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1.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 86-90, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155945

RESUMO

Objective Thromboembolic events such as acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, pulmonary artery embolism and renal artery embolism are a rare condition but a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study we discussed low-dose thrombolytic therapy, in patients with thromboembolic events in the intensive care unit.Methods The study was performed on 12 consecutive patients [8 female; 50.3±16.0 (35-95) years] with acute thromboembolism including acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, acute pulmonary embolism and acute renal embolism who were treated with low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA. We evaluated mainly in-hospital safety and also effectiveness.Total treatment episodes was 1.66±0.88 (1-4) times.Results All thromboembolic events have been successfully treated with low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA. The success criteria were clinically improvement and radiologically lysis. None of the patients had ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, embolism (peripheral and recurrence of coronary artery embolism), bleeding requiring transfusion. The most frequent in-hospital complication was a gum bleeding without need for transfusion (two patients).Conclusions In our case series low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA have been performed successfully for thromboembolic events including acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and renal embolism in patients with in the intensive care unit. Safety is promising and if efficacy will be proved; this method may be a valuable alternative to standard fibrinolytic regimen.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia , Trombose , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos
2.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(5): 540-548, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170591

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. This study sought to share our experiences with in-hospital management and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive AMI patients, including those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI), from February 1, 2020, to April 15, 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic), and from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), respectively. Fifty-three AMI patients (31 STEMI, 22 NSTEMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic were matched to 53 AMI patients before the pandemic. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the matched patients. STEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic had a longer delay time, less primary or remedial PCI and more emergency thrombolysis than those before the pandemic. Less coronary angiography and stenting were performed in AMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the pandemic. There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical outcomes between the matched patients. However, STEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic had a 4-fold (12.9% vs. 3.2%) increase in all-cause mortality rate compared with those before the pandemic. AMI combined with COVID-19 infection was associated with higher rates of mortality than AMI alone. This study demonstrates that the COVID-19 pandemic results in significant reperfusion delays in STEMI patients and has a marked impact on the treatment options selection in AMI patients. The mortality rate of STEMI patients exhibits an increasing trend during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Pneumonia Viral , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/tendências , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , Idoso , China , Angiografia Coronária/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Admissão do Paciente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(10): 2029-2039, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169568

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a major health crisis causing high mortality and morbidity. The key treatment relies on the rapid intervention to dissolve thrombus, to reduce bleeding side effect and re-canalize clotted blood vessels using clot lysis drugs. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved drug for ischemic stroke, but it has many limitations in clinical use. In recent years, the development of thrombolytic drugs and treatment strategies based on tPA has been progressed rapidly. Here we review the recent progress in this field, including the contributions from us and others, to promote the future development of novel thrombolytic drugs.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Fibrinolíticos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Terapia Trombolítica , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pesquisa/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/tendências , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
5.
Rev Prat ; 70(6): 621-625, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058602

RESUMO

Acute stroke imaging. Imaging, within the first 24 hours of stroke, supports its clinical diagnosis and allows a careful patient selection for treatment. It excludes hemorrhage and stroke mimics, provides an estimate of potentially salvageable brain tissue, locates and characterizes the intra-arterial thrombus before treatment decision in acute ischaemic stroke. In cerebral hemorrhage, it plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis and identifying causes and complications. We outline the role of neuroimaging applied to patients presenting with acute stroke within the first 24 hours.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Encéfalo , Hemorragia Cerebral , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia Trombolítica
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105201, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased risk of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), however, there is a paucity of data regarding outcomes after administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for stroke in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We present a multicenter case series from 9 centers in the United States of patients with acute neurological deficits consistent with AIS and COVID-19 who were treated with IV tPA. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients (mean age 62 (±9.8) years, 9 (69.2%) male). All received IV tPA and 3 cases also underwent mechanical thrombectomy. All patients had systemic symptoms consistent with COVID-19 at the time of admission: fever (5 patients), cough (7 patients), and dyspnea (8 patients). The median admission NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) score was 14.5 (range 3-26) and most patients (61.5%) improved at follow up (median NIHSS score 7.5, range 0-25). No systemic or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages were seen. Stroke mechanisms included cardioembolic (3 patients), large artery atherosclerosis (2 patients), small vessel disease (1 patient), embolic stroke of undetermined source (3 patients), and cryptogenic with incomplete investigation (1 patient). Three patients were determined to have transient ischemic attacks or aborted strokes. Two out of 12 (16.6%) patients had elevated fibrinogen levels on admission (mean 262.2 ± 87.5 mg/dl), and 7 out of 11 (63.6%) patients had an elevated D-dimer level (mean 4284.6 ±3368.9 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: IV tPA may be safe and efficacious in COVID-19, but larger studies are needed to validate these results.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105185, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on stroke care, including the number of stroke alerts/codes, number of reperfusions, and number of thrombectomies during the pandemic compared to those during the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, EuropePMC, and Cochrane Central databases. The data of interest were the number of strokes, reperfusions, and mechanical thrombectomies during the COVID-19 pandemic versus that during the pre-pandemic period (in a historical comparator group over a specified period of same period length). RESULTS: The study included 59,233 subjects from 9 studies. Meta-analysis showed that the number of stroke alerts during the pandemic was 64% (56-71%) of that during the pre-pandemic period. The number of reperfusion therapies during the pandemic was 69% (61-77%) of that during the pre-pandemic period. Pooled analysis showed that the number of mechanical thrombectomies performed during the pandemic was 78% (75-80%) of that during the pre-pandemic period. The number of mechanical thrombectomies per stroke patient was higher during the pandemic (OR 1.23 [1.12-1.36], p < 0.001; I2: 0%, p = 0.845). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that the number of stroke alerts, reperfusions, and mechanical thrombectomies was reduced by 36%, 31%, and 22%, respectively, during the pandemic. However, the number of patients receiving mechanical thrombectomy per stroke increased.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/tendências , Terapia Trombolítica/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105175, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused public lockdowns around the world. We analyzed if the public lockdown altered the referral pattern of Code Stroke patients by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to our Comprehensive Stroke Center. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study at a Bavarian Comprehensive Stroke Center. Patients who were directly referred to our stroke unit by EMS between the 1st of January 2020 and the 19th of April 2020 were identified and number of referrals, clinical characteristics and treatment strategies were analyzed during the public lockdown and before. The public lockdown started on 21st of March and ended on 19th April 2020. RESULTS: In total 241 patients were referred to our center during the study period, i.e. 171 before and 70 during the lockdown. The absolute daily number of Code Stroke referrals and the portion of patients with stroke mimics remained stable. The portion of female stroke patients decreased (55% to 33%; p = 0.03), and stroke severity as measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (median 3 (IQR 0-7) versus 6 (IQR 1-15.5) points; p = 0.04) increased during the lockdown. There was no difference of daily numbers of patients receiving thrombolysis and thrombectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Referral of Code Stroke patients by EMS could be maintained sufficiently despite the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. However, patients' health care utilization of the EMS may have changed within the public lockdown. EMS remains a useful tool for Code Stroke patient referral during lockdowns, but public education about stroke is required prior to further lockdowns.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Quarentena , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Distância Social , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/tendências , Terapia Trombolítica/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105181, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066945

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has led to a change in the way we manage acute medical illnesses. This pandemic had a negative impact on stroke care worldwide. The World Stroke Organization (WSO) has raised concerns due to the lack of available care and compromised acute stroke services globally. The numbers of thrombolysis and thrombectomy therapies are declining. As well as, the rates and door-to treatment times for thrombolysis and thrombectomy therapies are increasing. The stroke units are being reallocated to serve COVID-19 patients, and stroke teams are being redeployed to COVID-19 centers. Covid 19 confirmed cases and deaths are rising day by day. This pandemic clearly threatened and threatening all stroke care achievements regionally. Managing stroke patients during this pandemic is even more challenging at our region. The Middle East and North Africa Stroke and Interventional Neurotherapies Organization (MENA-SINO) is the main stroke organization regionally. MENA-SINO urges the need to developing new strategies and recommendations for stroke care during this pandemic. This will require multiple channels of interventions and create a protective code stroke with fast triaging path. Developing and expanding the tele-stroke programs are urgently required. There is an urgent need for enhancing collaboration and cooperation between stroke expertise regionally and internationally. Integrating such measures will inevitably lead to an improvement and upgrading of the services to a satisfactory level.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/normas , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Quarentena , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distância Social , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triagem/normas
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22822, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126321

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a common cause of stroke in young and mid-aged adults without predisposing risk factors for vascular disease. It can be induced by a particular head or neck posture; its early signs often include headache and neck pain. Improved imaging techniques can be used to detect VAD, whose current treatment options are limited. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient presented with neck and shoulder pain for a week after sleeping against the wall with cervical proneness for 1 night. He had sudden headache, slurred speech, and left side weakness for 1.5 hours on admission. DIAGNOSIS: The patient had VAD complicated by posterior circulation stroke. INTERVENTIONS: Acute stroke was treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy. Then, the patient was administered follow-up anticoagulants. OUTCOMES: The patient's condition improved after thrombolytic therapy. He recovered well, with no recurrence during a 4-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: VAD should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of posterior circulation stroke or transient ischemic attack in young patients. Intravenous thrombolytic therapy may be safe and effective for stroke-complicated cases. This case report demonstrates that expanded diagnostic protocol for acute ischemic stroke assures rapid and correct diagnosis.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Cervicalgia/etiologia , Dor de Ombro/etiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/complicações
13.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2522-2528, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but life-threatening complication of heart valve replacement. Based on the current guidelines, the treatment of a large number of these patients could be performed through the administration of thrombolytic agents. In the present study, we aim to assess the safety of thrombolytic therapy in patients with PVT who have high international normalized ratio (INR) levels. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively analyzed outcomes of thrombolytic therapy in 65 PVT patients with different levels of INR at the time of fibrinolysis at a tertiary cardiac center. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 51.6 ± 12.47 years. The tricuspid valve was the most common site of prosthetic valve thrombosis (64.6%). The Median (range) of INR was 2.1 (0.9-4.9). The majority of patients (50.8%) achieved a complete response following thrombolytic treatment. There were no cases of intracranial hemorrhage. Other major and minor bleedings occurred in 3 (4.6%) and 10 (15.4%) patients, respectively. No embolic stroke and systemic embolism were observed. We found no significant difference in the frequency of major (P-value = .809) and minor (P-value = .483) bleeding as well as response to thrombolytic therapy (P-value = .658) between patients with different levels of INR. Total administered dose of Streptokinase was also similar in PVT patients with or without major (P-value = .467) and minor (P-value = .221) bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that there was no significant difference between PVT patients presenting with subtherapeutic and high INR levels who received thrombolytic treatments regarding both minor and major bleeding complications as well as response to thrombolysis.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estreptoquinase/uso terapêutico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segurança , Estreptoquinase/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105137, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066942

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intravenous Thrombolysis (IV rt-PA) is administered in <10% of ischemic stroke patients. In rare cases, patients or caregivers refuse IV rt-PA treatment even when recommended by stroke practitioners. We sought to assess the characteristics and outcomes of patients who refuse IV rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke, and to compare outcomes between those who were treated with IV rt-PA and those who refused. METHODS: We examined data from the prospectively collected, IRB approved UC San Diego Stroke Registry who presented as a "stroke code" from July 2004 to July 2019 at two academic facilities and five community hospitals. Patients were included if they presented within 4.5 hours of symptom onset or last seen normal, had a "stroke code" alert activated, and were either treated with IV rt-PA or the reason for exclusion was patient/family refusal. Patients were considered "refusers" if IV rt-PA was recommended by the provider during the stroke code and the patient and/or legally authorized representative declined treatment. Baseline demographics, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), treatment times and 90-day Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were collected. Patients who refused IV rt-PA were compared to those that were treated with IV rt-PA. Data was examined for frequencies and distribution. Chi squared was used to evaluate nominal variables. Continuous variables were assessed by Pearson correlation and t test. Kruskal-Wallis or ANOVA were used to evaluate group differences. RESULTS: A total of 1056 patients were included in the analysis. Forty-seven patients (4.5%) refused IV rt-PA. There were no significant socio-demographic differences between patients who were treated with IV rt-PA and those who refused. Compared to patients who were treated with IV rt-PA, patients who refused IV rt-PA had a significantly lower baseline NIHSS (4 vs 9, p < 0.0001) and higher baseline mRS (IQR 0-1.0 vs 0-2.8, p < 0.001). The time from arrival to treatment decision was significantly longer in patients who refused IV rt-PA (group mean 57.9 min vs 48.8 min, p = 0.03). Data for 90-day outcome was available for 556 (55.1%) patients treated with IV rt-PA and 20 (42.5%) patients who refused IV rt-PA. There was no difference in 90-day mRS between groups (p = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: There is a low rate of IV rt-PA refusal in our registry population which is similar to what previous studies have shown. We found that patients who refuse IV rt-PA have significantly milder deficits and significantly worse pre-morbid disability. We speculate that the longer "arrival to decision" time in the refuse IV rt-PA group is due to longer informed consent discussions. This analysis furthers the body of literature regarding rt-PA refusals.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , California , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105204, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An extended time window for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for acute stroke patients up to 9 hours from symptom onset has been established in recent trials, excluding patients who received mechanical thrombectomy (MT). We therefore investigated whether combined therapy with IVT and MT (IVT+MT) is safe in patients with ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO) in an extended time window. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke and LVO who were treated within 4.5 to 9 hours after symptom onset using MT with or without IVT. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of any intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: In total, 168 patients were included in the study, 44 (26%) were treated with IVT+ MT. 133 (79%) patients had a M1-/distal carotid artery occlusion. Median ASPECT-Score was 8 (IQR 7-10) and complete reperfusion (mTICI 2b-3) was achieved in 132 (79%) patients. 18 (41%) of the patients in the IVT+MT group developed any ICH vs. 45 (36%) patients in the direct MT group (p=0.587). Symptomatic ICH occurred in 5 (11%) patients with IVT+MT vs. 8 (6%) patients receiving direct MT (p=0.295). In multivariable analysis, IVT+MT was not an independent predictor of ICH (adjusted for NIHSS, degree of reperfusion, symptom-onset-to-treatment time and therapy with tirofiban; OR 0.95 [95% CI 0.43-2.08], p=0.896). CONCLUSION: Mechanical thrombectomy in stroke patients seems to be safe with combined intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 to 9 hours after onset as it did not significantly increase the risk for intracranial hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Terapia Combinada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105211, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute management of blood pressure in ischemic stroke treated with reperfusion therapy remains uncertain. We evaluated blood pressures during the first 24-hours after reperfusion therapy in relation to in-hospital outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study of blood pressure in the first 24 hours among ischemic stroke patients who underwent reperfusion therapy with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or mechanical thrombectomy (MT) at a tertiary referral center. Blood pressure variability was expressed as the range between the highest and the lowest pressures. Outcomes of interest were discharge disposition and in-hospital mortality. Favorable outcome was defined as a discharge destination to home or inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and patients receiving reperfusion therapy. RESULTS: Among the 140 ischemic stroke patients (117 IVT, 84 MT and 61 both), 95 (67.8%) had favorable discharge disposition and 24 (17.1%) died. Higher 24-hour peak systolic blood pressures (SBPs) and peak mean arterial pressures (MAPs) were independently associated with a lower likelihood of favorable discharge disposition, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.868, 95 % CI 0.760 - 0.990 per 10 mm Hg for SBP and aOR 0.710, 95% CI 0.515 - 0.980 for MAP, and with increased odds of death aOR 1.244, 95% CI 1.056-1.467 and aOR 1.760, 95% CI 1.119 - 2.769 respectively. Greater variability of SBP and MAP was also associated with odds of death aOR 1.327, 95% CI 1.104 - 1.595 and aOR 1.577, 95% CI 1.060- 2.345 respectively, without a significant effect on discharge disposition. CONCLUSION: In the first 24 hours after reperfusion therapy, higher peak and variable blood pressures are associated with unfavorable discharge outcomes and increased in-hospital mortality. Further studies in stroke patients undergoing reperfusion therapy might target blood pressure reduction and variability to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105220, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute stroke outcomes depend on timely reperfusion. In 3/2017, local EMS agencies implemented a prehospital triage algorithm with hospital bypass and field activation of the neurointerventional team using the Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination (FAST-ED). A score ≥4 bypasses to a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and a score ≥6 also has the interventional team field activated off-hours. AIM: We analyzed effects of this initiative on volume, acute stroke transfers, treatment times, and outcomes and determined the tool's ability to predict large vessel occlusion. METHODS: Stroke cases brought to our center by EMS during 3/2016-2/2018 were analyzed, which included one year before and after FAST-ED implementation. Treatment times were compared on- vs. off-hours and to those with field activation. RESULTS: Of 1153 patients, 761 (67%) were coded as stroke and 235 (20%) underwent reperfusion. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, stroke severity, length of stay, door-to-needle, and 90-d mRS were comparable between periods. Scale compliance was 85%. Concordance rate of ±1 between EMS and calculated score was 53%. Compared to the previous year, door-to-puncture (DTP) improved by 17 min (p < 0.01) overall, 25 min (p < 0.001) off-hours, and 33 min (p < 0.05) with field activation. A cutoff of 4 vs. 6 would have led to 140% increase in field activations but only 36% increase in procedures. CONCLUSIONS: This prehospital initiative led to faster DTP by up to 33 min. The highest impact was off-hours with field activation. Only 1/3 of activations led to endovascular treatment. FAST-ED≥6 appears to be appropriate for field activation.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Triagem , Plantão Médico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality data on time of stroke onset and time of hospital arrival is required for proper evaluation of points of delay that might hinder access to medical care after the onset of stroke symptoms. PURPOSE: Based on (SITS Dataset) in Egyptian stroke patients, we aimed to explore factors related to time of onset versus time of hospital arrival for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 1,450 AIS patients from two stroke centers of Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. We divided the day to four quarters and evaluated relationship between different factors and time of stroke onset and time of hospital arrival. The factors included: age, sex, duration from stroke onset to hospital arrival, type of management, type of stroke (TOAST classification), National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and favorable outcome modified Rankin Scale (mRS ≤2). RESULTS: Pre-hospital: highest stroke incidence was in the first and fourth quarters. There was no significant difference in the mean age, sex, type of stroke in relation to time of onset. NIHSS was significantly less in onset in third quarter of the day. Percentage of patients who received thrombolytic therapy was higher with onset in the first 2 quarters of the day (p = <0.001). In-hospital: there was no difference in percentage of patients who received thrombolytic therapy nor in outcome across 4 quarters of arrival to hospital. CONCLUSION: Pre-hospital factors still need adjustment to improve percentage of thrombolysis, while in-hospital factors showed consistent performance.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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