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1.
Work ; 68(1): 21-26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, reducing direct contacts between therapists and patients is an important issue, and could be achieved by using robots to perform certain caring activities. OBJECTIVE: This study compares therapeutic factors of singing group activities directed by social robots and by occupational therapists at elderly care centers during this COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This project has a quasi-experimental research design, based on a pilot study of 14 subjects aged above 65 years. They received eight sessions of singing group therapy given by a social robot or an occupational therapist. Completed copies of a therapeutic-factor questionnaire were then collected. RESULTS: At the 4th week, the scores for 8 therapeutic factors were higher in sessions with the occupational therapist than the robot-directed sessions, reaching a statistically significant level; at the 8th week, the scores for 3 therapeutic factors, including imparting of information, were higher in sessions with the occupational therapist than in sessions with the robot. The top scoring therapeutic factor in the robot sessions was group cohesiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Social robots may be good companion tools for elderly care during this COVID-19 outbreak, but group therapy sessions supervised by real-person therapists still have higher therapeutic factor scores than those conducted by robots. The number of subjects needs to be increased to enhance the validity of future study results.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Robótica/tendências , Canto , Recursos Humanos/tendências , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Ocupacional/instrumentação , Terapia Ocupacional/tendências , Robótica/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Recursos Humanos/normas
2.
Work ; 68(1): 13-20, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An analysis of data from an international survey was undertaken to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on telehealth practice in occupational therapy worldwide, in addition to facilitators and barriers in utilising this form of service delivery. METHOD: The global online survey was circulated in the occupational therapy community by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT) between April and July 2020, collecting responses to closed-ended questions, in addition to free-text comments. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to assess relationships between respondent characteristics and the utilisation of telehealth. Thematic statement analysis provided further insight regarding factors impacting telehealth use. RESULTS: Findings revealed a significant increase in the use of telehealth strategies with the onset of the pandemic among survey respondents, with many reported benefits. Bivariate analyses indicated telehealth users were more likely to score higher feelings of safety and positive work morale, as well as perceive employer expectations to be reasonable. Restricted access to technology, limitations of remote practice, funding issues and slow pace of change were identified as barriers for some respondents to utilising telehealth. Facilitators included availability of supportive policy, guidelines and strategies, in addition to education and training. CONCLUSION: This study advances the understanding of the current scope of occupational therapy telehealth practice in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Although results suggest long-term potential for telehealth use as an adjunct to traditional service provision, important considerations were identified regarding factors influencing integration of such strategies.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/tendências , Terapia Ocupacional/instrumentação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/tendências , Humanos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos
3.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(145): 22-25, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988483

RESUMO

The hand, a vector of knowledge and understanding of the surrounding world, promotes relationships. For all medico-social professionals, taking care of the hand involves touch, benevolent accompaniment to encourage movement and involvement in the activities of daily life. Touch in the relationship with the elderly person places the occupational therapist in the dynamics of rehabilitation in an interprofessional team. Three facets of touch are described.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Tato , Idoso , Mãos , Humanos
4.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(10): 893-910, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949521

RESUMO

Mental illness and substance use disorders in the workplace have been increasingly recognised as a problem in most countries; however, evidence is scarce on which solutions provide the highest return on investment. We searched academic and grey literature databases and additional sources for studies that included a workplace intervention for mental health or substance abuse, or both, and that did an economic analysis. We analysed the papers we found to identify the highest yielding and most cost-effective interventions by disorder. On the basis of 56 studies, we found moderate strength of evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy is cost-saving (and in some cases cost-effective) to address depression. We observed strong evidence that regular and active involvement of occupational health professionals is cost-saving and cost-effective in reducing sick leave related to mental health and in encouraging return to work. We identified moderate evidence that coverage for pharmacotherapy and brief counselling for smoking cessation are both cost-saving and cost-effective. Addressing mental health and substance misuse in the workplace improves workers' wellbeing and productivity, and benefits employers' bottom line (ie, profit). Future economic analyses would benefit from the consideration of subgroup analyses, examination of longer follow-ups, inclusion of statistical and sensitivity analyses and discussion around uncertainty, and consideration of potential for bias.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos , Terapia Ocupacional/economia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia Médica , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 265, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with diabetes mellitus have difficulty solving problems in meaningful occupations and have similar difficulties with self-care regimens. We examined the effects of an occupation-based intervention supported with problem-solving therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus on participation in and satisfaction with meaningful occupations, diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy, preferred coping strategies and individual well-being. METHODS: This study was planned as a single-blind, randomised controlled study with a 3-month follow-up involving 67 adults with type 2 diabetes. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Diabetes Empowerment Scale, Brief COPE and five-item World Health Organisation Well-Being Index were used. This programme included evaluations, diabetes education, and problem-solving therapy. The intervention was conducted for 6 weeks, and each weekly session lasted approximately 60 min. Differences between groups were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Friedman test was used to calculate group-time interaction differences (i.e., baseline, after 6 weeks and after 3 months). RESULTS: All participants identified the most significant occupational performance problems in self-care as personal care. Significant improvement was reported in the intervention group compared to the control group regarding participation in meaningful occupation, satisfaction with performance, psychosocial self-efficacy, and well-being results (p < 0.001) after the programme and 3 months of follow-up. Participant use of effective coping strategies, active coping and acceptance strategies, and self-efficacy, as revealed by the results, suggested improvement in favour of the intervention group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Occupation-based problem-solving therapy encourages participation in meaningful occupations and improves psychosocial self-efficacy, effective coping styles, and well-being in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Problem-solving therapies that incorporate individuals' priorities via meaningful occupation can be used to lead to a meaningful and quality life for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03783598 . Retrospectively Registered. First Posted-December 21, 2018, Last Update Posted-February 18, 2020.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adulto , Canadá , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Método Simples-Cego
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21846, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stroke often causes residual hemiparesis, and upper extremity motor impairment is usually more disabling than lower extremity in those who are suffering from post-stroke hemiparesis. Cell therapy is one of the promising therapies to reduce post-stroke disability. PATIENT CONCERNS: Three male participants were included in the study to investigate the feasibility and tolerability of autologous adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction. DIAGNOSIS: All participants had hemiparesis after 1st-ever stroke longer than 6 months previously. INTERVENTIONS: Under general anesthesia, liposuction of abdominal subcutaneous fat was performed. Stromal vascular fraction freshly isolated from the adipose tissue extract was injected into the muscles of paretic upper extremity. All participants received inpatient stroke rehabilitation consisted of physical and occupational therapy more than 3 hours a day for 2 months or more. OUTCOMES: The whole procedure did not produce any significant adverse event in all participants. Adipose tissue extracts yielded sufficient stromal cells. One participant showed clinically important change in upper extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment after the injection and it lasted up to 6 months. Functional magnetic resonance imaging showed concomitant increase in ipsilesional cortical activity. The other 2 participants did not show remarkable changes. LESSONS: Intramuscular injection of autologous adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction seems to be a safe and tolerable procedure in subjects with chronic stroke, and its utility in rehabilitation needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/irrigação sanguínea , Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Células Estromais/transplante , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Adulto , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Lipectomia/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Paresia/reabilitação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Células Estromais/citologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20810, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664072

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive proximal muscle weakness and have more than 30 different subtypes linked to specific gene loci, which manifest as highly overlapping and heterogeneous phenotypes. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old male presented for evaluation of progressive muscle weakness since his late twenties. When he was 38 years old, he had muscle weakness in the upper extremities and had a waddling gait, hyper lordosis of lower back, and anterior pelvic tilt. His gait disturbance and muscle weakness slowly progressed. When he was 55 years old, he could not walk at all and had to use a wheelchair for ambulation. DIAGNOSIS: Next-generation sequencing using a custom target capture-based gene panel including specific genes responsible for muscular dystrophy was performed. As a result, the proband was genetically diagnosed as LGMD type 2B, carrying 2 compound heterozygous mutations (NM_003494.3:c.1663C>T, p.Arg555Trp; rs377735262 and NM_003494.3:c.2997G>T, p.Trp999Cys; rs28937581) of the DYSF gene. INTERVENTIONS: Physical and occupational therapy were prescribed properly for the first time Bracing and assistive devices were adapted specifically to the patient's deficiencies to preserve mobility and function and prevent contractures. OUTCOMES: The patient with LGMD has periodic assessments of physical and occupational therapy for the prevention and management of comorbidities. However, in the 3 years after the gene panel sequencing diagnoses, his weakness was slowly progress and the patient still could not walk. LESSONS: Gene panel sequencing allows for the correct recognition of different LGMD subtypes, improving timely treatment, management, and enrolment of molecularly diagnosed individuals in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Disferlina/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Braquetes/normas , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/patologia , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/terapia , Mutação , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/métodos
8.
Occup Ther Int ; 2020: 1092805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684868

RESUMO

Background: Occupational therapy's origins draw from Western culture, values, and beliefs which may impact the application of traditional occupational therapy practice in non-Western cultures. Purpose: This study explored how occupational therapists in Jordan facilitate occupational therapy practice within Islamic Eastern culture. Method: A phenomenological approach was used in this study. Semistructured interviews were conducted with eleven occupational therapists that work in Jordan and have at least two years of experience. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Results: Three central themes emerged: impact of Jordanian culture and Islamic beliefs about independence and disability on occupational therapy practice, the therapists' notions of ideal occupational therapy practice vs. daily reality, and challenges posed by workspace and the availability of equipment. Conclusion: This study highlights the growing need to translate and expand the core values of occupational therapy to align with cultures in non-Western countries and cultures.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Terapeutas Ocupacionais/psicologia , Terapia Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Jordânia , Masculino , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos
9.
Occup Ther Int ; 2020: 8542191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410925

RESUMO

This study aimed to leverage computer vision (CV) technology to develop a technique for quantifying postural control. A conventional quantitative index, occupational therapists' qualitative clinical evaluations, and CV-based quantitative indices using an image analysis algorithm were applied to evaluate the postural control of 34 typically developed preschoolers. The effectiveness of the CV-based indices was investigated relative to current methods to explore the clinical applicability of the proposed method. The capacity of the CV-based indices to reflect therapists' qualitative evaluations was confirmed. Furthermore, compared to the conventional quantitative index, the CV-based indices provided more detailed quantitative information with lower costs. CV-based evaluations enable therapists to quantify details of motor performance that are currently observed qualitatively. The development of such precise quantification methods will improve the science and practice of occupational therapy and allow therapists to perform to their full potential.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Terapeutas Ocupacionais
10.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(3): 7403205120p1-7403205120p11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365318

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: According to the Intentional Relationship Model, six therapeutic modes characterize client-therapist interactions in occupational therapy: advocating, collaborating, empathizing, encouraging, instructing, and problem solving. However, whether these modes hold across cultural contexts is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To compare therapeutic mode use in occupational therapy interactions in the United States and Singapore. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study; questionnaires were collected and compared from two convenience samples of occupational therapists from the United States and Singapore, and results were analyzed using t tests and general linear modeling. SETTING: Large tertiary hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Occupational therapists were recruited if they had at least 6 mo experience in their clinical specialty. Adult client participants were recruited if they had or planned to have at least three occupational therapy sessions. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The therapist version of the Clinical Assessment of Modes (CAM-T) was used to assess occupational therapists' therapeutic mode use in interactions with specific clients. RESULTS: A total of 74 U.S. and 39 Singaporean client-therapist interactions were assessed. U.S. therapists were more likely to use the upper end of the response scale; after we corrected for this, the pattern of mode use was similar in both cultural contexts, with instructing mode used the most. In absolute terms, U.S. therapists used the instructing mode more frequently than Singaporean therapists. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Further research should be done to examine the sociocultural factors that affect responses on the CAM-T and mode use. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This study is the first to compare therapeutic mode use in different cultural settings. With the globalization of occupational therapy practice, it is important to consider the generalizability of occupational therapy concepts across cultures.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Terapeutas Ocupacionais , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Adulto , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Singapura , Estados Unidos
11.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101156, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after the Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy for Parkinson's Disease (MY-OT for PD) program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a mixed-methods convergent design and administered the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), a measure of HRQoL, with 17 participants. We considered scores 8 weeks before MY-OT for PD, just before, and upon completion. Additionally, we completed two focus groups following the program with 16 participants to assess qualitative changes in HRQoL. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in PDQ-8 scores between time points, F(2,32) = 1.60, p = 0.22, partial η2 = 0.09. Participants did discuss improvements in all 8 HRQoL domains, frequently regarding mobility and activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: Results diverged, with quantitative results showing no significant improvement in HRQoL and qualitative results indicating participant perceived improvements in all domains of the PDQ-8. The program should be explored further, and longitudinal follow-up completed.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Ioga , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Occup Ther Int ; 2020: 1358707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454804

RESUMO

The aim is to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention model with a client-centered goal-directed approach with the aim to enhance the child's participation in leisure activities, self-efficacy, and activity performance. A pilot intervention using a client-centered goal-directed approach and a single-subject design was performed. Two Swedish boys with neuropsychiatric diagnosis aged 12 and 14 years old were included, and 3 leisure activity goals were identified. The intervention was carried out over 8 weeks and took place in the adolescent's everyday environment and at the pediatric rehabilitation center. The goal attainment of participation goals (GAS), the perceived performance ability according to the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), the self-efficacy, and the participants' satisfaction were used to study the effect. The participants succeeded in attaining their leisure goals as specified by the GAS by achieving +2 on one goal and +1 on the other two goals. They estimated higher performance ability and self-efficacy in their goal performance. Participants, parents, and therapists were overall satisfied and found the intervention to be applicable and helpful in optimizing leisure participation. The intervention model with a client-centered goal-directed approach in which participants define their own leisure activity goals appears to be effective in increasing participation in leisure activities.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/reabilitação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Atividades de Lazer , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Autoeficácia , Suécia
13.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 9-17, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196300

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: las personas que sufren un ictus, tras el alta a sus domicilios, se encuentran con un entorno lleno de barreras y dificultades que les limitan y reducen las ocupaciones diarias. Analizar la efectividad de una intervención educativa domiciliaria. MÉTODOS: ensayo clínico aleatorizado con dieciocho personas mayores en fase aguda de ictus. La intervención consistió en la evaluación ergonómica del domicilio y la ejecución de las AVD a través de una checklist y un listado de consejos. Análisis descriptivo de las variables principales y análisis inferencial mediante t-Student para muestras independientes y para muestras relacionadas comparando las tres mediciones. RESULTADOS: no se encontraron diferencias significativas en las comparaciones intergrupo en las principales variables de resultado (t<1.65). Sí se hallaron diferencias intragrupo del grupo experimental entre la medición basal y la de seguimiento en el FIM de 9.66 puntos (p = 0.03), en el BI de 7.77 puntos (p = 0.05) y en el SIS-16 de 4.11 puntos (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONES: se encontraron diferencias significativas intragrupo en el grupo experimental entre la medición basal y la de seguimiento de las principales variables, mientras que en el grupo control, tras la implementación de la intervención convencional, no se hallaron. Futuros estudios, aumentando la muestra, serían necesarios


OBJECTIVE: After hospital discharge to home, stroke patients find themselves in an environment full of barriers and difficulties that limit and reduce their daily occupations. This study analysed the efficacy of a home-based occupational therapy intervention. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial with eighteen post stroke elderly people was used. The intervention was conducted in the participants' homes and consisted in a home ergonomic assessment and a ADLs performance assessment through a checklist and a list of advice. A descriptive analysis of the main variables and inferential analysis using t-Student for independent samples was used and also for related samples comparing the three measurements. RESULTS: No group differences were found in the main outcome variables (t<1.65), whereas the intervention group did show some differences between its baseline and follow-up assessments of FIM of 9.66 points, (p = 0.03), BI of 7.77 points (p = 0.05) and SIS-16 of 4.11 points (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Significant intragroup differences were found in the experimental group between the baseline and the follow-up measurements of the main variables. On the other hand, no difference was found in the control group after implementing a conventional intervention. This requires further study through an increase in the sample


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Ocupacional/educação , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Doença Aguda/reabilitação , Adaptação Biológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Antropometria , Repertório de Barthel
14.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 18-25, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196301

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: bjetivo es hallar la posición más efectiva del terapeuta respecto al paciente para generar mayor aprendizaje motor por medio de la observación de la acción. MÉTODOS: diseñamos un modelo experimental simulando el entorno clínico de la terapia por observación de la acción y analizamos el aprendizaje de una tarea motora cotidiana desde diferentes perspectivas de observación en 60 personas sanas. RESULTADOS: obtuvimos diferencias de aprendizaje motor en los cuatro grupos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: la perspectiva de observación en primera persona es mejor para adquirir habilidades motoras a corto plazo, aunque la observación en perspectiva opuesta puede obtener similares beneficios dependiendo de factores del contexto de la tarea, y la observación en perspectiva lateral, aunque es beneficiosa, obtiene menor aprendizaje que las anteriores


OBJECTIVE: To find the most effective position of the therapist with respect to the patient in order to generate greater motor learning through observing the action. METHODS: We designed an experimental model simulating the clinical environment of therapy by observation of the action and we analyzed the learning of a daily motor task from different observation perspectives in 60 healthy people. RESULTS: We obtained motor learning differences in the four groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: The perspective of first-person observation is better for acquiring short-term motor skills, although observation in opposite perspective can obtain similar benefits depending on factors of the task context, and observation in lateral perspective, although it is beneficial, obtains less learning than the previous ones


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Terapia Ocupacional/educação , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Movimento (Física) , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Simulação de Paciente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/reabilitação , Análise de Variância
15.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 26-34, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196302

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: describir la calidad de ejecución en las Actividades de la Vida Diaria (AVD) de las personas con Esquizofrenia mediante el Assesment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), describir variables clínicas y sociodemográficas, y comparar la calidad de ejecución en las AVD en personas con Trastorno Bipolar. MÉTODOS: la investigación se realizó con 25 adultos con Esquizofrenia de 18 a 65 años. Se les administró la evaluación AMPS, la escala ICG-G y cuestionario ad hoc. El comparativo inter-grupo se realizó con 25 personas con Trastorno Bipolar. RESULTADOS: la muestra con Esquizofrenia obtuvo puntuaciones por debajo de la media en las habilidades motoras en las AVD evaluadas [Nivel 1 M (80,2), Nivel 2 M (76,4) y Nivel 3 M (73,4)]. En las habilidades de procesamiento se obtuvieron puntuaciones bastante alejadas de la media en Nivel 1 P (61,6), Nivel 2 P (58,4), Nivel 3 P (68,7). El nivel de gravedad clínica fue "moderadamente enfermos" según ICG-G. Respecto a la comparación intergrupo se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los tres niveles de tareas. CONCLUSIONES: as personas con Trastorno Bipolar presentan mejor calidad de ejecución en términos motores y de procesamiento que las personas con Esquizofrenia


OBJECTIVE: Describe the quality of performance in the Daily Life Activities (ADL) of people with schizophrenia through the Assesment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), to describe clinical and sociodemographic variables, and compare performance quality in ADL in people with Bipolar Disorder. METHODS: The research was carried out with 25 adults with schizophrenia aged 18-55. They were given the AMPS assessment, the ICG_G scale and the ad hoc questionnaire. The inter-group comparison was made with 25 people with Bipolar Disorder. RESULTS: Below average scores in motor skills in ADL evaluated (Level 1 M (80.2), Level 2 M (76.4) and Level 3 M (73.4) were obtained by the sample with schizophrenia. The processing skills scores were obtained quite far from the average in Level 1 P (61.6), Level 2 P (58.4), Level 3 P (68.7). According to ICG-G the level of clinical severity was moderately ill. Respect to the intergroup comparison in the three task levels were found statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: People with Bipolar Disorder shown better performance quality in terms of motor skills and processing than people with schizophrenia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autonomia Pessoal , Estudos Transversais
16.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 35-45, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196303

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: analizar si la contribución de las personas con un trastorno mental grave a la comunidad aumenta su calidad de vida. MÉTODOS: se han empleado dos metodologías en el presente estudio. En la primera se ha comparado la calidad de vida de un grupo de personas con trastorno mental grave que contribuyen a la comunidad a través de actividades de voluntariado con otro grupo que no llevan a cabo dichas actividades. La segunda ha consistido en realizar dos grupos focales de personas con trastorno mental grave que realizan voluntariados para profundizar en las dimensiones de la calidad de vida. RESULTADOS: todas las subescalas de calidad de vida han presentado mejor puntuación en el grupo de personas que contribuyen a la comunidad. Los grupos focales han corroborado los resultados obtenidos en los cuestionarios. CONCLUSIONES: Se puede concluir que el hecho de contribuir a la comunidad produce mejoras en la calidad de vida de las personas con trastorno mental grave


OBJECTIVE: Analyze whether the contribution of people with severe mental disorders with and for the community increases their quality of life. METHODS: Two methods have been used in this study. The first one it has been compared the quality of life of a group of severely mentally disorder people that contribute to the community through volunteering with another group of people who don't. The second method has consisted of creating two focal groups both with six participants in order to dig into the dimensions of the quality of life. RESULTS: All the subscales of the quality of life have received a better result in the group of people that contribute to the community. The focal groups have corroborated the results obtained in the questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that contributing to the community can increase the quality of life of severely mentally disorder people


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Terapia Ocupacional/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador
17.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 46-54, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196304

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: analizar si los jugadores de un equipo de fútbol a través de un entrenamiento cognitivo desde Terapia Ocupacional incrementan sus habilidades cognitivas y rendimiento deportivo. MÉTODOS: estudio experimental no aleatorio que sigue las consideraciones éticas pertinentes, realizado a 16 jugadores de 14-15 años de un equipo de fútbol, mediante la recogida de datos a través de 4 escalas ad hoc y 1 estandarizada. Se realizan 30 sesiones con periodicidad semanal de 30 min de duración. RESULTADOS: extraemos una mejora de los aspectos cognitivos trabajados, destacando los resultados obtenidos en la prueba TrailMaking Test, con un 22% de mejora en la parte A y un 26% en la parte B (P-value<0.01) y la escala ad hoc de Espacio Semiótico con una mejora global del 76%. CONCLUSIONES: la Terapia Ocupacional podría aportar sus conocimientos y herramientas en el ámbito deportivo para trabajar aspectos cognitivos y de cohesión grupal, repercutiendo en el desempeño e identidad ocupacional de los jugadores


OBJECTIVE: The aim is to analyze if the players of a soccer team increase their cognitive abilities and sports performancethrough cognitive training from Occupational Therapy. METHODS: Non-randomized experimental study that follows the pertinent ethical considerations was carried out on sixteen 14-15 year-old players from a soccer team, by collecting data through 4 ad hoc and 1 standardized scales. 30 sessions are held with a weekly duration of 30 min. RESULTS: We extract an improvement in the cognitive aspects worked on, highlighting the results obtained in Trail Making Test, with a 22% improvement in part A and 26% in part B (P-value <0.01) and in the ad hoc Semiotic Space scale with an overall improvement of 76%. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational Therapy could contribute with its knowledge and tools in the sports field to work on cognitive and group cohesion aspects, impacting on the performance and occupational identity of the players


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Epidemiologia Experimental , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Futebol/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Tomada de Decisões , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica
18.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 55-64, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196305

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: valorar la eficacia del uso de la Tele-rehabilitación en la terapia ocupacional en pacientes con daño neurológico. MÉTODOS: se realizó una búsqueda a través de OTSeeker, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Tripdatabase, International Journal of Telerehabilitation, The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, International Journal of Stroke, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Clinical Rehabilitation y SAGE sobre artículos que hayan sido publicados entre los años 2009 y 2020 de la literatura inglesa y con un rango de edad de los y las pacientes variable. Fueron seleccionadas aquellas publicaciones donde se implicará el ámbito neurológico en el uso de la tele-rehabilitación. RESULTADOS: se evaluaron un total de 20 publicaciones, de las cuales 16 se referían a ensayos controlados aleatorizados, ensayos cuasi experimentales e informes de caso. Las 4 publicaciones restantes se referían a revisiones sistemáticas. En dichas publicaciones, se mostraron resultados positivos en componentes motores, cognitivos y emocionales. Además de que, la implementación de este método, no suponía un alto coste económico para los pacientes. CONCLUSIONES: Para mejorar nuestro entendimiento en este tema es necesario realizar un mayor número de estudios. Sin embargo, según los resultados mostrados, se puede evidenciar que el uso de la tele-rehabilitación en terapia ocupacional en pacientes con daño neurológico es una opción eficaz y viable como complemento a la terapia ocupacional convencional


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of Tele-rehabilitation in Occupational Therapy on patients with neurological damage. METHODS: Research was focused on publications made between 2009 and 2020, published in English literature and based on patients within a variable range of age. These include: OTSeeker, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Tripdatabase, International Journal of Telerehabilitation, The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, International Journal of Stroke, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Clinical Rehabilitation and SAGE. The publications were selected according to the involvement of the neurological field with the use of tele-rehabilitation. RESULTS: A total of 20 publications were evaluated, of which 16 referred to randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental trials and case reports. The remaining 4 publications concerned systematic reviews. In these publications, positive results were shown in motor, cognitive and emotional components. In addition the implementation of this method did not imply a high economic cost for patients. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve our understanding in this topic it is necessary to carry out a greater number of studies. However according to the results shown, it can be concluded that the use of tele-rehabilitation in occupational therapy in patients with neurological damage is an effective and viable option as a complement to conventional occupational therapy


Assuntos
Humanos , Telerreabilitação/métodos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/reabilitação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia
19.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 65-67, mayo 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196306

RESUMO

En la siguiente recesión se presenta un artículo del antropólogo Gregory Bateson, que pretende mostrar cuán importante es tanto la modalidad del tratamiento como la capacidad de comunicación del profesional para incidir de manera positiva en el cambio intrínseco de la persona. A través de su lectura se pueden extraer otras reflexiones como son la identidad de la profesión, el nacimiento de la misma y su contexto, los paradigmas a lo largo de su historia, todos los cambios acontecido y sus causas y sobre todo el momento en el que estamos y hacia donde queremos dirigirnos sin perder la esencia de la terapia ocupacional, lo que nos diferencia del resto de profesionales, en vez de acercarnos cada vez más a ellos


In the following critical review, an opinion article by anthropologist Gregory Bateson, which aims to show how important is both the treatment modality and the professional's ability to communicate in a positive way in the intrinsic change of the person. Through its reading, other reflections can be detected, such as the identity of the profession, the birth of the profession and its context, the paradigms throughout its history, all the changes that have occurred and its causes and, above all, the moment in which that we are and where we are heading without losing the essence of occupational therapy, which differentiates us from other professionals, instead of getting closer and closer to them


Assuntos
Humanos , Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Antropologia/métodos , Saúde Mental
20.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 71-76, mayo 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196308

RESUMO

¿La sexualidad puede ser considerada como actividad u ocupación significativa para el ser humano? ¿Es, por tanto, competencia de la terapia ocupacional el abordaje de las alteraciones en el desempeño que surgen en las actividades y ocupaciones relacionadas con la expresión de la sexualidad de las personas? El artículo analiza la implicación de la Terapia Ocupacional en la intervención de alteraciones del desempeño en el área de las ABVD, en concreto, en la actividad sexual. Critica la posición de la terapia ocupacional en la práctica al ejercer una actitud contraria a la visión holística del ser humano que esta postula; ya que, sin duda, la sexualidad forma parte de su realidad cotidiana y para algunas personas es una actividad de gran significación. La mirada que se proyecta sobre la sexualidad y la discapacidad: tabús, prejuicios, miedos; el análisis de conceptos como actividad u ocupación; el paradigma de la Terapia Ocupacional y el compromiso de los profesionales son puntos sobre los que se reflexionan


Can sexuality be considered as a significant activity or occupation for human beings? Is it therefore the competence of occupational therapy to address performance alterations that arise in activities and occupations related to the expression of people's sexuality? The article analyzes the implication of Occupational Therapy in the intervention of performance alterations in the area of ABVD, specifically in sexual activity. It criticizes the position of occupational therapy in practice by exercising an attitude contrary to the holistic vision of the human being that it postulates, since, without a doubt, sexuality is part of their daily reality and for some people it is an activity of great significance. The gaze projected on sexuality and disability: taboos, prejudices, fears; the analysis of concepts such as activity or occupation; the paradigm of Occupational Therapy and the commitment of professionals are points on which they reflect


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Sexualidade , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Terapia Ocupacional/psicologia , Competência Profissional , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Teóricos , Estigma Social
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