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4.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 26(2): 93-103, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The widespread sale of complementary medicines in community pharmacy raises important questions regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines. This study reviews the academic literature that explores a pharmacist's responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. METHODS: International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Embase, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Philosopher's index databases were searched for articles written in English and published between 1995 and 2017. Empirical studies discussing pharmacists' practices or perceptions, consumers' expectations and normative studies discussing ethical perspectives or proposing ethical frameworks related to pharmacists' responsibilities in selling complementary medicines were included in the review. KEY FINDINGS: Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies discussing the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines had an empirical focus. Pharmacists and consumers identified counselling and ensuring safe use of complementary medicines as the primary responsibilities of pharmacists. No formal ethical framework is explicitly employed to describe the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. To the degree any ethical framework is employed, a number of papers implicitly rely on principlism. The studies discussing the ethical perspectives of selling complementary medicines mainly describe the ethical conflict between a pharmacist's business and health professional role. No attempt is made to provide guidance on appropriate ways to resolve the conflict. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of explicit normative advice in the existing literature regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. This review identifies the need to develop a detailed practice-specific ethical framework to guide pharmacists regarding their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comércio/ética , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/ética , Farmacêuticos/ética , Relações Profissional-Paciente/ética , Comércio/normas , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/economia , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Terapias Complementares/ética , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Humanos , Farmácias/economia , Farmácias/ética , Farmácias/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Papel Profissional
5.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 24(1): 38-47, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135457

RESUMO

Context • Yoga Therapy is an emerging complementary and integrative health practice for which there is increasing interest from both clinical and research perspectives. Currently missing, however, is an explanatory framework for the profession that provides practitioners, clients, and the public with an understanding of how various yogic traditions and principles can be understood in modern health care contexts. Objective • This study proposes an explanatory framework for yoga therapy, informed by phenomenology, eudaimonia, virtue ethics, and first-person ethical inquiry. Conclusions • These 4 philosophical perspectives-phenomenology, eudaimonia, virtue ethics, and first-person ethical inquiry-provide a lens through which to understand how yogic practices support the individual's transformation in the experience of illness, pain, or disability. We propose that this transformation occurs through facilitating a reharmonization of body, mind, and environment toward the experience of eudaimonic well-being.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Ioga/psicologia , Terapias Complementares/ética , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Terapias Complementares/psicologia , Saúde , Humanos
7.
Acta Biomed ; 88(2): 143-150, 2017 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current lack of scientific validation of non-conventional treatments in medicine, whose epistemological foundations lie in scientific evidence and experimentation, raises significant questions regarding the costs and benefits of alternative-treatment forms. Nonetheless, in the last few decades non-conventional treatments have been increasingly recognised by the Italian medical profession, with one regional healthcare administration adopting some non-conventional practices as part of its conventional healthcare services. AIMS: The Authors aim to analyse non-conventional treatments in medicine from an epistemological, cultural, ethical, political and economic point of view, in order to highlight criticalities and incongruities, especially when these treatments are approved by a public healthcare system, which should be grounded on the "evidence-based medicine" principle. CONCLUSIONS: Non-conventional treatments in medicine are constituted by meta-theories, i.e. philosophical, religious and ideological concepts that conflict with contemporary rational, empirical medicine. In the interest of patients and society, the paper stresses the incongruity of a healthcare system which, despite being grounded on the "evidence-based medicine" principle, allows the development of non conventional treatments. Having said that, medical science should address not only the biological domain of illness but also its existential implications. Awareness and respect for the individual experience can undoubtedly lead to a new medical model that allows for a more effective therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/ética , Análise Ética , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/ética , Terapias Complementares/economia , Terapias Complementares/educação , Cultura , Assistência à Saúde , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/economia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/educação , Humanos , Política
8.
Pediatrics ; 140(3)2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28847978

RESUMO

The American Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated to optimizing the well-being of children and advancing family-centered health care. Related to this mission, the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the increasing use of complementary and integrative therapies for children and the subsequent need to provide reliable information and high-quality clinical resources to support pediatricians. This Clinical Report serves as an update to the original 2008 statement on complementary medicine. The range of complementary therapies is both extensive and diverse. Therefore, in-depth discussion of each therapy or product is beyond the scope of this report. Instead, our intentions are to define terms; describe epidemiology of use; outline common types of complementary therapies; review medicolegal, ethical, and research implications; review education and training for select providers of complementary therapies; provide educational resources; and suggest communication strategies for discussing complementary therapies with patients and families.


Assuntos
Medicina Integrativa , Pediatria , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica , Criança , Terapias Complementares/educação , Terapias Complementares/ética , Terapias Complementares/legislação & jurisprudência , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicina Integrativa/educação , Medicina Integrativa/ética , Medicina Integrativa/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Integrativa/estatística & dados numéricos , Licenciamento , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Papel do Médico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Estados Unidos
10.
Cad. naturol. terap. complem ; 6(11): 81-91, 2017.
Artigo em Português | MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-876123

RESUMO

Introdução: A Naturologia é um conhecimento que preconiza uma visão ampliada dos processos de saúde e oferece uma perspectiva de promoção e educação para a saúde. Tem sua origem no Brasil nos mesmos movimentos que consolidaram a Naturopatia neste país e no mundo, e suas especificidades são o diálogo entre as racionalidades de saúde como proposta epistemológica e a Relação de Interagência. Relação de Interagência é o nome dado à relação terapêutica na Naturologia. Objetivo: Revisar a literatura sobre a Relação de Interagência para identificar, sumarizar, sistematizar e discutir os princípios centrais que a norteiam, sob uma perspectiva clínica. Percurso metodológico: Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura, e os achados sobre a Relação de Interagência foram dialogados com saberes de outras áreas. Desenvolvimento: Dentre diversos conceitos citados como norteadores da Relação de Interagência na literatura disponível, 5 princípios centrais foram destacados para fins de sintetização: presença; empatia; integralidade; autonomia; e corresponsabilidade. Estes princípios são apresentados e discutidos ao longo do artigo, e foram feitos apontamentos de aplicação prática quando pertinente.(AU)


Introduction: Naturology is a knowledge that advoctes an enlarged understanding of health processes and a perspective of health promotion and education. Its origins in Brazil are the same movements that have consolidated Naturopathy in this country and in the world. Some specificities are the dialogue between health rationalities as an epistemological proposal and interaction´s relationship. "Interaction´s Relationship". is tha name given to the therapeutic relationship in Naturology. Objective: To review the literature on Interaction´s Relationship and to identify, summarize, systematize and discuss the core principles that guide it from a clinical perspective. Methodological route: A narrative revil of the literature was carried ou, and the findings on an Interaction´s Relationship with dialogues with knowledge from other areas. Development: Among several concepts cited as guiding principles of the Interaction´s Relationship in the literature, five core prominent principles were highlighted for synthesizing purposes: presence; empathy; wholeness; autonomy; and co-responsbility. These core principles were discussed throughout the paper and practical considerations were made.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapias Complementares/normas , Naturopatia/normas , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Terapias Complementares/ética , Empatia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Naturopatia/ética , Autonomia Pessoal
11.
Cad. naturol. terap. complem ; 6(11): 93-100, 2017.
Artigo em Português | MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-876124

RESUMO

O presente Código de Ética Profissional se aplica a todo bacharel em Naturologia atuante no Brasil e tem como objetivo apresentar os princípios éticos norteadores, além de direitos e deveres no exercício de sua profissão.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapias Complementares/ética , Brasil , Códigos de Ética , Terapias Complementares/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 51(1): 1-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26836152

RESUMO

Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), a newly proposed, actively researched, and hotly debated research-only diagnostic category, raises the prospect of an ethical dilemma: whether, and possibly how, to treat a disorder with no target symptoms. This proposed category rests on the detection of a number of biomarkers thought to provide evidence of AD pathophysiology years before any behavioral symptoms manifest. Faced with limited treatment options, patients and their relatives may come to consider complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) a viable option, albeit one with minimal supporting evidence. Accordingly, the hopes and needs of some preclinical patients and their relatives could further fuel market-oriented entrepreneurship for CAM. In this ethics review, we provide background and reflect on some ethical questions related to the roles of key stakeholders arising from the potential for CAM use in the context of a possible preclinical AD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Terapias Complementares/ética , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Análise Ética , Humanos
17.
Bioethics ; 30(2): 69-76, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26806449

RESUMO

The demand for informed consent in clinical medicine is usually justified on the basis that it promotes patient autonomy. In this article I argue that the most effective way to promote autonomy is to improve patient understanding in order to reduce the epistemic disparity between patient and medical professional. Informed consent therefore derives its moral value from its capacity to reduce inequalities of power as they derive from epistemic inequalities. So in order for a patient to have given informed consent, she must understand the treatment. I take this to mean that she has sufficient knowledge of its causal mechanisms and has accepted the explanations in which the treatment is implicated. If this interpretation of informed consent is correct, it is unethical for medical professionals to offer or endorse 'alternative medicine' treatments, for which there is no known causal mechanism, for if they do, they may end up widening the epistemic disparity. In this way, informed consent may be understood as an effective way of ruling out particular treatments in order to improve patient autonomy and maintain trust in the medical profession.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Compreensão , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Autonomia Pessoal , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Terapias Complementares/ética , Terapias Complementares/normas , Terapias Complementares/tendências , Ética Médica , Humanos , Conhecimento , Confiança
18.
Bioethics ; 30(2): 77-84, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26806450

RESUMO

Is it ethical to market complementary and alternative medicines? Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are medical products and services outside the mainstream of medical practice. But they are not just medicines (or supposed medicines) offered and provided for the prevention and treatment of illness. They are also products and services - things offered for sale in the marketplace. Most discussion of the ethics of CAM has focused on bioethical issues - issues having to do with therapeutic value, and the relationship between patients and those purveyors of CAM. This article aims instead to consider CAM from the perspective of commercial ethics. That is, we consider the ethics not of prescribing or administering CAM (activities most closely associated with health professionals) but the ethics of selling CAM.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/ética , Marketing/ética , Materia Medica , Autonomia Pessoal , Comércio/ética , Terapias Complementares/economia , Humanos , Materia Medica/provisão & distribução
19.
Bioethics ; 30(2): 85-95, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26806451

RESUMO

This article deploys a well-established theoretical model from the accountability literature to the domain of bioethics. Specifically, homeopathy is identified as a controversial industry and the strategic action of advocates to secure moral legitimacy and attract public funding is explored. The Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital (GHH) is used as the location to examine legitimizing strategies, from gaining legitimacy as a National Health Service (NHS) hospital in 1948, followed by maintaining and repairing legitimacy in response to government enquires in 2000 and 2010. An analysis of legitimizing strategies leads to the conclusion that advocates have been unsuccessful in maintaining and repairing moral legitimacy for homeopathy, thus threatening continued public funding for this unscientific medical modality. This is an encouraging development towards open and transparent NHS accountability for targeting limited public resources in pursuit of maximizing society's health and well-being. Policy implications and areas for future research are suggested.


Assuntos
Homeopatia/ética , Hospitais Especializados , Medicina Estatal , Terapias Complementares/ética , Terapias Complementares/tendências , Hospitais Especializados/economia , Hospitais Especializados/ética , Hospitais Especializados/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitais Especializados/tendências , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Legislação Médica , Princípios Morais , Escócia , Reino Unido
20.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 1(1): 38-44, ene 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-876345

RESUMO

Esta revisión tiene como objetivo articular dos disciplinas como la (bio)ética y la medicina complementaria, enfocando esta fundamentación en su carácter interdisciplinario e intercultural, tomando como principio el derecho de los ciudadanos de contar con una atención integral. En la primera sección se hace una reseña de la bioética comenzando con la distinción de algunos términos, una clasificación estratégica y los retos que tiene en la salud del siglo XXI. Seguidamente, se realiza una revisión de los principales problemas que tiene la medicina complementaria, específicamente en el tema de investigación científica y los dilemas éticos que afronta. Finalmente, se fundamenta la necesidad de que estos temas formen parte de una prioridad de la salud pública nacional enfocados en un Estado Social y se brinda algunas alternativas de solución a los problemas planteados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Bioética/história , Terapias Complementares/ética , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Saúde Pública
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