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1.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 34(6): e85-e98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new guided drill system (MIPS) for placement of bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHS) with respect to cutting performance, generation of heat, and distortion of the bone during drilling and compare it with a conventional drill system (Ponto). Further, the role of irrigation and drilling procedure with respect to the degree of heat generation was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Compact artificial bone was subjected to each drill in the two systems (conventional vs guided) while measuring thrust force, torque, and temperature. The temperature changes, induced during different drilling procedures, were measured by thermocouples positioned 0.5 mm from the periphery of the drill tract. The degree of bone damage was evaluated histologically after drilling in bovine, compact, tibial bone. RESULTS: The mean thrust energy was significantly lower for the drills of the guided system compared with the corresponding conventional drills. In contrast, the mean torque energy was higher using the guided system but only for the initial guide drilling step. Whereas twist drills in combination with a guided drilling approach (MIPS) generated relatively more heat, especially during a prolonged drilling sequence, it was more forgiving in the case of impaired irrigation. The histologic evaluation showed relatively more even cut surfaces and fewer microcracks in the osteotomy wall using the guided system compared with the conventional system. CONCLUSION: Provided the clinically recommended drilling procedure was adhered to, the absolute temperatures using either a conventional drill system or a guided drill system were below the threshold for thermally induced tissue damage. This study suggests that the guided MIPS system conveys a promising design for an efficient and still-safe osteotomy site preparation for BAHS placement.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Osteotomia , Implantação de Prótese , Animais , Bovinos , Desenho de Equipamento , Temperatura Ambiente , Termômetros
2.
J Endod ; 45(12): 1529-1534, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electrically heated pluggers are the most commonly used instruments during warm obturation techniques. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sterilization and operating temperature settings on the heat generation of pluggers of various taper sizes. METHODS: Fifty pluggers were sterilized at 132°C for 25 minutes for a total of 150 cycles. One group (Autoclave200) consisted of 25 pluggers tested at an operating temperature setting of 200°C, whereas another group (Autoclave400) consisted of 25 pluggers tested at 400°C. The heat generation at their tip surface was measured with T-type thermocouples at 0, 50, 100, and 150 autoclave cycles. An unpaired t test was used to compare the time it took the pluggers to reach 60°C and the mean maximum temperature change. RESULTS: After 50 autoclave cycles, all of the 0.04 taper pluggers in Autoclave200 failed to reach 60°C. After 100 autoclave cycles, one of the 0.10 taper pluggers in Autoclave200 did not reach 60°C, and after 150 autoclave cycles, one of the 0.04 taper pluggers failed to generate any heat. The mean increase in the time to reach 60°C ranged from 1071-4004 milliseconds and 510-2074 milliseconds for Autoclave200 and Autoclave400, respectively. The mean maximum temperature change decreased by 13-29°C and 24-116°C for Autoclave200 and Autoclave400, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: After multiple autoclave cycles and higher operating temperature use, the electrically heated pluggers transferred less heat to the tip surface, potentially making them less effective.


Assuntos
Instrumentos Odontológicos , Temperatura Alta , Obturação do Canal Radicular , Esterilização , Temperatura Ambiente , Termômetros
3.
BMC Emerg Med ; 19(1): 44, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some crucial decisions in treatment of hypothermic patients are closely linked to core body temperature. They concern modification of resuscitation algorithms and choosing the target hospital. Under- as well as over-estimation of a patient's temperature may limit his chances for survival. Only thermometers designed for core temperature measurement can serve as a guide in such decision making. The aim of the study was to assess whether ambulance teams are equipped properly to measure core temperature. METHODS: A survey study was conducted in collaboration with the Health Ministry in April 2018. Questionnaires regarding the model, number, and year of production of thermometers were sent to each pre-hospital unit of the National Emergency Medical System in Poland. RESULTS: A total of 1523 ground ambulances are equipped with 1582 thermometers. 53.57% are infrared-based ear thermometers, 23.02% are infrared-based surface thermometers, and 20.13% are conventional medical thermometers. Only 3.28% of devices are able to measure core body temperature. Most of analyzed thermometers (91.4%) are not allowed to operate in ambient temperature below 10 °C. CONCLUSIONS: There are only 3.28% of ground ambulances that are able to follow precisely international guidelines regarding a patient's core body temperature. A light, reliable thermometer designed to measure core temperature in pre-hospital conditions is needed.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias/normas , Temperatura Corporal , Hipotermia/diagnóstico , Termômetros/normas , Estudos Transversais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Hipotermia/terapia , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1081: 176-183, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446955

RESUMO

Precise description of temperature at the microscale level is essential in many biological applications. In this study, we prepared a DNA-based thermometer that reports low and high temperatures by providing two distinct optical signals. The system is a molecular beacon that carries a loop and a stem, whose conformation is subject to change from a hairpin to a random coil when the temperature changes from low to high. A fluorophore, Cy5, and a quencher, BHQ3, are terminally labeled at the stem ends. Moreover, perylene is included in the middle of the 3'-end stem. The signaling state of Cy5 relies on the relative distance to BHQ3. However, the perylene emission is regulated by its microenvironment (i.e., the oligonucleotide or duplex state). With a temperature variation, the designed thermometer undergoes a change in conformation that leads to two signal patterns with Cy5/off and perylene/on at low temperature and Cy5/on and perylene/off at high temperature. The reversibility and biocompatibility of the thermometer design were examined for potential applications in biological systems.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , DNA/química , Temperatura Alta , Termômetros , Carbocianinas/química , DNA/genética , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/química , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/genética , Concentração Osmolar , Perileno/química
5.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 285-291, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466766

RESUMO

Studies of thermal sensitivity in ectotherms require accurate measurements of body temperature using a reliable device, including in field situations. In this study, we tested the accuracy of a compact and inexpensive mini-infrared thermometer (mini-IRT, 22.3 g) at close distance (within 5 mm) for measuring skin surface temperature of small lizards or their models (painted copper bars). First, we used copper bars to assess the effect of model width on the accuracy of the measurement. We placed the heated models on a cool background, and then surface temperatures were measured with a mini-IRT for comparison with a thermogram from an infrared camera (IRC). We also assessed the accuracy of the mini-IRT for measuring skin temperature for two species of small lizards in the laboratory and in the field, in comparison with the skin surface temperature measured with the IRC and with cloacal temperature measured with a thermocouple thermometer. Our results with inanimate models show that the accuracy of the mini-IRT at a distance within 5 mm is biologically acceptable (within ±1.0 °C of the mean value obtained using a more expensive, calibrated device) when the width is ≥ 7 mm. For live lizards, we observed highly significant relationships between skin surface temperature measured with the mini-IRT and temperatures measured with the two other devices. The mean discrepancies between the mini-IRT and other devices were acceptably small for geckos but larger for the smaller and more slender skinks. Taken together, our results suggest that skin temperature measured with the mini-IRT at a close distance is acceptable for field studies on lizards with an abdominal width ≥7 mm, serving as an inexpensive proxy for core body temperature in situations where portability and affordability of equipment and minimal animal handling are paramount. Nonetheless, calibration of mini-IRTs before use is strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Lagartos/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea , Termômetros , Animais , Feminino , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino
6.
Am J Med Sci ; 358(2): 134-142, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human body temperature is believed to be linked to clinical diagnoses. However, most of the available data stems from healthy individuals, with no large-scale studies addressing body temperature in the inpatient setting, which is the focus of our study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 695,107 temperature readings from 16,245 patients hospitalized over a 1-year period at a tertiary medical center, ages 0-105 years, 50% female, with rectal, monotherm, axillary, oral, temporal and tympanic measurement sites. The average temperature (Tave) per patient and per measurement site was used in all calculations. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation were used, where appropriate, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Tave from all measurement sites was 98.13 ± 0.48(SD)F(36.74 ± 0.27°C). Tave varied by the site of measurement, in decreasing order highest-to-lowest being rectal, monotherm, axillary, oral, temporal, and tympanic, all of which were higher than the available reported averages for healthy subjects. Tave decreased as patients' age increased. There was only slight and likely clinically insignificant difference between the sexes. There were differences in Tave between the intensive care units (ICUs), listed from highest-to-lowest: Neuro ICU, Pediatric ICU, Surgical ICU, Cardiac ICU and Medical ICU. However, there was no difference between all ICU and non-ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our inpatient data demonstrate that previously identified body temperature trends among healthy subjects are preserved, to an extent, in the inpatient setting. To our knowledge, ours is the first study that evaluates the temperatures of all hospitalized patients at a large tertiary medical center.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Hospitalização , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Termometria/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Termômetros , Termometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 102: 578-588, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147030

RESUMO

An adsorbent-heater-thermometer nanomaterial, (ZIF-8,EuxTby)@AuNP, based on ZIF-8 (adsorbent), containing Eu3+ and/or Tb3+ ions (thermometer) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, heater) was designed, synthetized, characterized, and applied to controlled drug release. These composite materials were characterized as core-shell nanocrystals with the AuNPs being the core, around which the crystalline ZIF-8 has grown (shell) and onto which the lanthanide ions have been incorporated or chemosorbed. This shell of ZIF-8 acts as adsorbent of the drugs, the AuNPs act as heaters, while the luminescence intensities of the ligand and the lanthanide ions are used for temperature monitoring. This thermo-responsive material can be activated by visible irradiation to release small molecules in a controlled manner as established for the model pharmaceutical compounds 5-fluorouracil and caffeine. Computer simulations and transition state theory calculations shown that the diffusion of small molecules between neighboring pores in ZIF-8 is severely restricted and involves high-energy barriers. These findings imply that these molecules are uploaded onto and released from the ZIF-8 surface instead of being inside the cavities. This is the first report of ZIF-8 nanocrystals (adsorbents) containing simultaneously lanthanide ions as sensitive nanothermometers and AuNPs as heaters for controlled drug release in a physiological temperature range. These results provide a proof-of-concept that can be applied to other classes of materials, and offer a novel perspective on the design of self-assembly multifunctional thermo-responsive adsorbing materials that are easily prepared and promptly controllable.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Termômetros , Zeolitas/química , Adsorção , Cafeína/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Difusão , Érbio/química , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Luminescência , Temperatura Ambiente , Térbio/química , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 6532-6539, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103301

RESUMO

In times of ongoing automatization of dairy cow husbandry, objective and reliable tools for mastitis diagnostic are highly in demand. The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of a handheld dynamometer and an infrared thermometer to diagnose and score clinical and subclinical mastitis and to compare those values with results from palpation of the udder tissue. Overall, 218 cows with clinical mastitis (i.e., 46 mild, 106 moderate, and 66 severe cases), 142 with subclinical mastitis, and 68 healthy cows were enrolled. Our data provide evidence that the dynamometer is an accurate diagnostic tool to differentiate between healthy udder quarters, and those with subclinical and clinical mastitis. Furthermore, the severity score of clinical mastitis can be estimated by dynamometer. The firmness threshold for the detection of clinical mastitis was 1.002 kg. Using a threshold of 1.175 kg in clinical mastitis quarters, it was possible to differentiate between negative and positive bacteriological results. A differentiation between healthy and clinical mastitis quarters with the infrared thermometer was possible, albeit udder surface temperatures were highly influenced by ambient temperature. Udder surface temperature increased by 0.15 to 0.18°C for each degree of ambient temperature. In conclusion, the utility of an infrared thermometer to estimate the udder health status of dairy cows is limited, whereas the handheld dynamometer appeared to be an accurate and objective method.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Feminino , Raios Infravermelhos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Mastite , Mastite Bovina/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Palpação , Termômetros
9.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 42(2): 123-131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946299

RESUMO

The measurement of body temperature is an important aspect of assessment prior to invasive procedures. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of agreement between temporal artery, noncontact infrared, and disposable oral electronic thermometers to a clinical reference device (nondisposable oral electronic thermometer) in outpatients prior to an endoscopic procedure. A descriptive, method-comparison study design was used to compare 3 noninvasive thermometers with a clinical reference device. Four noninvasive temperatures were measured with 3 test devices (temporal artery with ear tap; temporal artery without ear tap; disposable oral electronic; and noncontact infrared), followed by measurement with the clinical reference device (nondisposable, oral electronic). Differences (bias) and limits of agreement (±1.96 SD) were calculated for the test devices and graphed using Bland-Altman method. Clinically acceptable levels of agreement were set at a bias of 0.54 °F or less and precision of 0.90 °F or less. A total of 25 endoscopy patients (N = 14 female; N = 11 male) were studied, with temperatures ranging from 97.5 to 98.9, averaging 98.1 ± 0.3 °F. All thermometers, with the exception of the noncontact infrared (0.66 °F), had acceptable ranges for use in clinical practices. Findings from this study support the use of both temporal artery and disposable oral electronic thermometers in afebrile outpatients but not the noncontact infrared thermometer.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Termômetros/classificação , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Análise de Variância , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 73(1): 73-77, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814003

RESUMO

Temperature is a widely known phenomenon, which plays an extremely important role in biological systems. Its behavior on the macro-scale has been quite well investigated and understood, thanks to the availability of reliable and precise thermometers such as thermocouples and infrared cameras. However, temperature measurements on the subcellular scale present an ongoing challenge due to the absence of universal nanoscale temperature sensors. Recent work on fluorescent nanodiamonds has revealed their unique ability to measure temperature with high spatial and temporal resolution, of particular importance in the intracellular environment. This review summarizes recent progress in the field and highlights the future directions for intracellular temperature sensing using fluorescent nanodiamonds.


Assuntos
Nanodiamantes , Corantes , Temperatura Ambiente , Termômetros
11.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 79(1-2): 1-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882250

RESUMO

Extensive research has been devoted to developing methods for assessing core body temperature, and to determine which method is most accurate. A number of wireless dermal thermometers for home use are presently available, but their relation to core body temperature and suitability for use in clinical research has hitherto not been assessed. The current study aimed to evaluate such thermometers by comparing them to the results of a rectal thermometer. Four wireless dermal thermometers for home use (FeverSmart, iThermonitor, Quest Temp Sitter, and Thermochron iButton) were applied to 15 patients during 24 h, and rectal temperature was measured at four occasions. Pearson correlation revealed moderate correlation for the Feversmart (r = 0.75), iThermonitor (r = 0.79), and Thermochron iButton (r = 0.71) systems. The Quest Temp Sitter system malfunctioned repeatedly, and the correlation (r = 0.29) for this method should therefore be assessed with caution. All dermal thermometers rendered lower average temperatures than Terumo c405 (Feversmart -0.70 ± 0.65 °C; iThermonitor -0.77 ± 0.53 °C, Quest Temp Sitter -1.18 ± 0.66 °C, and Thermochron iButton -0.87 ± 0.65 °C). Sensitivity of the dermal thermometers for detecting core temperatures ≥38.0 °C was low, ranging from 0.33 to 0.6, but improved to 0.60 to 0.80 after adjusting temperatures by the methods' average deviation from rectal temperature. The results from the dermal thermometers tested here showed an insufficient correlation to core temperature to be used for core temperature monitoring in clinical research and practice. Unfortunately, other options for non-invasive temperature measurements are few. The two thermometers with the least unsatisfactory performance profile in our evaluations were the Feversmart and iThermonitor systems.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Febre/diagnóstico , Termômetros/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia sem Fio/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Febre/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reto/fisiopatologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/fisiopatologia , Tecnologia sem Fio/normas
12.
Br J Nurs ; 28(6): 344-347, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925241

RESUMO

This article explains the importance of temperature monitoring observations and highlights that the procedure is a fundamental aspect of nursing care. It discusses the physiology of temperature regulation, introduces different types of temperature monitoring devices and provides a step-by-step guide on how to take a temperature using a tympanic thermometer. It emphasises the importance of evidence-based practice to underpin temperature monitoring, as well as conditions that it is important for nurses to consider when recording patients' temperatures.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Processo de Enfermagem , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Termômetros
13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(3): 350-354, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837422

RESUMO

Objective: Irrigation with saline is one of the essential methods for reducing the heat generated during dental implant osteotomy. High irrigation volume impairs visibility of the surgical field, thus complicates the surgery. In this study, we aimed to determine the optimal irrigation volume for heat reduction during dental implant drilling. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two implant osteotomies were prepared on four fresh cow ribs. Heat generated during the final implant drilling was measured both with infrared thermography and thermocouple method. Initial and maximum temperatures were measured at four different irrigation volumes; 32, 44, 56, and 68 ml/min. Results: Both measurement methods showed that the amount of temperature rise is associated with the irrigation volume during implant drilling. There is no further decrease in temperature rise above irrigation volume of 56 ml/min. Conclusion: Saline irrigation with 56 ml/min provides sufficient heat reduction during dental implant drilling and higher irrigation volumes are not necessary.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Temperatura Alta , Osteotomia/métodos , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Termografia/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Implantação Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Costelas/fisiologia , Costelas/cirurgia , Temperatura Ambiente , Termômetros
14.
Nat Protoc ; 14(4): 1293-1321, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903107

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the most important of the physiological parameters that determine the biological status of living organisms. However, intracellular temperature was not imaged at the single-cell level until recently because of the lack of a molecular thermometer that can be applied to living cells. We have recently developed a method for imaging intracellular temperature using a cationic linear fluorescent polymeric thermometer (FPT) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The cationic linear FPT exhibits cell permeability in various mammalian cell lines and yeast cells, entering live cells within 10 min of incubation. Intracellular thermometry using the cationic linear FPT and FLIM can be used to image temperature with high temperature resolution (0.3-1.29 °C within a temperature range of 25-35 °C). The diffuse intracellular localization of the cationic linear FPT allows a high spatial resolution (i.e., the light microscope's diffraction limit, 200 nm), enabling the detection of temperature distributions at the subcellular level. This protocol, including the construction of a calibration curve and intracellular temperature imaging, requires ~14 h. Experience in handling cultured mammalian cells and use of a confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) is required.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem Óptica/estatística & dados numéricos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Células COS , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Células NIH 3T3 , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Ambiente , Termômetros , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/métodos
15.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 38: 10-13, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901685

RESUMO

The paper presents a continuation of the studies on time of death (TOD) estimation based on post-mortem temperature measurements in the human eyeball. In the current study, single (in 20 patients) or double (within a 1-hour interval in 10 patients) eyeball and rectal temperature measurements were taken in patients who died in the University Hospital Intensive Therapy Unit. The actual TOD in each patient was exactly known and the body temperature was recorded shortly after (between 50 min and 3 h 30 min). The temperature was measured using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer. The measured eye temperatures ranged from 27.4 to 33.7°C. The ambient temperature in all cases was stable (22 °C), which corresponded to the usual room temperature. Post mortem interval (PMI) was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously successfully applied in comprehensive studies on pigs and recent studies on human bodies. Thanks to knowledge of the exact TOD and the stable ambient temperature, the current study on 30 new cases allowed the method to be improved by adjusting the mean value of the cooling constant and the initial eye temperature in comparison to recent studies.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Olho , Medicina Legal/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Tempo , Animais , Humanos , Reto/fisiologia , Suínos , Temperatura Ambiente , Termômetros , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 58(6): 677-680, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873862

RESUMO

A 21-question survey was conducted among parents attending 4 pediatric outpatient practices to assess their knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes about fever. One hundred and ninety-seven surveys were included. Most commonly the participating parent was the mother. Parents used mainly axillary thermometers to measure child's temperature and mentioned integers for their definition of fever, 100°F being the most frequent answer. Most parents would treat all fevers and would use alternating antipyretics. Parents had a generally negative perception of fever: only one third thought fever may have some benefit, and more than half thought there must be some risk. A positive perception of fever was associated with parental educational level but not with information by the pediatrician. There is much confusion about fever among our parents, a negative perception is prevalent, and parents seem to receive-or recall-little information from the pediatrician.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos/administração & dosagem , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/educação , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Louisiana , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Termômetros/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(8): 1647-1657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707268

RESUMO

In this paper, we have presented a facile method to fabricate nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (N,S-CDs) for blood methotrexate (MTX) sensing applications. The N,S-CDs with quantum yield up to 75% were obtained by one-step hydrothermal carbonization, using reduced glutathione and citric acid as the precursors. With this approach, the formation and the surface passivation of N,S-CDs were carried out simultaneously, resulting in intrinsic fluorescence emission. Owing to their pronounced temperature dependence of the fluorescence emission spectra, resultant N,S-CDs can work as versatile nanothermometry devices by taking advantage of the temperature sensitivity of their emission intensity. In addition, the obtained N,S-CDs facilitated high selectivity detection of Fe3+ ions with a detection limit as low as 0.31 µM and a wide linear range from 3.33 to 99.90 µM. More importantly, the added MTX selectively led to the fluorescence quenching of the N,S-CDs. Such fluorescence responses were used for well quantifying MTX in the range of 2.93 to 117.40 µM, and the detection limit was down to 0.95 µM. Due to "inert" surface, the N,S-CDs well resisted the interferences from various biomolecules and exhibited excellent selectivity. The proposed sensing system was successfully used for the assay of MTX in human plasma. Due to simplicity, sensitivity, selectivity, and low cost, it exhibits great promise as a practical platform for MTX sensing in biological samples. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/sangue , Carbono/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ferro/análise , Metotrexato/sangue , Nitrogênio/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Enxofre/química , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Fluorescência , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Temperatura Ambiente , Termômetros
18.
Food Res Int ; 116: 499-507, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716974

RESUMO

Oral temperature, tongue specifically, is a key factor affecting oral sensation and perception of food flavour and texture. It is therefore very important to know how the tongue temperature is affected by food consumption. Unfortunately, traditional methods such as clinical thermometers and thermocouples for oral temperature measurement are not most applicable during food oral consumption due to its invasive nature and interference with food. In this study, infrared thermal (IRT) imager was investigated for its feasibility for the measurement of tongue surface temperature. The IRT technique was firstly calibrated using a digital thermometer (DT). The technique was then used to measure tongue surface temperature after tongue was stimulated by (1) water rinsing at different temperatures (0-45 °C); and (2) treated with capsaicin solutions (5, 10, and 20 ppm). For both cases, tongue surface temperature showed significant changes as a result of the physical and chemical stimulation. Results confirm that IRT is feasible for tongue temperature measurement and could be a useful supporting tool in future for the study of food oral processing and sensory perception.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Ambiente , Língua , Adulto , Calibragem , Capsaicina , Diagnóstico Bucal/instrumentação , Diagnóstico Bucal/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Paladar/fisiologia , Termômetros , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Food Prot ; 82(1): 128-150, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702936

RESUMO

Temperature control prevents the rapid growth of foodborne pathogens during food storage and assures adequate heating to destroy pathogens prior to consumption. The use of thermometers is a recognized best practice among consumer and food worker guidelines; however, compliance with this recommendation is quite low. Eighty-five studies from the past 21 years were reviewed and an analyzed for the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with thermometer use and the motivators and barriers to cooking and refrigerator thermometer use among consumers and food workers. Barriers to thermometer were categorized into two major groups: "the belief that a thermometer is not necessary" and "the difficulty of selecting and using a thermometer." Each group has its unique aspects. Four barriers were recognized in the "not necessary" group: (i) preference for alternative techniques, (ii) mainstream media and food professionals seldom serve as role models and often negate the need for food thermometers, (iii) limited awareness of potential health issues associated with current practices, and (iv) limited knowledge and awareness related to thermometer usage for specific food groups. Six barriers were recognized in the "difficult to select and use" group: (i) difficulties in selecting the type of food thermometers, (ii) availability of food thermometers, (iii) lack of skills related to the usage of food thermometers, (iv) limited knowledge related to endpoint temperatures, (v) inability to calibrate food thermometers, and (vi) lack of knowledge about food thermometer cleaning and sanitation. These findings will facilitate the development and adoption of effective strategies to increase thermometer use and increase food safety education efficacy with a positive impact on public health.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Termômetros , Culinária , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Refrigeração
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