptability of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in adults with NCDs. A future review may wish to include, or focus on, studies of people with subthreshold depression or depression symptoms without a formal diagnosis, as this may inform whether behavioural activation could be used to treat mild or undiagnosed (or both) depressive symptoms in people with NCDs. Evidence from low-resource settings including low- and middle-income countries, for which behavioural activation may offer a feasible alternative to other treatments for depression, would be of interest.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Viés , Conflito de Interesses , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Resolução de Problemas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013305, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioural activation is a brief psychotherapeutic approach that seeks to change the way a person interacts with their environment. Behavioural activation is increasingly receiving attention as a potentially cost-effective intervention for depression, which may require less resources and may be easier to deliver and implement than other types of psychotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with other psychological therapies for depression in adults. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with medication for depression in adults. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/placebo no treatment for depression in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CCMD-CTR (all available years), CENTRAL (current issue), Ovid MEDLINE (1946 onwards), Ovid EMBASE (1980 onwards), and Ovid PsycINFO (1806 onwards) on the 17 January 2020 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of 'behavioural activation', or the main elements of behavioural activation for depression in participants with clinically diagnosed depression or subthreshold depression. We did not apply any restrictions on date, language or publication status to the searches. We searched international trials registries via the World Health Organization's trials portal (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression or symptoms of depression in adults aged 18 or over. We excluded RCTs conducted in inpatient settings and with trial participants selected because of a physical comorbidity. Studies were included regardless of reported outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened all titles/abstracts and full-text manuscripts for inclusion. Data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessments were also performed by two review authors in duplicate. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for more information. MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-three studies with 5495 participants were included; 51 parallel group RCTs and two cluster-RCTs. We found moderate-certainty evidence that behavioural activation had greater short-term efficacy than treatment as usual (risk ratio (RR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 1.78; 7 RCTs, 1533 participants), although this difference was no longer evident in sensitivity analyses using a worst-case or intention-to-treat scenario. Compared with waiting list, behavioural activation may be more effective, but there were fewer data in this comparison and evidence was of low certainty (RR 2.14, 95% CI 0.90 to 5.09; 1 RCT, 26 participants). No evidence on treatment efficacy was available for behavioural activation versus placebo and behavioural activation versus no treatment. We found moderate-certainty evidence suggesting no evidence of a difference in short-term treatment efficacy between behavioural activation and CBT (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07; 5 RCTs, 601 participants). Fewer data were available for other comparators. No evidence of a difference in short term-efficacy was found between behavioural activation and third-wave CBT (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.33; 2 RCTs, 98 participants; low certainty), and psychodynamic therapy (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.99; 1 RCT,60 participants; very low certainty). Behavioural activation was more effective than humanistic therapy (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.95; 2 RCTs, 46 participants; low certainty) and medication (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.76; 1 RCT; 141 participants; moderate certainty), but both of these results were based on a small number of trials and participants. No evidence on treatment efficacy was available for comparisons between behavioural activation versus interpersonal, cognitive analytic, and integrative therapies. There was moderate-certainty evidence that behavioural activation might have lower treatment acceptability (based on dropout rate) than treatment as usual in the short term, although the data did not confirm a difference and results lacked precision (RR 1.64, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.31; 14 RCTs, 2518 participants). Moderate-certainty evidence did not suggest any difference in short-term acceptability between behavioural activation and waiting list (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.93; 8 RCTs. 359 participants), no treatment (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.09; 3 RCTs, 187 participants), medication (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.16; 2 RCTs, 243 participants), or placebo (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.67; 1 RCT; 96 participants; low-certainty evidence). No evidence on treatment acceptability was available comparing behavioural activation versus psychodynamic therapy. Low-certainty evidence did not show a difference in short-term treatment acceptability (dropout rate) between behavioural activation and CBT (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.25; 12 RCTs, 1195 participants), third-wave CBT (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.10; 3 RCTs, 147 participants); humanistic therapy (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.20 to 5.55; 2 RCTs, 96 participants) (very low certainty), and interpersonal, cognitive analytic, and integrative therapy (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.20; 4 RCTs, 123 participants). Results from medium- and long-term primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses are summarised in the text. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review suggests that behavioural activation may be more effective than humanistic therapy, medication, and treatment as usual, and that it may be no less effective than CBT, psychodynamic therapy, or being placed on a waiting list. However, our confidence in these findings is limited due to concerns about the certainty of the evidence. We found no evidence of a difference in short-term treatment acceptability (based on dropouts) between behavioural activation and most comparison groups (CBT, humanistic therapy, waiting list, placebo, medication, no treatment or treatment as usual). Again, our confidence in all these findings is limited due to concerns about the certainty of the evidence. No data were available about the efficacy of behaioural activation compared with placebo, or about treatment acceptability comparing behavioural activation and psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal, cognitive analytic and integrative therapies. The evidence could be strengthened by better reporting and better quality RCTs of behavioural activation and by assessing working mechanisms of behavioural activation.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ajustamento Social , Listas de Espera
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233462, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioral intentions (motivational factors), attitudes, subjective norm (social pressures), and perceived behavioral control promote or discourage smoking behavior among adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To assess students' behavioral intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on smoking using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The prevalence of smoking among the adolescents is also calculated. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, structured self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from adolescents in primary and secondary schools. Data on demographics, behavioral intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control towards smoking were collected. Pearson product moment correlations and logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with current smoking. RESULTS: A total sample of 2554 (mean age = 15; Range = 12-18 years) students participated in the study. Twenty-nine percent (n = 728) of the students had tried smoking at least once. Smoking was predicted by attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and intention.There was a strong association between having a parent or guardian, caregiver or close friend who smoked (p < 0.001) and being a smoker. The majority of students (57%) conveyed that adults talked to them about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking and 50% had discussed smoking concerns with their friends. Students who had positive attitudes towards smoking like "smoking makes you confident" were more likely to be current smokers (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.03-2.59). The feeling or conviction that they could refuse a cigarette if offered was an impediment from smoking (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.13-0.26). CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control contributed significantly to the students' smoking. Right attitudes must be cultivated and behavioral control must be strengthened for early effective interventions to curtail smoking among adolescents.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atitude , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Botsuana , Criança , Fumar Cigarros , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Amigos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108273, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries worldwide have developed diabetes prevention programmes (DPPs) that involve lifestyle modification. Research has shown that uptake and retention of DPPs are important and by exploring recruitment strategies and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used, factors that are most effective in promoting uptake and retention can be identified. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to identify recruitment strategies of group-based DPPs that are associated with high uptake and common BCTs associated with high retention. METHODS: Papers were identified with a systematic literature search. Programmes that were predominantly group-based and involved lifestyle modification and in which uptake and/or retention could be determined, were included. Intervention details were extracted, recruitment strategies and BCTs identified, and response, uptake and retention rates were calculated. RESULTS: A range of recruitment strategies were used making it difficult to discern associations with uptake rates. For BCTs, all programmes used a credible source, 81% used instruction on how to perform a behaviour and 71% used goal setting (behaviour). BCTs more commonly found in high retention programmes included problem-solving, demonstrating the behaviour, using behavioural practice and reducing negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations include that DPPs incorporate BCTs like problem-solving and demonstrating the behaviour to maximise retention.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(4): 469-485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500825

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand the importance of research-supported practice for batterer intervention programs. METHODS: This study applied descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses to a novel dataset from the Domestic Violence Perpetrator Treatment Survey (N = 411). This was a 69-item survey developed by domestic violence providers and researchers to understand the role of research-supported practice in the treatment of intimate partner violence (IPV). RESULTS: This study found statistically significant differences between Duluth oriented programs and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) oriented programs with respect to the importance of research-supported practices and motivational interviewing, a strategy found effective in treatment of IPV by extant research. DISCUSSION: There appears to have been an evolution among practitioners toward more eclecticism, and an acknowledgment that programs should be research-supported. CONCLUSION: Implications of this study for education and treatment are discussed.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Vítimas de Crime/reabilitação , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Licenciamento/normas , Competência Profissional/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional/normas , Papel Profissional
15.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 437-449, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443985

RESUMO

As members of state-funded team to monitor psychotropic medication use and examine cost-effective methods for behavioral treatment in foster care, the authors review behavioral studies on interventions for foster youth who engage in challenging behavior. Four behavioral technologies-preference assessments, teaching procedures, functional behavioral assessment and intervention, and parent training-are discussed. Four case studies and behavioral data for foster youth treated using these technologies are provided. Finally, pediatric providers are encouraged to recommend a practitioner with specialized training in behavior analysis to foster parents if a child displays disruptive behavior.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Criança Acolhida/psicologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos
16.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 451-467, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443986

RESUMO

Applied behavior analysis has the most empirical support as intervention for pediatric feeding disorders, when a child does not eat or drink a sufficient quantity or variety of food to maintain proper nutrition. Interdisciplinary collaboration is crucial for diagnosis, referral, and management of pediatric feeding disorders because the etiology is complex and multifactorial. Thus, our aim is to provide information about how to recognize a feeding disorder, to delineate the environmental variables implicated in the etiology and maintenance of feeding disorders, and to provide recommendations for prevention and intervention for feeding disorders based on the applied-behavior analytic literature.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Criança , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 499-511, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443989

RESUMO

This article summarizes the literature on prevalence and establishment of severe problem behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, empirical support for applied behavior analysis, and evidence-based behavioral assessment and treatment procedures. Early intervention and prevention approaches and the role of the pediatrician with regard to surveillance, early intervention, and coordination of care are discussed.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 513-524, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443990

RESUMO

Children who have a dental home are more likely to receive preventative care, require fewer dental treatments, and are less likely to have dental disease. Many children demonstrate behavior management concerns that may impede families from establishing a dental home for their children. Conceptually, behavior concerns develop through a process of conditioning. Prevention of such problems should focus on providing positive experiences related to dental care. Treatment components to address behavior management concerns include graduated exposure, contingent reinforcement, modeling and prompting, distraction/relaxation, and cognitive behavior therapy. Further support, training, and reimbursement for time required to administer such treatment is needed.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/métodos , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relações Dentista-Paciente , Humanos , Lactente
19.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 525-535, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443991

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction and the presence of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. Currently, ASD affects 1 in 59 individuals and can be a costly disorder across one's lifetime. Because of the prevalence, costs, and range of behavioral needs, early intervention is vital to teach skills across a variety of domains and prevent the development or exacerbation of behavioral deficits and excesses. Interventions based on applied behavior analysis have the most empirical support; several strategies to teach social skills, communication, and adaptive skills are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Humanos
20.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 537-546, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443992

RESUMO

Obesity has become a public health crisis associated with serious health problems. It is a problem that is, by and large, remarkably simple: you gain weight as a result of consuming more calories than you burn. Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy have produced a range of methods and technologies well-suited to address the problems of overeating and physical inactivity. These methods and technologies, and the conceptual foundations underpinning them, are the focus of this article.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Criança , Dieta Redutora , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Autocontrole
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