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2.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2937-2942, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347169

RESUMO

The genus Gyrovirus was assigned to the family Anelloviridae in 2017 with only one recognized species, Chicken anemia virus. Over the last decade, many diverse viruses related to chicken anemia virus have been identified but not classified. Here, we provide a framework for the classification of new species in the genus Gyrovirus and communicate the establishment of nine new species. We adopted the 'Genus + freeform epithet' binomial system for the naming of these species.


Assuntos
Gyrovirus/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Anelloviridae/classificação , Anelloviridae/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/classificação , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma Viral/genética , Gyrovirus/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2943-2953, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383165

RESUMO

Anelloviruses are small negative-sense single-stranded DNA viruses with genomes ranging in size from 1.6 to 3.9 kb. The family Anelloviridae comprised 14 genera before the present changes. However, in the last five years, a large number of diverse anelloviruses have been identified in various organisms. Here, we undertake a global analysis of mammalian anelloviruses whose full genome sequences have been determined and have an intact open reading frame 1 (ORF1). We established new criteria for the classification of anelloviruses, and, based on our analyses, we establish new genera and species to accommodate the unclassified anelloviruses. We also note that based on the updated species demarcation criteria, some previously assigned species (n = 10) merge with other species. Given the rate at which virus sequence data are accumulating, and with the identification of diverse anelloviruses, we acknowledge that the taxonomy will have to be dynamic and continuously evolve to accommodate new members.


Assuntos
Anelloviridae/classificação , Mamíferos/virologia , Anelloviridae/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Viral/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma Viral/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto
4.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst ; 32(9): 3786-3797, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370672

RESUMO

Medical imaging technologies, including computed tomography (CT) or chest X-Ray (CXR), are largely employed to facilitate the diagnosis of the COVID-19. Since manual report writing is usually too time-consuming, a more intelligent auxiliary medical system that could generate medical reports automatically and immediately is urgently needed. In this article, we propose to use the medical visual language BERT (Medical-VLBERT) model to identify the abnormality on the COVID-19 scans and generate the medical report automatically based on the detected lesion regions. To produce more accurate medical reports and minimize the visual-and-linguistic differences, this model adopts an alternate learning strategy with two procedures that are knowledge pretraining and transferring. To be more precise, the knowledge pretraining procedure is to memorize the knowledge from medical texts, while the transferring procedure is to utilize the acquired knowledge for professional medical sentences generations through observations of medical images. In practice, for automatic medical report generation on the COVID-19 cases, we constructed a dataset of 368 medical findings in Chinese and 1104 chest CT scans from The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, and The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China. Besides, to alleviate the insufficiency of the COVID-19 training samples, our model was first trained on the large-scale Chinese CX-CHR dataset and then transferred to the COVID-19 CT dataset for further fine-tuning. The experimental results showed that Medical-VLBERT achieved state-of-the-art performances on terminology prediction and report generation with the Chinese COVID-19 CT dataset and the CX-CHR dataset. The Chinese COVID-19 CT dataset is available at https://covid19ct.github.io/.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , China , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Terminologia como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Transferência de Experiência , Redação
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342563

RESUMO

Following the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes electronic discussion and vote on proposals to resolve the status of the Cyanobacteria in the prokaryotic nomenclature, we announce here the results of the ballot. We also present the emended versions of General Consideration 5 and Rules 18a, 24a and 30, based on the outcome of the ballot, to be included in the new revision of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Filogenia , Cianobactérias/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto
7.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 32(5): 468-474, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397577

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature regarding reactivation of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) after treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Reactivation can occur after anti-VEGF or laser. Risk factors for reactivation include patient and disease-related factors. Various studies are evaluating the use of different anti-VEGF agents and reactivation rates. However, the definition of reactivation varies between studies. SUMMARY: The literature has varied definitions of reactivation, which is often used interchangeably with recurrence. It is important to recognize features of reactivation of ROP to appropriately manage patients and conduct clinical trials. The International Classification of ROP 3rd edition has established a consensus guideline regarding terminology describing reactivation.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/induzido quimicamente , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Crescimento Endotelial/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Injeções Intravítreas/efeitos adversos , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Recidiva , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/tratamento farmacológico , Terminologia como Assunto
10.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2911-2926, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331585

RESUMO

The family Genomoviridae (phylum Cressdnaviricota, class Repensiviricetes, order Geplafuvirales) includes viruses with circular single-stranded DNA genomes encoding two proteins, the capsid protein and the rolling-circle replication initiation protein. The genomes of the vast majority of members in this family have been sequenced directly from diverse environmental or animal- and plant-associated samples, but two genomoviruses have been identified infecting fungi. Since the last taxonomic update of the Genomoviridae, a number of new members of this family have been sequenced. Here, we report on the most recent taxonomic update, including the creation of one new genus, Gemytripvirus, and classification of ~420 new genomoviruses into 164 new species. We also announce the adoption of the "Genus + freeform epithet" binomial system for the naming of all 236 officially recognized species in the family Genomoviridae. The updated taxonomy presented in this article has been accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA/classificação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/fisiologia , DNA Circular , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Genoma Viral/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto , Proteínas Virais/genética
11.
Virchows Arch ; 479(2): 233-246, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255145

RESUMO

The term "biobanking" is often misapplied to any collection of human biological materials (biospecimens) regardless of requirements related to ethical and legal issues or the standardization of different processes involved in tissue collection. A proper definition of biobanks is large collections of biospecimens linked to relevant personal and health information (health records, family history, lifestyle, genetic information) that are held predominantly for use in health and medical research. In addition, the International Organization for Standardization, in illustrating the requirements for biobanking (ISO 20387:2018), stresses the concept of biobanks being legal entities driving the process of acquisition and storage together with some or all of the activities related to collection, preparation, preservation, testing, analysing and distributing defined biological material as well as related information and data. In this review article, we aim to discuss the basic principles of biobanking, spanning from definitions to classification systems, standardization processes and documents, sustainability and ethical and legal requirements. We also deal with emerging specimens that are currently being generated and shaping the so-called next-generation biobanking, and we provide pragmatic examples of cancer-associated biobanking by discussing the process behind the construction of a biobank and the infrastructures supporting the implementation of biobanking in scientific research.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Medicina de Precisão , Manejo de Espécimes , Acreditação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/classificação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/ética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/classificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Medicina de Precisão/classificação , Medicina de Precisão/ética , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/classificação , Manejo de Espécimes/ética , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Participação dos Interessados , Terminologia como Assunto
12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(27): 6305-6312, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261324

RESUMO

Spin relaxation is one of the most fundamental concepts in magnetic resonance and is one of the key NMR "observables" providing critical motional information in chemical systems and, by extension, diagnostic information in clinical imaging. Yet, it can be difficult to find accurate conceptual descriptions of the two relaxation processes-longitudinal and transverse-in the NMR or MRI literature that explain why these processes are also referred to as "spin-lattice" and "spin-spin" relaxation, respectively. Often, the explanations provided in terms of energy levels, energy exchange, and the loss of phase coherence are inaccurate oversimplifications of quantum mechanical concepts and are thus incomplete and, at times, even contradictory. In fact, various texts still follow the terminology proposed >7 decades ago largely based on the theory of NMR in solids, even though it is clearly inadequate in the case of solution-state NMR. Here, we present the fundamental and quantum mechanical explanations of both relaxation processes in simple terms while clarifying and discussing the potential origins of some common confusions, nuances in the terminology, and seemingly contradictory definitions and explanations in the literature. Considering the issues with the old and inaccurate terminology, the consistent use of an alternate and more generally applicable terminology is proposed.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Terminologia como Assunto
13.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(3): 781-797, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304894

RESUMO

This International evidence-based nomenclature and classification consensus on the congenital bicuspid aortic valve and its aortopathy recognizes 3 types of bicuspid aortic valve: 1. Fused type, with 3 phenotypes: right-left cusp fusion, right-non cusp fusion and left-non cusp fusion; 2. 2-sinus type with 2 phenotypes: Latero-lateral and antero-posterior; and 3. Partial-fusion or forme fruste. This consensus recognizes 3 bicuspid-aortopathy types: 1. Ascending phenotype; root phenotype; and 3. extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Aorta , Doenças da Aorta/classificação , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aortografia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
14.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(3): e383-e414, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304896

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes.


Assuntos
Aorta , Doenças da Aorta/classificação , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aortografia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/cirurgia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Consenso , Humanos , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
15.
Ann Ital Chir ; 92: 330-331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312332

RESUMO

Thyroid cytopathology, a dynamic discipline, is a crucial prerequisite diagnostic modality of the thy roid nodules after an interventional procedure, fine-needle aspiration (FNA), distinguish ing benign from malignant thyroid lesions with high sensitivity and specificity, 65-8% (mean, 83%), 72-100% (mean, 92%), respectively.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Terminologia como Assunto , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203956

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of particles/vesicles present in blood and body fluids, composed of phospholipid bilayers that carry a variety of molecules that can mediate cell communication, modulating crucial cell processes such as homeostasis, induction/dampening of inflammation, and promotion of repair. Their existence, initially suspected in 1946 and confirmed in 1967, spurred a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications. Paradoxically, the increasing interest for EV content and function progressively reduced the relevance for a precise nomenclature in classifying EVs, therefore leading to a confusing scientific production. The aim of this review was to analyze the evolution of the progress in the knowledge and definition of EVs over the years, with an overview of the methodologies used for the identification of the vesicles, their cell of origin, and the detection of their cargo. The MISEV 2018 guidelines for the proper recognition nomenclature and ways to study EVs are summarized. The review finishes with a "more questions than answers" chapter, in which some of the problems we still face to fully understand the EV function and potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool are analyzed.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Terminologia como Assunto
18.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326990

RESUMO

Background: Researchers use different definitions to identify children with asthma in epidemiological surveys. We conducted a systematic review to describe the definitions used in epidemiologic studies for wheeze and asthma in the paediatric population, aimed to inform the development of a uniform definition of paediatric asthma for future epidemiological research. Methods: We systematically searched terms to identify asthma and/or wheeze among children aged <13 years and published between 1995-2020 across seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, AMED, LILACS and CINAHL). PRISMA guidelines were followed for this review. Results: We extracted a total of 11 886 records, where 190 met our eligibility criteria and included in the analysis. Among the included studies, 62.1% (n = 118/190) used the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires, predominantly in developing countries (80%, n = 64/80). 'Wheeze' was reported in five categories, subdivided by 14 different definitions. "Current wheeze", defined as caregivers report of wheezing sounds from the chest of the child in the past 12 months and "Wheeze ever", defined as caregivers' report of wheezing or whistling in the chest of the child at any previous time, were the most common wheeze category reported in 129 and 95 studies, respectively. Asthma was reported in nine categories using 53 definitions. The most common asthma category was "Asthma ever", which was reported in 89 studies, based on caregiver statement that the child had asthma in the past. Conclusion: Definitions of wheeze and asthma for children used in surveys are primarily based on parent-reported clinical features. Studies from developing countries more frequently used the ISAAC definitions to report childhood asthma and wheeze compared to the studies from developed counties. The use of a uniform asthma definition will aid the interpretation of research findings globally.


Assuntos
Asma , Terminologia como Assunto , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 88, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244885

RESUMO

Rediscoveries are not rare in biology. A recent example is the re-birth of the "fluctuation fit" concept developed by F. B. Straub and G. Szabolcsi in the sixties of the last century, under various names, the most popular of which is the "conformational selection". This theory offers an alternative to the "induced fit" concept by Koshland for the interpretation of the mechanism of protein-ligand interactions. A central question is whether the ligand induces a conformational change (as described by the induced fit model) or rather selects and stabilizes a complementary conformation from a pre-existing equilibrium of various states of the protein (according to the fluctuation fit/conformational selection model). Straub and Szabolcsi's role and the factors hindering the spread of the fluctuation fit theory are discussed in the context of the history of the Hungarian biology in the 1950s and 1960s.


Assuntos
Bioquímica/história , Ligantes , Proteínas/química , Terminologia como Assunto , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
20.
Yale J Biol Med ; 94(2): 375-378, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211356

RESUMO

The naming of pathogens and their associated syndromes is a thorny process which unfolds in a complex geopolitical environment. This brief piece offers perspective on the multitude of forces that shape the name of a pathogen and summarizes the story of Sin Nombre Virus, with some reference to the ongoing saga of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A monopoly on names and circulating monikers rarely exists, and certain communities become disproportionately impacted by misunderstandings or stigmatization. By acknowledging these processes, we can better serve as allies to affected communities dealing with both pandemic and prejudice.


Assuntos
Terminologia como Assunto , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Vírus Sin Nombre/fisiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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