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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 36, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593276

RESUMO

Characterizing the integrity of ground anchors is essential for examining their usability in the maintenance of soil structure. However, the lift-off test, which is generally used for this purpose, has limitations when applied to covering all installed ground anchors. The objective of this study is to assess the possibility of using infrared thermography to measure the residual stress in ground anchors as a noncontact technique that bypasses the disadvantages associated with existing techniques. A preliminary experiment is performed to determine the exact emissivity of the tested materials. Both passive and active methods, as representative techniques in infrared thermography, are applied. In the large-scale experiment, infrared images of four installed strands with growing stress in the range of 0-400 kPa at 100 kPa intervals are used in the passive method of measurement. For the active method, these same stress ranges are applied to a heated anchor head using a UTM machine. The results of the passive method show that the temperature increased and decreased according to load and unload steps. Values for the cooling rate index are deduced through the active method results, and reliable behavior are observed at 10 and 15 min. The number of pixels with huge temperature changes also changed with the loading step in both passive and active methods. This study demonstrates that infrared thermography is a suitable alternative method for assessing the residual stress in ground anchors as a type of noncontact technique.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Termografia , Termografia/métodos , Temperatura , Temperatura Alta , Solo , Raios Infravermelhos
2.
Artif Intell Med ; 135: 102474, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628786

RESUMO

Many biomedical applications require fine motor skill assessments; however, real-time and contactless fine motor skill assessments are not typically implemented. In this study, we followed the 2D-to-3D pipeline principle and proposed a transformer-based spatial-temporal network to accurately regress 3D hand joint locations by inputting infrared thermal video for eliminating need of multiple cameras or RGB-D devices. We also developed a dataset composed of infrared thermal videos and ground truth annotations for training. The label represents a set of 3D joint locations from infrared optical trackers, which is considered the gold standard for clinical applications. To demonstrate their potential, the proposed method was used to measure the finger motion angle, and we investigated its accuracy by comparing the proposal with the Azure Kinect system and Leap Motion system. On the proposed dataset, the proposed method achieved a 3D hand pose mean error of less than 14 mm and outperforms the other deep learning methods. When the error thresholds were larger than approximately 35 mm, our method first to achieved excellent performance (>80%) in terms of the fraction of good frames. For the finger motion angle calculation task, the proposed and commercial systems had comparable inter-system reliability (ICC2,1 ranging from 0.81 to 0.83) and excellent validity (Pearson's r-values ranging from 0.82 to 0.86). We believe that the proposed approaches can capture hand motion and measure finger motion angles and can be used in different biomedicine scenarios as an effective evaluation tool for fine motor skills.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Termografia , Mãos
3.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280098, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649294

RESUMO

Low-effort, reliable diagnostics of digital dermatitis (DD) are needed, especially for lesions warranting treatment, regardless of milking system or hygienic condition of the feet. The primary aim of this study was to test the association of infrared thermography (IRT) from unwashed hind feet with painful M2 lesions under farm conditions, with lesion detection as ultimate goal. Secondary objectives were to determine the association between IRT from washed feet and M2 lesions, and between IRT from unwashed and washed feet and the presence of any DD lesion. A total of 641 hind feet were given an M-score and IRT images of the plantar pastern were captured. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were done with DD status as dependent variable and maximum infrared temperature (IRTmax), lower leg cleanliness score and locomotion score as independent variables, and farm as fixed effect. To further our understanding of IRTmax within DD status, we divided IRTmax into two groups over the median value of IRTmax in the datasets of unwashed and washed feet, respectively, and repeated the multivariable logistic regression analyses. Higher IRTmax from unwashed hind feet were associated with M2 lesions or DD lesions, in comparison with feet without an M2 lesion or without DD, adjusted odds ratio 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.2) and 1.1 (95% CI 1.1-1.2), respectively. Washing of the feet resulted in similar associations. Dichotomization of IRTmax substantially enlarged the 95% CI for the association with feet with M2 lesions indicating that the association becomes less reliable. This makes it unlikely that IRTmax alone can be used for automated detection of feet with an M2 lesion. However, IRTmax can have a role in identifying feet at-risk for compromised foot health that need further examination, and could therefore function as a tool aiding in the automated monitoring of foot health on dairy herds.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite Digital , Doenças do Pé , Casco e Garras , Animais , Bovinos , Termografia/métodos , Dermatite Digital/diagnóstico , Dermatite Digital/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Casco e Garras/patologia , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças do Pé/patologia
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679427

RESUMO

Football is a very demanding sport which requires players to exert maximum effort, producing fatigue and eventually injuries. Thermography can be used to detect fatigue and prevent its consequences through thermal asymmetries in the bilateral body areas; however, its adequacy for elite footballers has not been widely studied. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the suitability of thermography to detect fatigue in male football players. For this reason, twenty participants were gathered into a pair of subgroups (low [<0.2 °C] vs. high thermal asymmetry [≥0.2 °C]) based on a thermography session of the lower limbs (thighs, calves, and hamstrings). After the thermography session, players performed CMJs before and after an RSA test (6 × 30 m/20″). A mixed two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc pairwise comparisons were undertaken to analyse the results. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in any of the RSA test variables between low and high thermal asymmetry groups for thighs and calves. On the other hand, the low thermal asymmetry hamstring group reported a smaller percentage difference in sprints for the first sprint (%Diff) and a larger percentage difference in sprints two and three with respect to the best sprint (%Best). For CMJs, the low thermal asymmetry hamstring group reported significantly higher values post-RSA test, indicating better performance. Accordingly, thermography can provide information about performance in CMJ and RSA tests through hamstring asymmetries over 0.2 °C. Meanwhile, larger asymmetries than 0.2 °C in calves and thighs do not seem to be related to performance in these tests; therefore, coaches should consider if it is optimal to align players with high hamstring asymmetries.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Masculino , Termografia , Fadiga
5.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279930, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652420

RESUMO

The screening of flu-like syndrome is difficult due to nonspecific symptoms or even oligosymptomatic presentation and became even more complex during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, an efficient screening tool plays an important role in the control of highly contagious diseases, allowing more efficient medical-epidemiological approaches and rational management of global health resources. Infrared thermography is a technique sensitive to small alterations in the skin temperature which may be related to early signs of inflammation and thus being relevant in the detection of infectious diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of facial thermal profiles as a risk evaluator of symptoms and signs of SARs diseases, using COVID-19 as background disease. A total of 136 patients were inquired about the most common symptoms of COVID-19 infection and were submitted to an infrared image scanning, where the temperatures of 10 parameters from different regions of the face were captured. We used RT-qPCR as the ground truth to compare with the thermal parameters, in order to evaluate the performance of infrared imaging in COVID-19 screening. Only 16% of infected patients had fever at the hospital admission, and most infrared thermal variables presented values of temperature significantly higher in infected patients. The maximum eye temperature (MaxE) showed the highest predictive value at a cut-off of >35.9°C (sn = 71.87%, sp = 86.11%, LR+ = 5.18, LR- = 0.33, AUC = 0.850, p < 0.001). Our predictive model reached an accuracy of 86% for disease detection, indicating that facial infrared thermal scanning, based on the combination of different facial regions and the thermal profile of the face, has potential to act as a more accurate diagnostic support method for early COVID-19 screening, when compared to classical infrared methods, based on a single spot with the maximum skin temperature of the face.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Influenza Humana , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Triagem , Termografia/métodos , Temperatura Corporal
6.
J Oral Sci ; 65(1): 34-39, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess root temperature during filling techniques and quantify the volume of endodontic filling materials using infrared thermography (IT) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). METHODS: Ninety premolars were divided into three groups: lateral condensation (LC), single cone (SC) and thermomechanical compaction (TMC). For thermal analysis, 45 teeth were assessed using a FLIR T650sc IT camera during filling techniques and 45 teeth were scanned using a Nikon micro-CT to assess gutta-percha, cement, and void volumes. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed (non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Friedman test with Tukey's bidirectional analysis of variance). RESULTS: TMC showed the highest temperature increase at 15 s after the procedure and a significant temperature decrease at 45 s after its completion. TMC showed the largest volume of gutta-percha and LC the highest void volume. CONCLUSION: The temperature increase generated by gutta-percha endodontic filling techniques is within acceptable limits. A greater volume of endodontic cement was observed for the SL and LC filling techniques.


Assuntos
Guta-Percha , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Termografia , Temperatura , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Obturação do Canal Radicular/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos
7.
J Therm Biol ; 111: 103404, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585083

RESUMO

The aims and objectives of the study were to i) perform image segmentation using a color-based k-means clustering algorithm and feature extraction using binary robust invariant scalable key points (BRISK), maximum stable extremal regions (MSER), features from accelerated segment test (FAST), Harris, and orientated FAST and rotated BRIEF (ORB); ii) compare the performance of classical machine learning techniques such as LogitBoost, Bagging, and SVM with a quantum machine learning technique. For the proposed study, 240 hand thermal images were acquired in the dorsal view and ventral view of both the right and left-hand regions of RA and normal subjects. The hot spot regions from the thermograms were segmented using a color-based k-means clustering technique. The features from the segmented hot spot region were extracted using different feature extraction methods. Finally, normal and RA groups were categorized using LogitBoost, Bagging, and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The proposed study used two testing methods, such as 10-fold cross-validation and a percentage split of 80-20%. The LogitBoost classifier outperformed with an accuracy of 93.75% using the 10-fold cross-validation technique compared to other classifiers. Also, the quantum support vector machine (QSVM) obtained a prediction accuracy of 92.7%. Furthermore, the QSVM model reduces the computational cost and training time of the model to classify the RA and normal subjects. Thus, thermograms with classical machine learning and quantum machine learning algorithms could be considered a feasible technique for classifying normal and RA groups.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Artrite Reumatoide , Humanos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Mãos , Termografia , Aprendizado de Máquina
8.
J Therm Biol ; 111: 103424, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585088

RESUMO

Infrared thermography (IRT) is a technology that has been used as an auxiliary tool in the diagnostic process of several diseases and in sports monitoring to prevent injuries. However, the evaluation of a thermogram can be influenced by several factors that need to be understood and controlled to avoid a misinterpretation of the thermogram and, consequently, an inappropriate clinical action. Among the possible factors that can affect IRT are anthropometric factors, especially those related to body composition. Based on these, our objective was to verify the influence of Body Mass Index (BMI) on skin temperature (Tsk) in male adolescents. One hundred male adolescents (age: 16.83 ±â€¯1.08 years; body mass: 66.51 ±â€¯13.35 kg; height: 1.75 ±â€¯7.04 m and BMI: 21.57 ±â€¯4.06 kg/m2) were evaluated and divided into three groups, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed classification ranges: underweight (n = 33), normal weight (n = 34) and overweight/obesity (n = 34). Thermograms were obtained using the FLIR T420 thermal imager after a period of acclimatization of the subjects in a controlled environment (temperature: 21.3 ±â€¯0.7 °C and humidity: 55.3 ±â€¯2.2%); they were evaluated using the ThermoHuman® software, integrating the original regions of interest (ROI) into seven larger ROIs. The results showed that underweight individuals had higher Tsk values than normal weight and overweight/obese individuals for all evaluated ROIs, and overweight/obese individuals had lower Tsk values than normal weight individuals for most evaluated ROIs, except for arms region. BMI showed a correlation of -0.68 and -0.64 for the anterior and posterior regions of the trunk, respectively. Thermal normality tables were proposed for various ROIs according to BMI classification. Our study demonstrated that BMI can affect the Tsk values assessed by IRT and needs to be considered to interpret the thermograms.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Temperatura Cutânea , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Termografia , Magreza , Obesidade
9.
J Therm Biol ; 110: 103345, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462854

RESUMO

Infrared thermography (IRT) has become popular in several areas of knowledge. However, the analyses of thermal images often request manual actions, and little is known about the effect of the evaluator's experience on analysis thermal images. Here, we determine the reproducibility of IRT images analysis performed by evaluators with different levels of experience. Eight evaluators (GE, group experienced, n = 4; GN, group novice, n = 4) analyzed thermograms from 40 healthy participants recorded before and after exercise to determine the mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, and range of skin temperature in the anterior thigh and posterior leg. Before and after exercise, mean temperature showed excellent reproducibility for both groups for the anterior thigh (ICC >0.98) and posterior leg (ICC >0.94), and maximum temperature showed excellent reproducibility for both groups in the posterior leg (ICC >0.91). The influence of experience level was not significant considering the anterior thigh. Similarly, experience level did not affect the mean, maximum, and standard deviation temperature determined for the posterior leg. For the posterior leg, minimum temperature presented lower values and the range was higher among novice evaluators. Mean skin temperature showed narrower 95% limits of agreement than minimum and maximum for both regions and moments. Caution is advised when temperature ranges and minimums are determined by different evaluators. We conclude that for IRT analysis by evaluators with different levels of experience, the mean and maximum temperatures should be prioritized due to their better reproducibility.


Assuntos
Temperatura Cutânea , Termografia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Exercício Físico
10.
J Therm Biol ; 110: 103351, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462860

RESUMO

Sweat gland activity and peripheral hemodynamics, which characterize the function of sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibers and the manifestation mechanisms of vascular tone regulation, respectively, can be detected via dynamic thermography of the skin. Thus, they are useful parameters for diagnosing various forms of neuropathy and functional circulatory disorders. Both parameters affect the dynamics of the skin temperature; therefore, for an adequate description of thermographic data, it is necessary to build models that consider both these coexisting components simultaneously. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the spatiotemporal and statistical features of dynamic thermograms of skin areas with sweat glands and to develop methods for the extraction of temperature components mediated by sweat gland activity (Tsweat) separately from hemodynamics (Tblood) based on thermograms of high and low temperature resolutions. METHODS: To separate the Tsweat and Tblood components, simultaneous thermographic and photoplethysmographic (PPG) measurements were performed in the area of the fingers during a deep inspiratory gasp (DIG). PPG data, which were obtained solely by hemodynamics, were converted into a temperature signal (Tblood) using the spectral filtering approach. By calculating the difference between the skin (Tskin) and blood (Tblood) temperature components, the Tsweat component was determined, which characterizes sweat gland activity and the integrity of the cholinergic sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate them. The Tsweat component was compared with the active sweat pore count curve, which was determined by the adaptive detection of local temperature minima. Thermographic and PPG measurements were performed for 3 min on a group of 15 volunteers during the DIG test. The skin temperature was measured using a cooled thermal imaging camera in the spectral range of 8-9 µm with a temperature sensitivity of 0.02 °C. PPG measurements were performed using a reflectance sensor with a central wavelength of 800 nm. Wavelet analysis with the Morlet basis function was used to preliminarily determine the spectrum of spontaneous temperature oscillations in an area of the skin with and without sweat pores. Statistical parameters of the histogram, such as the standard deviation and the statistical pore activation index (SPAI) - which is proposed in this paper were used in the DIG test to detect sweat gland activity with low-temperature resolution thermograms. The temporal dynamics of the statistical parameters were compared with the dynamics of the sweat pore count. RESULTS: The Tsweat component was correlated with the sweat pore count on the thermogram with a coefficient of 0.75, confirming the dependence of this temperature component on the sweat gland activity and the need for considering this activity in the analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the human skin temperature. The use of the proposed SPAI and standard deviation allows the detection of sweat gland activity even with thermograms of a low temperature resolution. The use of an integrated map of the sweat gland activity will help the specialist to assess the degree of integrity of the innervation of skin areas in a single image. The primary assessment of the spectrum of temperature oscillations at rest indicated that spontaneous sweat gland activity is accompanied by high-frequency oscillations in the skin temperature localized in the area of sweat pores, within the frequency range of 0.07-0.3 Hz. This suggests the possibility of spectral separation of the temperature component mediated by sweat gland activity from the hemodynamic component, which dominates in the region of <0.1 Hz. The proposed two-component approach for the analysis of skin temperature dynamics allows separate assessment of sympathetic innervation and rhythms of hemodynamic regulation using dynamic thermograms.


Assuntos
Glândulas Écrinas , Termografia , Humanos , Hemodinâmica , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Colinérgicos
11.
J Therm Biol ; 110: 103370, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462867

RESUMO

Diabetic Foot Syndrome (DFS) is the prime impetus for most of the lower extremity complications among the diabetic subjects. DFS is characterized by aberrant variations in plantar foot temperature distribution while healthy subjects exhibit a symmetric thermal pattern between the contralateral and ipsilateral plantar feet. Thus, "asymmetry analysis" of foot thermal distribution is contributory in assessment of overall foot health of diabetic subjects. The study, aims to classify symmetric and asymmetric foot regions angiosome-wise, by comparing minimal number of color image features - color moments and Dissimilarity Index. Further, the asymmetric foot regions are assessed for identifying the hotspots within such angiosomes of the patients that characterize the possibility of onset of diabetic foot ulcer. The color feature based machine learning model developed, achieved an accuracy of 98% for a 10-fold cross validation, test accuracy of 96.07% and 0.96 F1-score thereby convincing that the chosen features are amplest and conducive in the asymmetry analysis. The developed model was validated for generalization by testing on a public benchmark dataset, in which the model achieved 92.5% accuracy and 0.91 F1 score.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pé Diabético , Humanos , Pé Diabético/diagnóstico por imagem , Termografia , , Aprendizado de Máquina
12.
J Therm Biol ; 110: 103337, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462875

RESUMO

Breast cancer has been and continues to be a cause of major health concern for women. It is more prevalent in old age, but its incidence has increased in recent years in groups below 50 years old, as in India. According to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) 2020, 50% of all the cases are in the age group of 25-50 where the numbers are staggering and constantly rising. The increase in incidence over the years indicates an urging need for innovative approaches to enhance breast cancer detection early. Thermography is non-contact imaging modalities and has potential to detect breast cancer at an early stage. Though thermography has capable of detecting breast cancer early, the challenge lies in the interpretation of the breast thermograms with respect to features and subsequent analysis. The present work discusses image acquisition, image processing related pre-processing, segmentation, and feature extraction. The extracted features were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of variance) statistical analysis. Statistical analyses were done in order to find the appropriate feature on the whole and quadrant breast. Statistical analysis results clearly reveal existence of thermal symmetry for the healthy subjects (p value > .05) in both whole and quadrant breast regions. In the case of abnormal subjects, whole breast analyses revealed the significance (p value < .05) for features like mean, variance, standard deviation, kurtosis, skewness, entropy, energy, homogeneity and contrast whereas upper outer quadrant analyses showed significance for all above features except contrast. The well correlated features of upper outer quadrant and whole breast were given as input for the Support Vector Machine - Radial Basis Function (SVM - RBF) classifier with grid search method. The results revealed that whole breast analysis has achieved 92.86% accuracy and upper outer quadrant breast analysis has achieved 85.71% accuracy. The results clearly indicate the involvement of upper outer quadrant and whole breast in early detection of breast cancer using thermal imaging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Termografia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess if thermography as an objective and non-invasive research tool is capable of identifying the changes in the surface temperature of the body as a response to muscle stimulation in Vojta therapy. The research group consisted of children aged 3-10 months with slight abnormalities of the motor pattern, subjected to individually selected stimulation elements according to Vojta. METHODS: The Vojta method of spontaneous motor assessment and the thermovision method of assessing the microcirculation properties of muscles were used for the evaluation. RESULTS: In the study group, changes in the microcirculation parameters of the extensor muscles of the back occurred immediately after the therapy at the first examination. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis featuring an objective assessment allows physiotherapists to diagnose local temperature changes based on the effect of microcirculation parameters in the musculofascial structures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The research was conducted as a pilot study for a scientific project approved by the Commission for Scientific Research of the University of Health and Sport Sciences in Wroclaw No 24/2021. The study is currently in the registration process with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry.


Assuntos
Esportes , Termografia , Humanos , Austrália , Microcirculação , Projetos Piloto , Termografia/métodos , Lactente
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501731

RESUMO

Composite materials are one of the primary structural components in most current transportation applications, such as the aerospace industry. Composite material diagnostics is a promising area in the fight against structural damage in aircraft and spaceships. Detection and diagnostic technologies often provide analysts with a valuable and rapid mechanism to monitor the health and safety of composite materials. Although many attempts have been made to develop damage detection techniques and make operations more efficient, there is still a need to develop/improve existing methods. Pulsed thermography (PT) technology was used in this study to obtain healthy and defective data sets from custom-designed composite samples having similar dimensions but different thicknesses (1.6 and 3.8). Ten carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels were tested. The samples were subjected to impact damage of various energy levels, ranging from 4 to 12 J. Two different methods have been applied to detect and classify the damage to the composite structures. The first applied method is the statistical analysis, where seven different statistical criteria have been calculated. The final results have proved the possibility of detecting the damaged area in most cases. However, for a more accurate detection technique, a machine learning method was applied to thermal images; specifically, the Cube Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm was selected. The prediction accuracy of the proposed classification models was calculated within a confusion matrix based on the dataset patterns representing the healthy and defective areas. The classification results ranged from 78.7% to 93.5%, and these promising results are paving the way to develop an automated model to efficiently evaluate the damage to composite materials based on the non-distractive testing (NDT) technique.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Termografia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Algoritmos
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501785

RESUMO

Over the recent period, there has been an increasing interest in the use of pulsed infrared thermography (PT) for the non-destructive evaluation of Cultural Heritage (CH). Unlike other techniques that are commonly employed in the same field, PT enables the depth-resolved detection of different kinds of subsurface features, thus providing helpful information for both scholars and restorers. Due to this reason, several research activities are currently underway to further improve the PT effectiveness. In this manuscript, the specific use of PT for the analysis of three different types of CH, namely documentary materials, panel paintings-marquetery, and mosaics, will be reviewed. In the latter case, i.e., mosaics, passive thermography combined with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and digital microscopy (DM) have also been deepened, considering their suitability in the open field. Such items have been selected because they are characterized by quite distinct physical and structural properties and, therefore, different PT (and, in some cases, verification) approaches have been employed for their investigations.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Radar , Termografia
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502062

RESUMO

Assessment of cultural heritage assets is now extremely important all around the world. Non-destructive inspection is essential for preserving the integrity of artworks while avoiding the loss of any precious materials that make them up. The use of Infrared Thermography is an interesting concept since surface and subsurface faults can be discovered by utilizing the 3D diffusion inside the object caused by external heat. The primary goal of this research is to detect defects in artworks, which is one of the most important tasks in the restoration of mural paintings. To this end, machine learning and deep learning techniques are effective tools that should be employed properly in accordance with the experiment's nature and the collected data. Considering both the temporal and spatial perspectives of step-heating thermography, a spatiotemporal deep neural network is developed for defect identification in a mock-up reproducing an artwork. The results are then compared with those of other conventional algorithms, demonstrating that the proposed approach outperforms the others.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Termografia , Termografia/métodos , Algoritmos , Calefação
17.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 15(4): 149-156, Dic. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214657

RESUMO

La termografía infrarroja está siendo utilizada en la actualidad para medir la temperatura de la piel (Tsk) tanto en medicina como en ciencias delejercicio. Sin embargo, para obtener una imagen termográfica de calidad, es necesario tener en cuenta factores que intervienen para evitar unainterpretación errónea de los resultados observados, incluidos los factores antropométricos y de la composición corporal. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de estarevisión narrativa, es establecer cómo los parámetros antropométricos y de composición corporal pueden afectar los valores de Tsk, repercutiendo así enla evaluación de las imágenes termográficas. Los resultados de este estudio apuntan a un alto nivel de influencia de la superficie corporal y,especialmente, de la cantidad de grasa corporal en el patrón de normalidad esperado de la Tsk evaluada por termografía infrarroja, siendo los sujetos conmayor cantidad de grasa corporal quienes presentan menores valores de Tsk comparados con los de menor cantidad de grasa, algo que deberíaconsiderarse al evaluar a la población general y a los atletas con diferentes patrones de composición corporal.(AU)


Infrared thermography has been recently used to measure skin temperature (Tsk) in both medicine and sports medicine. However, to obtain a qualitythermographic image, it is necessary to observe intervening factors to avoid misinterpretation of the results, including anthropometric and bodycomposition factors. Therefore, the objective of this narrative review is to establish how anthropometric and body composition parameters can affect theTsk response, thus influencing the assessement of thermographic images. The results of this study point to a high level of influence of the body surfaceand, especially, of the amount of body fat in the expected Tsk pattern of normality evaluated by infrared thermography, being the subjects with higheramount of body fat who present lower Tsk values compared to those with lower body fat, which is something that should be considered when evaluatingthe general population and athletes with different body composition patterns.(AU)


A termografia infravermelha tem sido empregada de forma mais recente para mensurar a temperatura da pele (Tsk) sendo utilizada na medicina etambém na medicina esportiva. Entretanto, para se obter uma imagem termográfica de qualidade, vários fatores intervenientes precisam ser observadospara que se evite um erro de interpretação sobre os resultados observados, dentre eles os fatores antropométricos e de composição corporal. Assim que,o objetivo desta revisão narrativa é estabelecer de que forma os parâmetros antropométricos e de composição corporal podem afetar a resposta da Tsk,impactando assim na avaliação de imagens termográficas. Têm-se como principais conclusões que as evidências apontam para um elevado nível deinfluência da superfície corporal e especialmente da quantidade de gordura corporal sobe o padrão de normalidade esperada da Tsk avaliada portermografía infravermelha, de modo que indivíduos com maior quantidade de gordura corporal apresentam valores menores de Tsk quando comparadosa indivíduos com menor quantidade, devendo assim ser considerado ao avaliar a população em geral e atletas com diferentes padrões de gorduracorporal.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Termografia , Temperatura Corporal , Tecido Adiposo , Superfície Corporal , Medicina Esportiva , Esportes , Brasil
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(24)2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36559992

RESUMO

The implementation of temperature sensors represented by thermal imaging cameras is becoming increasingly rational. It is playing an important role in the socio-economic environment, in industry, scientific-research work. The main objective of the work is to assess the quality of the railway vehicles in exploitation and their thermal insulation, localise thermal bridges, and the tightness of the body using the FLIR-E6390 thermal inspection camera. An integration of test methods (research methods) was used including a diagnostic method based on a thermographic study integrated with the system approach method and system failure mode effects analysis (SFMEA). The scientific-research work included studies of seven types of railway vehicles in exploitation. A number of conclusions were reached. Specifically providing implementation of innovative and non-contact temperature distribution monitoring solutions for railway vehicles in a sustainability development system transport. Demonstrated the disparities between the different types of vehicles. Next, the identification of critical elements of their thermal insulation, the location of thermal bridges, and the tightness of the body of the rail vehicles, particularly the doors and inter-unit connections. The study covered the state of consumption of stationary electricity (for non-traction needs), implementing innovative indicators for stationary electricity consumption of railway vehicles as a new approach.


Assuntos
Termografia , Temperatura , Termografia/métodos
19.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(12): 15, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580323

RESUMO

Purpose: Non-contact measurement of facial temperature using infrared thermography has been used for mass screening of body temperature during a pandemic. We investigated the relative stability of temperature measurement in different facial regions of healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects underwent two experiments. In the first experiment, subjects washed their faces with a 20°C wet towel for 1 minute. Temperature changes compared to baseline in the forehead, cornea, inner canthus, and outer canthus were determined using an infrared camera for 10 minutes. In the second experiment, lubricating eye drops at 20°C were instilled over one eye. Temperature changes in the same regions of interest were monitored for 5 minutes. Results: Baseline temperatures before face washing in the forehead and cornea, inner canthus, and outer canthus of the right eye were 33.4°C ± 0.8°C (mean ± SD), 33.3°C ± 0.8°C, 34.3°C ± 0.7°C, and 32.8°C ± 0.7°C, respectively. Reductions in temperature due to face washing were most significant for the forehead and least significant for the cornea. One minute after face washing, the corresponding changes were -2.8°C ± 0.6°C, -0.3°C ± 0.6°C, -0.6°C ± 0.7°C, and -0.9°C ± 0.7°C for the forehead, cornea, inner canthus, and outer canthus, respectively. After administering the eye drops, no significant temperature changes were observed. Conclusions: When facial temperature was exogenously cooled, the cornea had the most stable temperature readings. Translational Relevance: When using infrared thermography to screen facial temperature, the measurement of corneal temperature is probably a better representative if the stability of temperature readings is critical.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Termografia , Humanos , Temperatura , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498397

RESUMO

Since the identification of periapical lesions typically requires invasive testing that may adversely affect individuals suffering from concomitant disease, the diagnosis of apical periodontitis remains a challenge. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of infrared thermal imaging for the detection of asymptomatic odontogenic inflammatory response in patients with a high risk of systemic infections. The examinations were performed using the FLIR T1020 thermal camera. The acquired images were analyzed with a ThermaCAM TM Researcher Pro 2.8 SR-3. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistica 10 software. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for data that were not normally distributed or did not meet the assumption of homogeneity of variance, while normally distributed data were analyzed with the t-test. The mean temperature difference between the periapical regions of the suspect and contralateral teeth was found to be greatest at 30 s of mouth opening. This is a preliminary study conducted to evaluate the potential of infrared thermal imaging as a diagnostic tool for the identification and elimination of odontogenic infection foci. Thermography seems to facilitate the quantitative assessment of inflammation by displaying temperature differences between the affected and unaffected regions.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Termografia , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Termografia/métodos , Inflamação , Software
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