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1.
Radiologe ; 60(1): 6-14, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915840

RESUMO

METHODICAL ISSUE: Machine learning (ML) algorithms have an increasingly relevant role in radiology tackling tasks such as the automatic detection and segmentation of diagnosis-relevant markers, the quantification of progression and response, and their prediction in individual patients. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: ML algorithms are relevant for all image acquisition techniques from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ultrasound. However, different modalities result in different challenges with respect to standardization and variability. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: ML algorithms are increasingly able to analyze longitudinal data for the training of prediction models. This is relevant since it enables the use of comprehensive information for predicting individual progression and response, and the associated support of treatment decisions by ML models. PERFORMANCE: The quality of detection and segmentation algorithms of lesions has reached an acceptable level in several areas. The accuracy of prediction models is still increasing, but is dependent on the availability of representative training data. ACHIEVEMENTS: The development of ML algorithms in radiology is progressing although many solutions are still at a validation stage. It is accompanied by a parallel and increasingly interlinked development of basic methods and techniques which will gradually be put into practice in radiology. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Two factors will impact the relevance of ML in radiological practice: the thorough validation of algorithms and solutions, and the creation of representative diverse data for the training and validation in a realistic context.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Radiologia , Algoritmos , Humanos , Terminologia como Assunto
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 793-797, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980941

RESUMO

Enteroviruses (EVs) and rhinoviruses (RVs) are significant pathogens of humans and are the subject of intensive clinical and epidemiological research and public health measures, notably in the eradication of poliovirus and in the investigation and control of emerging pathogenic EV types worldwide. EVs and RVs are highly diverse in their antigenic properties, tissue tropism, disease associations and evolutionary relationships, but the latter often conflict with previously developed biologically defined terms, such as "coxsackieviruses", "polioviruses" and "echoviruses", which were used before their genetic interrelationships were understood. This has created widespread formatting problems and inconsistencies in the nomenclature for EV and RV types and species in the literature and public databases. As members of the International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Picornaviridae Study Group, we describe the correct use of taxon names for these viruses and have produced a series of recommendations for the nomenclature of EV and RV types and their abbreviations. We believe their adoption will promote greater clarity and consistency in the terminology used in the scientific and medical literature. The recommendations will additionally provide a useful reference guide for journals, other publications and public databases seeking to use standardised terms for the growing multitude of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses described worldwide.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/classificação , Rhinovirus/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos
3.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 576-584, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrate that social media are used by plastic surgeons to educate and engage. The hashtag #PlasticSurgery has been studied previously and is embraced by American plastic surgeons and journals; however, no studies have examined its use or adoption across Europe. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 800 tweets containing the words "plastic surgery" or the hashtag #PlasticSurgery in four of the most spoken European languages worldwide excluding English (Spanish, #CirugiaPlastica; French, #ChirurgiePlastique; Portuguese, #CirurgiaPlastica; and German, #PlastischeChirurgie) was performed. The following were assessed: identity of author, subject matter, use of the hashtag #PlasticSurgery in each language, whether posts by surgeons and academic institutions were self-promotional or educational, and whether a link to a journal article or a reference in PubMed was provided. RESULTS: Seventeen percent and 3 percent of analyzed tweets came from plastic surgeons or academic institutions, respectively; only 17.5 percent of them were for educational purpose. None of them had any digital link to a peer-reviewed article or a scientific journal. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the low participation of plastic surgeons and academic institutions in social media (especially for education) in four of the major world languages. Social media should be considered in Europe as an opportunity to increase leadership, improve education, and spread knowledge of plastic surgery by board-certified plastic surgeons.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Liderança , Cirurgia Plástica/educação , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Linguagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Terminologia como Assunto
4.
Int Endod J ; 53(2): 232-249, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520403

RESUMO

A systematic review aims to answer a focussed research question through a structured review of the evidence, using a predefined methodology, which often includes a meta-analysis. A meta-analysis is a statistical method used to combine the effect estimates from the individual studies included in a systematic review. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are positioned at the highest level in the hierarchy of clinical evidence. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was introduced in 2009 to help authors improve the quality and reliability of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Recently, the volume of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the field of Endodontology has increased; however, the quality of the published manuscripts has been reported to be sub-optimal, which does not take account of the systematic reviews that were rejected because of more obvious deficiencies. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive glossary of terminology commonly used in systematic reviews and meta-analyses in an attempt to provide easily understood definitions and explanations to assist authors when reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses and to allow those wishing to read them to become better informed.


Assuntos
Metanálise como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Terminologia como Assunto , Endodontia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 17(1): 9-21, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358978

RESUMO

Patients with known cardiovascular disease who have not had a recent acute event are often referred to as having stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The concept of 'stable' CAD is misleading for two important reasons: the continuing risks of cardiovascular events over the longer term and the diverse spectrum of powerful risk characteristics. The risks of cardiovascular events are frequently underestimated and continue to exist, despite current standards of care for secondary prevention, including lifestyle changes, optimal medical therapy, myocardial revascularization and the use of antiplatelet agents to limit thrombosis. In dispelling the myth of 'stable' CAD, we explore the pathophysiology of the disease and the relative contribution of plaque and systemic factors to cardiovascular events. A broader concept of the vulnerable patient, not just the vulnerable plaque, takes into account the diversity and future risks of atherothrombotic events. We also evaluate new and ongoing research into medical therapies aimed at further reducing the risks of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic - but not stable - atherothrombotic disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Arch Ital Biol ; 157(2-3): 76-88, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821531

RESUMO

Ultrastructural evaluation of myelin coat helps to understand the possible background of pathological changes leading to deterioration or complete loss of nerve functions. A number of terms were previously introduced to describe the fine structural changes in myelin under various conditions. We believe that using a common terminology will be helpful to interpret the structure/function relationship in neurological disorders empowering the diagnosis and possible therapeutical approaches. In this paper, we present examples of ultrastructural changes in myelin during myelination, demyelination, re-myelination and dysmyelination processes and we reviewed the terminology previously used.We tried to include all studies reporting ultrastructural findings with no limitation to the experimental conditions, the species used and the disorders. The terminology used to describe the structural findings included compacted myelin, partially compacted myelin, noncompacted myelin, redundancy (hypermyelination, tomacula, myelinosome), splitting, complete circular splitting, myelin degradation, concentric lamellar bodies (myelin figures), loss of myelin lamellae, polyaxonal Schwann cells and necrotic cell debris.Ultrastructural data described in this paper aimed to provide a guide for future studies. We concluded that the evaluation of ultrastructural changes in any neurological disorder is greatly valuable for a better understanding of pathological and physiological changes occured. We also believe that supporting the ultrastructural findings with quantitative methods in the future will be of great value.


Assuntos
Bainha de Mielina , Células de Schwann , Terminologia como Assunto
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 29, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823019

RESUMO

Industrial parks, which are characterized as a group of industrial businesses designed to meet the concomitant demands of different organizations within an area, have played an important role in the national development strategies of many countries. Industrial parks have received increasingly more attention over time. Nevertheless, few scholars have visually analyzed global scientific data. This paper quantitatively and visually examines global academic research papers on industrial parks from 1987 to 2016 by using a bibliometric analysis. A total of 1823 papers from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index databases were analyzed. The distributions of authorship, keywords, countries/territories, and institutes were generated. According to data from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index databases, the top five most productive authors (i.e., Geng Y. with 22 articles, Fujita T. with 17, El-Halwagi M.M. with 15, Zhang Y. with 14, and Tan R.R. with 12) have contributed significantly to industrial park research. Papers on industrial park research have mainly been from China, the USA, and Taiwan. The dominant keywords from industrial park research from 1987 to 2016 are "China", "system", "heavy metal", and "eco-industrial park". These keywords will be the hot topics in industrial park research in the future. The research findings can provide a reference for understanding the research development process and trends in analyses in the field of industrial parks.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/tendências , Terminologia como Assunto
10.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(6): 10-13, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825325

RESUMO

The work was devoted to the definition of a mechanical injury in the forensic medical literature. The study of the forensic medical terminology is important because of the absence of a uniform understanding of such terms as 'injury', 'wound', 'wound canal', and 'wounding' by different authors. Different approaches of authors towards the definition of terms and concepts cause confusion in the scientific knowledge, thus breaking its orderliness and continuity. The authors of the present article invite specialists to discuss some definitions referring to a mechanical injury.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Terminologia como Assunto
12.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 22(4): 100628, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864528

RESUMO

Ongoing discovery regarding the origin and treatment of vascular anomalies requires standardized nomenclature which itself must undergo iterative updating. This article introduces the 2018 International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification, emphasizing the biologic basis of vascular anomalies, summarizing the key features of commonly encountered entities, and serving as a foundation for subsequent articles presented herein. Vascular tumors are discussed to highlight their distinction from vascular malformations which will receive greater attention with respect to management and technical considerations within the issue.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular/classificação , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiologistas , Terminologia como Assunto , Malformações Vasculares/classificação , Malformações Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Malformações Vasculares/terapia
14.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 57, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768774

RESUMO

Translational research is a buzzword which dominates discussions about the quality, the utilization, and the benefits of (bio)medical research. Yet, although translational research has become a prominent topic, no commonly agreed definition of this terminology exists. Instead, experts from different contexts such as biomedical research, clinical practice or nursing discuss translational research in multiple ways depending on how they define the problem that translational research is supposed to be the solution to. In this paper, we do not seek to find a 'correct' definition of translational research, but instead ask how actors using this terminology for describing their own research make sense of it. To do so, we asked three questions: Which actors are engaged in the debate about translational research? What kind of different meanings of translational research exist? And, which actors refer to which meaning of translational research when using the term? In answering these questions, we highlight the role this terminology plays in defining what medical science is about today.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Humanos , Terminologia como Assunto
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 55, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749015

RESUMO

This article elaborates on McShea and Brandon's idea that drift is unlike the rest of the evolutionary factors because it is constitutive rather than imposed on the evolutionary process. I show that the way they spelled out this idea renders it inadequate and is the reason why it received some (good) objections. I propose a different way in which their point could be understood, that rests on two general distinctions. The first is a distinction between the underlying mathematical apparatus used to formulate a theory and a concept proposed by that theory. With the aid of a formal reconstruction of a population genetic model, I show that drift belongs to the first category. That is, that drift is constitutive of population genetics in the same sense that multiplication is constitutive in classical mechanics, or that circle is constitutive in Ptolemaic astronomy. The second distinction is between eliminating a concept from a theory and setting its value to zero. I will show that even though drift can be set to zero just like the rest of the evolutionary factors (as others have noted in their criticism of McShea and Brandon), eliminating drift is much harder than eliminating those other factors, since it would require changing the entire mathematical apparatus of standard population genetic theory. I conclude by drawing some other implications from the proposed formal reconstruction.


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética , Terminologia como Assunto
16.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 98(5): 104-107, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701938

RESUMO

The paper contains some measures of optimization of dental (mostly implantological) terminology. The goal of the research was to validate the rational use of modern international dental implantological lexicon. A critical analysis of Russian national analogues was conducted to achieve this goal. Analytical-theoretical and empirical research methods were used.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos , Federação Russa
17.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(9): 579-585, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185934

RESUMO

Presentamos la evolución de la terminología y los criterios diagnósticos para el síndrome de fatiga crónica/encefalomielitis miálgica. Este síndrome es una entidad compleja y controvertida, de etiología desconocida, que aparece en la literatura médica en 1988, si bien desde el siglo XIX se identificaron cuadros clínicos de fatiga crónica idiopática con diferentes nombres, desde neurastenia, neuromiastenia epidémica y encefalomielitis miálgica benigna hasta la actual propuesta de enfermedad de intolerancia al esfuerzo (postesfuerzo). Todos ellos aluden a un estado crónico de fatiga generalizada de naturaleza desconocida, con limitaciones al esfuerzo físico y mental, acompañado de un conjunto de síntomas que comprometen diversos sistemas orgánicos. La Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-10) encuadra este síndrome en el apartado de trastornos neurológicos (G93.3), aunque todavía no se hayan encontrado hallazgos anatomopatológicos que lo clarifiquen. Se han documentado múltiples alteraciones orgánicas, pero no se ha establecido una biología común que aclare los mecanismos que subyacen a esta dolencia. Se enuncia como una disfunción neuroinmunoendocrina, con un diagnóstico exclusivamente clínico y por exclusión. Diversos autores han propuesto incluir el síndrome de fatiga crónica/encefalomielitis miálgica dentro de los síndromes de sensibilidad central, aludiendo a la sensibilización central como el sustrato fisiopatológico común para este síndrome y otros. El papel del médico de familia es clave en la enfermedad, para la detección de aquellos pacientes que presenten una fatiga de naturaleza desconocida que se prolonga de forma continua o intermitente durante más de 6 meses, al objeto de realizar un diagnóstico temprano y establecer un plan de actuación frente a una enfermedad crónica con unos altos niveles de morbilidad en la esfera física y mental. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica de la terminología y criterios diagnósticos del síndrome de fatiga crónica/encefalomielitis miálgica, al objeto de aclarar conceptualmente la enfermedad, como utilidad en el diagnóstico a los médicos de Atención Primaria


Changes in the terminology and diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis are explained in this paper. This syndrome is a complex and controversial entity of unknown origins. It appears in the medical literature in 1988, although clinical pictures of chronic idiopathic fatigue have been identified since the nineteenth century with different names, from neurasthenia, epidemic neuromyasthenia, and benign myalgic encephalomyelitis up to the current proposal of disease of intolerance to effort (post-effort). All of them allude to a chronic state of generalised fatigue of unknown origin, with limitations to physical and mental effort, accompanied by a set of symptoms that compromise diverse organic systems. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) places this syndrome in the section on neurological disorders (G93.3), although histopathological findings have not yet been found to clarify it. Multiple organic alterations have been documented, but a common biology that clarifies the mechanisms underlying this disease has not been established. It is defined as a neuro-immune-endocrine dysfunction, with an exclusively clinical diagnosis and by exclusion. Several authors have proposed to include CFS/ME within central sensitivity syndromes, alluding to central sensitisation as the common pathophysiological substrate for this, and other syndromes. The role of the family doctor is a key figure in the disease, from the detection of those patients who present a fatigue of unknown nature that is continuous or intermittent for more than 6 months, in order to make an early diagnosis and establish a plan of action against a chronic disease with high levels of morbidity in the physical and mental sphere. Objective: To carry out a bibliographic review of the terminology and diagnostic criteria of the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, in order to clarify the pathology conceptually, as a usefulness in the diagnosis of Primary Care physicians


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , Neurastenia/epidemiologia , Neurastenia/história , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Encefalomielite/diagnóstico , Terminologia como Assunto , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/epidemiologia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/história , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/história , Diagnóstico Precoce
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(12): 3967-3968, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665099

RESUMO

A recent publication has documented the fact that when the nomenclatural types of the genera Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018 [Hungateiclostridium thermocellum (Viljoen et al. 1926) Zhang et al. 2018], Acetivibrio Patel et al. 1980 (Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Patel et al. 1980) and Herbivorax Koeck et al. 2016 (Herbivorax saccincola Koeck et al. 2016) are treated as being members of the same genus, i.e. Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018, Acetivibrio Patel et al. 1980 and Herbivorax Koeck et al. 2016 are treated as heterotypic synonyms, the name at the rank of genus to be used is Acetivibrio Patel et al. 1980 and Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018 is an illegitimate name. In a previous publication this led to the replacement of the genus name Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018 in the combinations Hungateiclostridium aldrichii (Yang et al. 1990) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium alkalicellulosi (Zhilina et al. 2006) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium clariflavum (Shiratori et al. 2009) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium straminisolvens (Kato et al. 2004) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium saccincola (Koeck et al. 2016) Zhang et al. 2018, Hungateiclostridium cellulolyticus (Patel et al. 1980) Zhang et al. 2018 and Hungateiclostridium thermocellum (Viljoen et al. 1926) Zhang et al. 2018. Given the fact that the name Hungateiclostridium Zhang et al. 2018 is illegitimate, Hungateiclostridium mesophilum Rettenmaier et al. 2019 must follow the same fate as other members of the genus and the illegitimate genus name replaced by the genus name Acetivibrio Patel et al. 1980, creating the combination Acetivibrio mesophilus (Rettenmaier et al. 2019).


Assuntos
Clostridiaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto
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