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1.
Anaesthesia ; 76(1): 19-26, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406071

RESUMO

Over 30,000 adult cardiac operations are carried out in the UK annually. A small number of these patients need to return to theatre in the first few days after the initial surgery, but the exact proportion is unknown. The majority of these resternotomies are for bleeding or cardiac tamponade. The Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Critical Care carried out a 1-year national audit of resternotomy in 2018. Twenty-three of the 35 centres that were eligible participated. The overall resternotomy rate (95%CI) within the period of admission for the initial operation in these centres was 3.6% (3.37-3.85). The rate varied between centres from 0.69% to 7.6%. Of the 849 patients who required resternotomy, 127 subsequently died, giving a mortality rate (95%CI) of 15.0% (12.7-17.5). In patients who underwent resternotomy, the median (IQR [range]) length of stay on ICU was 5 (2-10 [0-335]) days, and time to tracheal extubation was 20 (12-48 [0-2880]) hours. A total of 89.3% of patients who underwent resternotomy were transfused red cells, with a median (IQR [range]) of 4 (2-7 [1-1144]) units of red blood cells. The rate (95%CI) of needing renal replacement therapy was 23.4% (20.6-26.5). This UK-wide audit has demonstrated that resternotomy after cardiac surgery is associated with prolonged intensive care stay, high rates of blood transfusion, renal replacement therapy and very high mortality. Further research into this area is required to try to improve patient care and outcomes in patients who require resternotomy in the first 24 h after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reoperação/mortalidade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Esternotomia/mortalidade , Esternotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Extubação , Tamponamento Cardíaco/etiologia , Tamponamento Cardíaco/cirurgia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/mortalidade , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/cirurgia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(7): 1244-1249, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No prospective study has evaluated the long-term effect on mortality of the new acid concentrates added to bicarbonate dialysate. The aim of this pharmacoepidemiological study was to evaluate the association between hydrochloric or citric acid-based dialysate and mortality on haemodialysis (HD). METHODS: This study included 117 796 patients with 3 723 887 months on HD recorded in the national French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network registry. Dialysate acid components were retrospectively reconstructed for each facility. All patients on HD were associated each month with an exposure based on that at their facility of treatment. We took each patient's time-varying exposure into account to calculate the monthly mortality rates for each exposure. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for mortality were calculated with a Poisson regression, with acetic acid as the reference. Regressions were adjusted for initial clinical characteristics (age, gender, previous cardiovascular events, active malignancy, diabetes, pulmonary disease, mobility), dialysis technique and location (in-centre, outpatient centre, self-care unit) and ESRD vintage, updated monthly. RESULTS: The crude mortality rate per 1000 patient-months with citric acid {11.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1-12.0]} was lower than with either acetic acid [12.9 (95% CI 12.8-13.1)] or hydrochloric acid [12.8 (95% CI 12.2-13.5)]. For the 2014-17 period, the IRR for mortality with citric acid [adjusted IRR 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.99)] and with hydrochloric acid [adjusted IRR 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.94)] were significantly lower than with acetic acid. CONCLUSION: This post-marketing study of long-term exposure to dialysate acidifiers at the patient level found the use of citric and hydrochloric acid-based dialysates, compared with acetic acid, was associated with lower mortality.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Bicarbonatos/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Tampões (Química) , Quelantes de Cálcio/farmacologia , Soluções para Diálise/farmacologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(7): 1237-1244, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citric acid-based bicarbonate dialysate (CiD) is increasingly used in haemodialysis (HD) to improve haemodynamic tolerance and haemocompatibility associated with acetic acid-based bicarbonate dialysate. Safety concerns over CiD have been raised recently after a French ecological study reported higher mortality hazard in HD clinics with high CiD consumption. Therefore, we evaluated the mortality risk associated with various acidifiers (AcD, CiD) of bicarbonate dialysate. METHODS: In this multicentre, historical cohort study, we included adult incident HD patients (European, Middle-East and Africa Fresenius Medical Care network; 1 January 2014 to 31 October 2018). We recorded acidifiers of bicarbonate dialysis and dialysate composition for each dialysis session. In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, patients were assigned to the exposed group if they received CiD in >70% of sessions during the first 3 months (CiD70%), whereas the non-exposed group received no CiD at all. In the secondary analysis, exposure was assessed on a monthly basis for the whole duration of the follow-up. RESULTS: We enrolled 10 121 incident patients during the study period. Of them, 371 met the criteria for inclusion in CiD70%. After propensity score matching, mortality was 11.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.86-14.75] and 12.04 (95% CI 9.44-15.35) deaths/100 person-years in the CiD0% and CiD70% groups, respectively (P = 0.80). A similar association trend was observed in the secondary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe evidence of increased mortality among patients exposed to CiD in a large European cohort of dialysis patients despite the fact that physicians were more inclined to prescribe CiD to subjects with worse medical conditions.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Bicarbonatos/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Tampões (Química) , Quelantes de Cálcio/farmacologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520954

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the influencing factors associated with no/low response to preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients. A total of 79 patients were included in this prospective study. Fifteen factors that might affect the resistance to CCRT were included in this logistic regression analysis, these factors include the general clinical data of patients, the expression status of tumor stem cell marker CD44v6 and the volumetric imaging parameters of primary tumor lesions. We found that the no/low response status to preoperative CCRT was positively correlated with the real tumor volume (RTV), the total surface area of tumor (TSA), and CD44v6 expression, whereas negatively correlated with the tumor compactness (TC). According to the results of logistic regression analysis, two formulas that could predict whether or not no/low response to preoperative CCRT were established. The Area Under Curve (AUC) of the two formulas and those significant measurement data (RTV, TC, TSA) were 0.900, 0.858, 0.771, 0.754, 0.859, the sensitivity were 95.8%, 79.17%, 62.50%, 95.83%, 62.5%, the specificity were 70.9%, 74.55%, 83.64%,47.27%, 96.36%, the positive predictive values were 58.96%, 57.58%, 62.51%,44.23%, 88.23%, the negative predictive values were 97.48%, 89.13%, 83.64%, 96.29%, and 85.48%, respectively.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Tratamento Conservador/mortalidade , Feminino , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Curva ROC , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto/patologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520955

RESUMO

A lack of data on patient choices and outcomes at the time of pre-dialysis planning limits meaningful shared decision making, particularly in older frailer patients. In this large retrospective cohort study of patients aged over 70 seen by the pre-dialysis clinic (2004-2016) of a large single centre in the United Kingdom (1,216 patients), age, sex, comorbidity, poverty and frailty were used to predict choice of renal replacement therapy (RRT) over maximum conservative management (MCM). The impact of patient choice of RRT versus MCM was used to predict survival from the time of choice using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Older age, female sex, greater poverty and greater frailty were associated with choosing MCM, whilst comorbidity had no significant impact on choice. At 5 years of follow up, 49% of all patients had died without receiving RRT. Over 70% of the patients choosing MCM died with better kidney function than the median level at which those starting RRT initiated treatment. Frailty and age were better predictors of survival than comorbidity and in patients with at least moderate frailty, RRT offered no survival benefit over MCM. In conclusion, analysing outcomes from the time of choice may improve shared decision making. Frailty should be routinely assessed and collected and further work may help predict which patients are unlikely to survive or progress to end stage renal disease and may not need to be burdened with making a pre-dialysis choice.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/psicologia , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Terapia de Substituição Renal/ética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Tratamento Conservador , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Diálise Renal/métodos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 100, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in patients undergoing emergency surgery for type A acute aortic dissection (TA-AAD) and evaluate the perioperative and long-term outcomes. METHODS: From January 2014 to December 2018, 712 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. These patients were divided into two groups according to whether or not needed postoperative CRRT: the CRRT group vs the control group. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors of CRRT. To avoid the selection bias and confounders, baseline characteristics were matched for propensity scores. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to provide survival estimates at postoperative points in time. RESULTS: Before propensity score matching, univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in age, preoperative hypertension, pericardial effusion, preoperative serum creatinine (sCr), intraoperative need for combined coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or mitral valve or tricuspid valve surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, extracorporeal circulation assistant time, aortic cross-clamp time, drainage volume 24 h after surgery and ventilator time between two groups. All were higher in the CRRT group (P < 0.05). These risk factors were included in binary logistic regression. It showed that preoperative sCr and CPB time were independent risk factors for CRRT patients undergoing surgery for TA-AAD. And there were significant differences regarding 30-day mortality (P < 0.001) and long-term overall cumulative survival (P < 0.001) with up to a 6-year follow-up. After propensity scoring, 29 pairs (58 patients) were successfully matched. Among these patients, the analysis showed that CPB time was still significantly longer in the CRRT group (P = 0.004), and the 30-day mortality rate was also higher in this group (44.8% vs 10.3%; P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: CRRT after TA-AAD is common and worsened short- and long- term mortality. The preoperative sCr and CPB time are independent risk factors for postoperative CRRT patients. Shorten the CPB time as much as possible is recommended to reduce the risk of CRRT after the operation.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Creatinina/sangue , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Pontuação de Propensão , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280422

RESUMO

This column is supplied by Amol Patel, DO, and Peter Nguyen, MD. Dr. Patel is an internal medicine resident at Houston Methodist Hospital, where he is in his final year as chief resident. He received his bachelor's degree in biomedical engineering at Texas A&M University and his medical degree at UNT Health Science center in Forth Worth, Texas. Dr. Nguyen is a nephrologist with Houston Kidney Consultants and practices at Houston Methodist Hospital, where he is currently the secretary of the medical staff. He obtained his medical degree from Texas Tech School of Medicine and completed his residency and nephrology fellowship at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/efeitos adversos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/instrumentação , Balão Intra-Aórtico/mortalidade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(7): 1228-1236, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citric acid-based bicarbonate haemodialysis (CIT-HD) has gained more clinical acceptance over the last few years in France and is a substitute for other acidifiers [e.g. acetic acid (CH3COOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)]. This trend was justified by several clinical benefits compared with CH3COOH as well as the desire to avoid the consequences of the corrosive action of HCl, but a nationwide clinical report raised concerns about the long-term safety of CIT-HD. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of CIT-HD exposure on patient outcomes in western France. METHODS: This is a population-based retrospective multicentre observational study performed in 1132 incident end-stage kidney disease patients in five sanitary territories in western France who started their renal replacement therapy after 1 January 2008 and followed up through 15 October 2018. Relevant data, collected prospectively with the same medical software, were anonymously aggregated for the purposes of the study. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of citrate exposure on all-cause mortality. To provide a control group to CIT-HD one, propensity score matching (PSM) at 2:1 was performed in two steps: the first analysis was intended to be exploratory, comparing patients who received citrate ≤80% of the time (CIT-HD ≤80) versus those who received citrate >80% of the time (CIT-HD >80), while the second analysis was intended to be explanatory in comparing patients with 0% (CIT-HD0) versus 100% citrate time exposure (CIT-HD100). RESULTS: After PSM, in the exploratory part of the analysis, 432 CIT-HD ≤80 patients were compared with 216 CIT-HD >80 patients and no difference was found for all-cause mortality using the Kaplan-Meier model (log-rank 0.97), univariate Cox regression analysis {hazard ratio [HR] 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.40]} and multivariate Cox regression analysis [HR 1.11 (95% CI 0.76-1.61)] when adjusted for nine variables with clinical pertinence and high statistical relevance in the univariate analysis. In the explanatory part of the analysis, 316 CIT-HD0 patients were then compared with 158 CIT-HD100 patients and no difference was found using the Kaplan-Meier model (log-rank 0.06), univariate Cox regression analysis [HR 0.69 (95% CI 0.47-1.03)] and multivariate Cox regression analysis [HR 0.87 (95% CI 0.57-1.33)] when adjusted for seven variables with clinical pertinence and high statistical relevance in the univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study support the notion that CIT-HD exposure ≤6 years has no significant effect on all-cause mortality in HD patients. This finding remains true for patients receiving high-volume online haemodiafiltration, a modality most frequently prescribed in this cohort.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Idoso , Tampões (Química) , Quelantes de Cálcio/farmacologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18519, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895786

RESUMO

Urinary obstruction may be a complicating factor in critically ill patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and requires efforts for identifying and controlling the infection source. However, its significance in clinical practice is uncertain. This retrospective study investigated the overall hospital courses of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with UTIs from the emergency department.Baseline severity was assessed by the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score; outcomes included probability and inotropic-, ventilator-, renal replacement therapy (RRT)-, and ICU-free days and 28-day mortality.Of 122 patients with UTIs, 99 had abdominal computed tomography scans. Patients without computed tomography scans more frequently had quadriplegia and a urinary catheter than those without scans (P = .001 and .01). Urinary obstruction was identified in 40 patients who had higher SOFA scores and lactate levels (P = .01 and P < .001). The use and free days of inotropic drugs and ventilator did not differ between the groups. However, patients with obstruction were more likely to require RRT and had shorter durations of RRT-free days (odds ratio 3.8; P = .06 and estimate -3.0; P = .04). Durations of ICU-free days were shorter, but it disappeared after adjustment for initial SOFA scores (estimate -2.3; P = .15). Impact of the timing of urinary drainage on outcomes was evaluated, demonstrating that an intervention within 72 hours lengthened the duration of RRT-free days compared with that after 72 hours (estimate -6.0 days; P = .03). On the other hand, the study did not find the association between other outcomes including 28-day mortality and the timing of urinary drainage.Urinary obstruction can be a complicating factor, resulting in a higher probability of RRT implementation and shorter durations of RRT- and ICU-free days in critically ill patients with UTIs. Furthermore, delayed intervention for urinary drainage may result in longer durations of RRT. Efforts should be warranted to find the presence of urinary obstruction and to control infection source in critically ill patients with UTIs.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Infecções Urinárias/mortalidade , Doenças Urológicas/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/terapia , Doenças Urológicas/complicações , Doenças Urológicas/terapia
10.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(1): 82-87, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is debate regarding the timing of initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in adults with end-stage renal disease, there is a paucity of reliable epidemiological data on pediatric patients. The present study was performed to investigate current practice in Japan with regard to the timing of initiation of RRT in children based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: A total of 649 pediatric patients < 20 years old with eGFR at the initiation of RRT between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2013 were included in the study. Baseline eGFR was calculated for each patient using the Schwartz formula. RESULTS: eGFR at the start of RRT was 12.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 [interquartile range (IQR) 8.4-16.3]. A total of 209 children (32.2%) had high eGFR (eGFR > 15 mL/min/1.73 m2) at the initiation of RRT. Initiation of RRT was more likely in those undergoing preemptive transplantation (PEKT) with high eGFR [odds ratio (OR) 4.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95-8.90, P < 0.001]. There were 31 deaths of various causes during follow-up, with infections representing the leading causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: The median eGFR at the initiation of RRT in children showed a wide range of variation. Further studies are needed to investigate the impact of the decision regarding when to initiate RRT in individual pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefrologistas/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Terapia de Substituição Renal/tendências , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(2): 119-125, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The difficulty of adhering to a low-protein diet is a serious limitation of randomized controlled trials aimed at validating the efficacy of this therapy. In this observational study of patients with diabetic nephropathy, we examined the association of dietary protein intake (DPI) with renal outcome and mortality, taking into account the nutritional status. METHODS: We conducted a single-center historical cohort study of 449 adult Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g or estimated glomerular filtration rate of < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. DPI was estimated with a formula using nitrogen levels in spot urine and body mass index. Malnutrition was defined as the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index of ≤ 98. The primary and secondary endpoints were renal replacement therapy (RRT) initiation and mortality before RRT initiation, respectively. The Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard model was used to determine the relative effects of DPI on the respective endpoint. RESULTS: Decreased DPI was associated with lower incidence of RRT with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.92, p < 0.001). The interaction between DPI and nutritional status with respect to mortality was significant (p interaction = 0.047). Decreased DPI was a risk factor for mortality in patients with malnutrition (p = 0.009) but not in those without malnutrition (p = 0.559). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy, lower DPI was associated with lower incidence of RRT initiation, suggesting beneficial effects of a low-protein diet on kidneys. Conversely, lower DPI might lead to increased mortality in patients with malnutrition.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/dietoterapia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/mortalidade , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(4): 592-597, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530493

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the impact of renal function trajectory, defined as the change in renal function over time before and after renal artery stent placement, on long-term risk for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) 6-12 months before renal artery stent placement, at the time of intervention, and 6-12 months after intervention were determined in 398 patients. The effect of eGFR change before and after renal artery stent placement was calculated. Cox proportional-hazards ratio was used to determine the risks for RRT and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The risk for RRT was significantly influenced by eGFR change from the time of intervention to follow-up at 6-12 month after treatment (P = .02). In addition, among patients with a postintervention eGFR ≤ 40 mL/min/1.73 m2, for every 1 unit of eGFR increase, there was a significant decrease in RRT and all-cause mortality (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Secondary parameters that increased RRT risk included diabetes at the time of intervention (P = .03), increased baseline proteinuria (P < .001), and stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD; P = .01 and P = .003, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated higher all-cause mortality rates among patients with diabetes at the time of intervention (P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: Postintervention eGFR trajectory improvement approaching 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 was associated with decreased RRT and mortality risk. These findings suggest that patients with advanced CKD and renal artery stenosis may benefit from revascularization regardless of their preinterventional renal function measurement.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/fisiopatologia , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/mortalidade , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18283, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797991

RESUMO

The appropriate timing for initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. This meta-analysis aims to assess the efficacy of early initiation of RRT in critically ill patients with AKI. The Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched up to August 13, 2019. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of early and late RRT on AKI patients were included. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Eleven RCTs including 1131 and 1111 AKI patients assigned to early and late RRT strategies, respectively, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled 28-day mortality was 38.1% (431/1131) and 40.7% (453/1111) in the patients assigned to early and late RRT, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (risk ratio (RR), 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.15, I2 = 63%). No significant difference was found between groups in terms of RRT dependence in survivors on day 28 (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.67-1.25, I2 = 0%), and recovery of renal function (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.89-1.19, I2 = 56%). The early RRT group had higher risks of catheter-related infection (RR, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.01-2.97, I2 = 0%) and hypophosphatemia (RR, 2.5, 95% CI, 1.25-4.99, I2 = 77%) than the late RRT group. In conclusion, an early RRT strategy does not improve survival, RRT dependence, or renal function recovery in critically ill patients with AKI in comparison with a late RRT strategy. However, clinicians should be vigilant because early RRT can carry higher risks of catheter-related infection and hypophosphatemia during dialysis than late RRT.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/cirurgia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Tempo para o Tratamento , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/etiologia , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo
14.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 417, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon cause of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) and the clinical outcomes of patients with MPGN who commence kidney replacement therapy have not been comprehensively studied. METHODS: All adult patients with ESKD due to glomerulonephritis commencing kidney replacement therapy in Australia and New Zealand from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2016 were reviewed. Patients with ESKD due to MPGN were compared to patients with other forms of glomerulonephritis. Patient survival on dialysis and following kidney transplantation, kidney recovery on dialysis, time to transplantation, allograft survival, death-censored allograft survival and disease recurrence post-transplant were compared between the two groups using Kaplan Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Of 56,481 patients included, 456 (0.8%) had MPGN and 12,660 (22.4%) had another form of glomerulonephritis. Five-year patient survival on dialysis and following kidney transplantation were similar between patients with ESKD from MPGN and other forms of glomerulonephritis (Dialysis: 59% vs. 62% p = 0.61; Transplant: 93% vs. 93%, p = 0.49). Compared to patients with other forms of glomerulonephritis, patients with MPGN had significantly poorer 5-year allograft survival (70% vs. 81% respectively, p = 0.02) and death censored allograft survival (74% vs. 87%, respectively; p < 0.01). The risk of disease recurrence was significantly higher in patients with MPGN compared to patients with other glomerulonephritidites (18% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). In patients with MPGN who had allograft loss, patients with MPGN recurrence had a significantly shorter time to allograft loss compared to patients with MPGN who had allograft loss due to any other cause (median time to allograft loss 3.2 years vs. 4.4 years, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other forms of glomerulonephritis, patients with MPGN experienced comparable rates of survival on dialysis and following kidney transplantation, but significantly higher rates of allograft loss due to disease recurrence.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Doenças Raras/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite/complicações , Glomerulonefrite/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/mortalidade , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Rim/fisiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Doenças Raras/mortalidade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 366, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crystalloids are the most frequently prescribed drugs in intensive care medicine and emergency medicine. Thus, even small differences in outcome may have major implications, and therefore, the choice between balanced crystalloids versus normal saline continues to be debated. We examined to what extent the currently accrued information size from completed and ongoing trials on the subject allow intensivists and emergency physicians to choose the right fluid for their patients. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis with random effects inverse variance model. Published randomized controlled trials enrolling adult patients to compare balanced crystalloids versus normal saline in the setting of intensive care medicine or emergency medicine were included. The main outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up, and secondary outcomes were moderate to severe acute kidney injury (AKI) and initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Trial sequential analyses (TSA) were performed, and risk of bias and overall quality of evidence were assessed. Additionally, previously published meta-analyses, trial sequential analyses and ongoing large trials were analysed for included studies, required information size calculations and the assumptions underlying those calculations. RESULTS: Nine studies (n = 32,777) were included. Of those, eight had data available on mortality, seven on AKI and six on RRT. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between balanced crystalloids versus normal saline for mortality (P = 0.33), the incidence of moderate to severe AKI (P = 0.37) or initiation of RRT (P = 0.29). Quality of evidence was low to very low. Analysis of previous meta-analyses and ongoing trials showed large differences in calculated required versus accrued information sizes and assumptions underlying those. TSA revealed the need for extremely large trials based on our realistic and clinically relevant assumptions on relative risk reduction and baseline mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis could not find significant differences between balanced crystalloids and normal saline on mortality at the longest follow-up, moderate to severe AKI or new RRT. Currently accrued information size is smaller, and the required information size is larger than previously anticipated. Therefore, completed and ongoing trials on the topic may fail to provide adequate guidance for choosing the right crystalloid. Thus, physiology will continue to play an important role for individualizing this choice.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Soluções Cristaloides/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Solução Salina/administração & dosagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Soluções Cristaloides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/tendências , Solução Salina/efeitos adversos
16.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(10): 984-991, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538434

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the increasing use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), few studies have investigated its use in preterm infants. This study evaluated the prognosis of preterm infants after CRRT and identified risk factors of mortality after CRRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed in 33 preterm infants who underwent CRRT at the NICU of Samsung Medical Center between 2008 and 2017. Data of the demographic characteristics, predisposing morbidity, cardiopulmonary function, and CRRT were collected and compared between surviving and non-surviving preterm infants treated with CRRT. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: Compared with the survivors, the non-survivors showed younger gestational age (29.3 vs. 33.6 weeks), lower birth weight (1359 vs. 2174 g), and lower Apgar scores at 1 minute (4.4 vs. 6.6) and 5 minutes (6.5 vs. 8.6). At the initiation of CRRT, the non-survivors showed a higher incidence of inotropic use (93% vs. 40%, p=0.017) and fluid overload (16.8% vs. 4.0%, p=0.031). Multivariable analysis revealed that fluid overload >10% at CRRT initiation was the primary determinant of mortality after CRRT in premature infants, with an adjusted odds ratio of 14.6 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.10-211.29. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the degree of immaturity, cardiopulmonary instability, and fluid overload affect the prognosis of preterm infants after CRRT. Preventing fluid overload and earlier initiation of CRRT may improve treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 158(5): 1446-1455, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is an increased risk of mortality in patients in whom acute kidney injury and fluid accumulation develop after cardiothoracic surgery, and the risk is especially high when renal replacement therapy is needed. However, renal replacement therapy remains an essential intervention in managing these patients. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for mortality in surgical patients requiring renal replacement therapy in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients requiring renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury or fluid accumulation after cardiothoracic surgery between January 2009 and December 2017. Survivors and nonsurvivors were compared with respect to multiple variables, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: The mortality rate for the cohort was 75%. Nonsurvivors were younger (nonsurvivors: 0.8 years; interquartile range, 0.1-8.2; survivors: 14.6 years; interquartile range, 4.2-19.7; P = .002) and had a lower weight-for-age z-score (nonsurvivors: -1.5; interquartile range, -3.1 to -0.4; survivors: -0.5; interquartile range, -0.9 to 0.3; P = .02) compared with survivors. There was no difference with respect to fluid accumulation. In multivariable analysis, a longer duration of stage 3 acute kidney injury before initiation of renal replacement therapy was independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.83; P = .021). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in patients requiring renal replacement therapy after congenital heart disease surgery is high. A longer duration of acute kidney injury before renal replacement therapy initiation is associated with increased mortality.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/classificação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Criança , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16800, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of early continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) remain controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the impact of timing of CRRT on clinical outcomes in patients with septic AKI. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched from inception to the 31st of March 2019, to identify trials that assessed the timing of initiation of CRRT in patients with septic AKI. RESULTS: Five trials including 900 patients were included. The results of this meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference between 28-day mortality (odds ratio = 0.76;95% CI, 0.58-1.00; P = .05) and 90-day mortality(odds ratio = 0.79;95% CI, 0.59-1.06; P = .12)of early and late initiation of CRRT group. In addition, compared with late initiation strategy, early initiation showed no significant advantage in length of stay in ICU (Mean difference = -0.9;95% CI, -2.37 to 0.57; P = .23) and length of stay in hospital (Mean difference = -1.43;95% CI, -5.28 to 2.41; P = .47). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis revealed that early initiation of CRRT could not reduce mortality in patients with septic AKI. The study also showed no significant difference in ICU length of stay or hospital length of stay between early and late CRRT group. To achieve optimal timing of CRRT for septic AKI, large multicenter randomized trials with better design are still needed.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Sepse/mortalidade , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Crit Care ; 54: 7-13, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319348

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate early hemodynamic instability and its implications on adverse outcomes in patients who require continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and underwent CRRT at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota between December 2006 through November 2015. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and major adverse kidney events (MAKE) at 90 days. Hypotension was defined as any of the following criteria occurring during the first hour of CRRT initiation: mean arterial pressure < 60 mmHg, systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg or a decline in SBP >40 mmHg from baseline, a positive fluid balance >500 mL or increased vasopressor requirement. The analysis included 1743 patients, 1398 with acute kidney injury (AKI). In-hospital mortality occurred in 884 patients (51%). Early hypotension occurred in 1124 patients (64.6%) and remained independently associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.25-1.9). CONCLUSION: Hypotension occurs frequently in patients receiving CRRT despite having a reputation as the dialysis modality with better hemodynamic tolerance. It is an independent predictor for worse outcomes. Further studies are required to understand this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/mortalidade , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Prognóstico , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4399, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-hospital statin use is associated with lower renal replacement therapy requirement and/or death during intensive care unit stay. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis. We analyzed 670 patients consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit of an academic tertiary-care hospital. Patients with ages ranging from 18 to 80 years admitted to the intensive care unit within the last 48 hours were included in the study. RESULTS: Mean age was 66±16.1 years old, mean body mass index 26.6±4/9kg/m2 and mean abdominal circumference was of 97±22cm. The statin group comprised 18.2% of patients and had lower renal replacement therapy requirement and/or mortality (OR: 0.41; 95%CI: 0.18-0.93; p=0.03). The statin group also had lower risk of developing sepsis during intensive care unit stay (OR: 0.42; 95%CI: 0.22-0.77; p=0.006) and had a reduction in hospital length-of-stay (14.7±17.5 days versus 22.3±48 days; p=0.006). Statin therapy was associated with a protective role in critical care setting independently of confounding variables, such as gender, age, C-reactive protein, need of mechanical ventilation, use of pressor agents and presence of diabetes and/or coronary disease. CONCLUSION: Statin therapy prior to hospital admission was associated with lower mortality, lower renal replacement therapy requirement and sepsis rates.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Triglicerídeos , APACHE , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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