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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804571

RESUMO

Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are highly vulnerable to changing climatic conditions, especially increasing temperatures. To gain insight into mechanisms underpinning the response to heat stress, two blueberry species were subjected to heat stress for 6 and 9 h at 45 °C, and leaf samples were used to study the morpho-physiological and transcriptomic changes. As compared with Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium darrowii exhibited thermal stress adaptation features such as small leaf size, parallel leaf orientation, waxy leaf coating, increased stomatal surface area, and stomatal closure. RNAseq analysis yielded ~135 million reads and identified 8305 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during heat stress against the control samples. In V. corymbosum, 2861 and 4565 genes were differentially expressed at 6 and 9 h of heat stress, whereas in V. darrowii, 2516 and 3072 DEGs were differentially expressed at 6 and 9 h, respectively. Among the pathways, the protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was the highly enriched pathway in both the species: however, certain metabolic, fatty acid, photosynthesis-related, peroxisomal, and circadian rhythm pathways were enriched differently among the species. KEGG enrichment analysis of the DEGs revealed important biosynthesis and metabolic pathways crucial in response to heat stress. The GO terms enriched in both the species under heat stress were similar, but more DEGs were enriched for GO terms in V. darrowii than the V. corymbosum. Together, these results elucidate the differential response of morpho-physiological and molecular mechanisms used by both the blueberry species under heat stress, and help in understanding the complex mechanisms involved in heat stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/anatomia & histologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Termotolerância/genética , Transcriptoma , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/classificação , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2214, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850157

RESUMO

Forecasting which species/ecosystems are most vulnerable to climate warming is essential to guide conservation strategies to minimize extinction. Tropical/mid-latitude species are predicted to be most at risk as they live close to their upper critical thermal limits (CTLs). However, these assessments assume that upper CTL estimates, such as CTmax, are accurate predictors of vulnerability and ignore the potential for evolution to ameliorate temperature increases. Here, we use experimental evolution to assess extinction risk and adaptation in tropical and widespread Drosophila species. We find tropical species succumb to extinction before widespread species. Male fertility thermal limits, which are much lower than CTmax, are better predictors of species' current distributions and extinction in the laboratory. We find little evidence of adaptive responses to warming in any species. These results suggest that species are living closer to their upper thermal limits than currently presumed and evolution/plasticity are unlikely to rescue populations from extinction.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Temperatura , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Clima Tropical
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809330

RESUMO

Clematis plants play an important role in botanical gardens. Heat stress can destroy the activity, state and conformation of plant proteins, and its regulatory pathway has been well characterized in Arabidopsis and some crop plants. However, the heat resistance response mechanism in horticultural plants including Clematis has rarely been reported. Here, we identified a heat-tolerant clematis species, Clematis vitalba. The relative water loss and electrolytic leakage were significantly lower under heat treatment in Clematis vitalba compared to Stolwijk Gold. Differential expression heat-tolerant genes (HTGs) were identified based on nonparametric transcriptome analysis. For validation, one heat shock transcription factor, CvHSF30-2, extremely induced by heat stimuli in Clematis vitalba, was identified to confer tolerance to heat stress in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, silencing of HSF30-2 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) led to heat sensitivity in tobacco and Clematis, suggesting that the candidate heat-resistant genes identified in this RNA-seq analysis are credible and offer significant utility. We also found that CvHSF30-2 improved heat tolerance of Clematis vitalba by elevating heat shock protein (HSP) expression, which was negatively regulated by CvHSFB2a. Taken together, this study provides insights into the mechanism of Clematis heat tolerance and the findings can be potentially applied in horticultural plants to improve economic efficiency through genetic approaches.


Assuntos
Clematis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Clematis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Termotolerância/genética , Tabaco/genética
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800930

RESUMO

Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), a pseudocereal crop, produces a large number of flowers, but this does not guarantee high seed yields. This species demonstrates strong abortion of flowers and embryos. High temperatures during the generative growth phase result in an increase in the degeneration of embryo sacs. The aim of this study was to investigate proteomic changes in flowers and leaves of two common buckwheat accessions with different degrees of heat tolerance, Panda and PA15. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze the proteome profiles. Analyses were conducted for flower buds, open flowers capable of fertilization, and wilted flowers, as well as donor leaves, i.e., those growing closest to the inflorescences. High temperature up-regulated the expression of 182 proteins. The proteomic response to heat stress differed between the accessions and among their organs. In the Panda accession, we observed a change in abundance of 17, 13, 28, and 11 proteins, in buds, open and wilted flowers, and leaves, respectively. However, in the PA15 accession there were 34, 21, 63, and 21 such proteins, respectively. Fifteen heat-affected proteins were common to both accessions. The indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase chloroplastic-like isoform X2 accumulated in the open flowers of the heat-sensitive cultivar Panda in response to high temperature, and may be a candidate protein as a marker of heat sensitivity in buckwheat plants.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteoma , Termotolerância/genética , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Fagopyrum/embriologia , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Indol-3-Glicerolfosfato Sintase/biossíntese , Indol-3-Glicerolfosfato Sintase/genética , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/biossíntese , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Regulação para Cima
5.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110850, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775357

RESUMO

Autophagy is a major degradation pathway in plants for maintaining cellular homeostasis in response to various environmental stressors. ATG8 is one of a series of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins and plays a central role in both bulk and selective autophagy. Previously, we characterized MdATG8i in apple and demonstrated that it has a positive role in apple stress resistance. Although many ATG8-interacting proteins have been found in Arabidopsis, no protein has been reported to interact with MdATG8 in apple. Here, we identified MdHARBI1 as a MdATG8i-interacting protein in apple, however, the functions of HARBI1-like proteins have not been explored in plants. Expression analysis of MdHARBI1 and pro-MdHARBI1-GUS staining of transgenic Arabidopsis exposed to high temperature demonstrated that MdHARBI1 was significantly induced by heat stress. Moreover, heat-treated MdHARBI1-trangenic tomato plants maintained higher autophagic activity, accumulated fewer ROS, and displayed stronger chlorophyll fluorescence than wild-type plants. Because these phenotypes were consistent with those displayed by MdATG8i-overexpressing apple plants under high temperature, we concluded that the MdATG8i-interacting protein MdHARBI1 plays a critical role in the basal thermotolerance of plants, mainly by influencing autophagy pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/fisiologia , Autofagia/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia
6.
Cell ; 184(6): 1530-1544, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675692

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity has risen dramatically for decades and is expected to rise further, secondary to the growing aging, sedentary population. The strain on global health care is projected to be colossal. This review explores the latest work and emerging ideas related to genetic and environmental factors influencing metabolism. Translational research and clinical applications, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, are highlighted. Looking forward, strategies to personalize all aspects of prevention, management and care are necessary to improve health outcomes and reduce the impact of these metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Pandemias , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , /virologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Termotolerância
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21776, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644932

RESUMO

Maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects Drosophila melanogaster populations worldwide. Its genetic diversity includes several closely related genotypes, which can be attributed to two main genotype groups: wMel and wMelCS. Here, we studied eight D. melanogaster lines carrying the nuclear background of wild type interbred Bi90 line and cytoplasmic backgrounds with or without Wolbachia of different origin, each of which belongs to wMelCS genotype group. We analyzed the effect these seven Wolbachia strains had on the heat stress resistance and dopamine metabolism in D. melanogaster females. Survival under heat stress (38°C, 3 h 30 min) was increased only in the line infected with bacteria of the wMelPlus strain. At the same time, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (an enzyme regulating the pool of dopamine precursor tyrosine) was increased under normal conditions in females infected with all strains under study and retained the response to heat stress typical for the uninfected line. Thus, we found the unique Wolbachia strain that provides an increase of the host stress resistance, and demonstrated that the mechanism of this resistance is not dopamine-mediated.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Termotolerância , Wolbachia/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Genótipo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Simbiose/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Termotolerância/fisiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652971

RESUMO

Drought and heat stresses are major factors limiting crop growth and productivity, and their effect is more devastating when occurring concurrently. Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) are differentially expressed in response to different stimuli, conferring tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. GSTs from drought-tolerant Phaseolus vulgaris var. "Plake Megalosperma Prespon" is expected to play an important role in the response mechanisms to combined and single heat and drought stresses. Herein, we examined wild-type N. tabacum plants (cv. Basmas Xanthi) and T1 transgenic lines overexpressing the stress-induced Pvgstu3-3 and Pvgstu2-2 genes. The overexpression of Pvgstu3-3 contributed to potential thermotolerance and greater plant performance under combined stress. Significant alterations in the primary metabolism were observed in the transgenic plants between combined stress and stress-free conditions. Stress-responsive differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and transcription factors (TFs) related to photosynthesis, signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, osmotic adjustment and thermotolerance, were identified under combined stress. In contrast, induction of certain DEGs and TF families under stress-free conditions indicated that transgenic plants were in a primed state. The overexpression of the Pvgstu3-3 is playing a leading role in the production of signaling molecules, induction of specific metabolites and activation of the protective mechanisms for enhanced protection against combined abiotic stresses in tobacco.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Tabaco/genética , Secas , Genes de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Termotolerância , Tabaco/fisiologia
9.
Trends Plant Sci ; 26(5): 429-432, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744161

RESUMO

The phytohormone ethylene has roles in senescence, fruit ripening, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the detailed mechanism(s) by which ethylene affects the plant heat stress response (HSR) is not well understood. Two recent studies by Huang et al. and Shekhawat et al. now reveal that ethylene signaling converges on HSFA2 to bring about heat stress (HS) tolerance in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Termotolerância , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatina , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endófitos , Etilenos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145587, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592470

RESUMO

Composting has been traditionally considered a process in which a succession of mesophilic and thermophilic microbial populations occurs due to temperature changes. In order to deepen in this model, 1380 bacterial and fungal strains (the entire culturable microbiota isolated from a composting process) were investigated for their ability to grow across a wide range of temperatures (20 to 60 °C). First, qualitative tests were performed to establish a thermal profile for each strain. Then, quantitative tests allowed ascertaining the extent of growth for each strain at each of the tested temperatures. The identity of the isolates enabled to position them taxonomically and permitted tracking the strains throughout the process. Results showed that 90% of the isolates were classified as thermotolerant (they grew at all tested temperatures). Only 9% and 1% of the studied strains showed to be strictly mesophilic or thermophilic, respectively. Firmicutes exhibited the greatest thermal plasticity, followed by Actinobacteria and Ascomycota. Most of the Proteobacteria and all Basidiomycota strains were also able to grow at all the assayed temperatures. Thermotolerance was clearly demonstrated among the composting microbiota, suggesting that the idea of the succession of mesophilic and thermophilic populations throughout the process might need a reassessment.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Compostagem , Microbiota , Termotolerância , Bactérias , Esterco , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(9)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608288

RESUMO

Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is an inhabitant of natural and human-made water systems, where it replicates within amoebae and ciliates and survives within biofilms. When Lp-contaminated aerosols are breathed in, Lp can enter the lungs and may infect human alveolar macrophages, causing severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Lp is often found in hot water distribution systems (HWDS), which are linked to nosocomial outbreaks. Heat treatment is used to disinfect HWDS and reduce the concentration of Lp However, Lp is often able to recolonize these water systems, indicating an efficient heat shock response. Tail-specific proteases (Tsp) are typically periplasmic proteases implicated in degrading aberrant proteins in the periplasm and important for surviving thermal stress. In Lp Philadelphia-1, Tsp is encoded by the lpg0499 gene. In this paper, we show that Tsp is important for surviving thermal stress in water and for optimal infection of amoeba when a shift in temperature occurs during intracellular growth. We also demonstrate that Tsp is expressed in the postexponential phase but repressed in the exponential phase and that the cis-encoded small regulatory RNA Lpr17 shows the opposite expression, suggesting that it represses translation of tsp In addition, our results show that tsp is regulated by CpxR, a major regulator in Lp, in an Lpr17-independent manner. Deletion of CpxR also reduced the ability of Lp to survive heat shock. In conclusion, our study shows that Tsp is likely an important factor for the survival and growth of Lp in water systems.IMPORTANCE Lp is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia. Lp is found in water systems, including hot water distribution systems. Heat treatment is a method of disinfection often used to limit the presence of Lp in such systems; however, the benefit is usually short term, as Lp is able to quickly recolonize these systems. Presumably, Lp responds efficiently to thermal stress, but so far, not much is known about the genes involved. In this paper, we show that the Tsp and the two-component system CpxRA are required for resistance to thermal stress when Lp is free in water and when it is inside host cells. Our study identifies critical systems for the survival of Lp in its natural environment under thermal stress.


Assuntos
Amoeba/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endopeptidases/genética , Legionella pneumophila/genética , Termotolerância/genética , Temperatura Alta , Água
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5755-5767, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612212

RESUMO

Sheep milk production in the Northern Mediterranean countries heavily relies on local breeds subject to selection schemes to improve milk production. Climate change may shift the range of thermal loads on the animals and challenge their adaptation to the new thermal gradient. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic component of thermal tolerance of 2 local breeds from the Iberian Peninsula, Latxa and Manchega, belonging to different genetic types that have evolved under different climatic environments (Oceanic for Latxa and Continentalized Mediterranean for Manchega). A total of 79,243 and 2,388,853 test day monthly records of milk, fat and protein yields from 12,882 and 277,904 ewes of Latxa and Manchega breeds, respectively, along a 12-yr period, were matched with the value of the average temperature-humidity index (THI) on the day of milk recording of the closest weather station to the flocks. These data were used to fit individual reaction norms (Legendre polynomials) describing changes in yields along the THI gradient. Genetic values for thermal tolerance were obtained from the slopes of those reaction norms under cold or heat stress and variances and covariances between yield and thermal tolerance were derived from the (co)variance matrices of the polynomial random regression coefficients. Results showed differing patterns in the 2 breeds. The Latxa breed showed clearer signs of genotype by environment interaction than did Manchega. Estimated correlations between yields under extremes of cold and heat were always above 0.8 for Manchega and around 0.4 for Latxa for all traits. Estimates of correlations between comfort and thermal stress were again over 0.8 for Manchega and lower for the higher (hot end) values (down to 0.6) than for the lower (cold end) values (down to 0.84) of the THI gradient for Latxa, indicating greater thermal stress expected from high than from low temperatures in this breed. Substantial variability in thermal tolerance under the more extreme THI values was found in both breeds. Estimated genetic correlations between yield and thermal tolerance were close to 0 and 0.2 for Latxa and Manchega in the cold and down to -0.6 and -0.3 in the heat end, although small variation was observed for fat in Latxa. Estimated realized trends from the average estimated breeding value, by year of birth, showed a positive response for yields in both breeds [around 0.1 standard deviation (SD) unit], but a detrimental correlation for thermal tolerance (down to -0.03 SD units for heat tolerance in Latxa). These results can be used to design optimal selection strategies for sustainable improvement of productivity under a rising-temperature scenario associated with climate change.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Doenças dos Ovinos , Termotolerância , Animais , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Umidade , Lactação/genética , Leite , Ovinos , Termotolerância/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1198, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608528

RESUMO

Understanding how species' thermal limits have evolved across the tree of life is central to predicting species' responses to climate change. Here, using experimentally-derived estimates of thermal tolerance limits for over 2000 terrestrial and aquatic species, we show that most of the variation in thermal tolerance can be attributed to a combination of adaptation to current climatic extremes, and the existence of evolutionary 'attractors' that reflect either boundaries or optima in thermal tolerance limits. Our results also reveal deep-time climate legacies in ectotherms, whereby orders that originated in cold paleoclimates have presently lower cold tolerance limits than those with warm thermal ancestry. Conversely, heat tolerance appears unrelated to climate ancestry. Cold tolerance has evolved more quickly than heat tolerance in endotherms and ectotherms. If the past tempo of evolution for upper thermal limits continues, adaptive responses in thermal limits will have limited potential to rescue the large majority of species given the unprecedented rate of contemporary climate change.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Clima , Mudança Climática , Planeta Terra , Ecologia , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477941

RESUMO

High temperatures causing heat stress disturb cellular homeostasis and impede growth and development in plants. Extensive agricultural losses are attributed to heat stress, often in combination with other stresses. Plants have evolved a variety of responses to heat stress to minimize damage and to protect themselves from further stress. A narrow temperature window separates growth from heat stress, and the range of temperatures conferring optimal growth often overlap with those producing heat stress. Heat stress induces a cytoplasmic heat stress response (HSR) in which heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) activate a constellation of genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs). Heat stress also induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized unfolded protein response (UPR), which activates transcription factors that upregulate a different family of stress response genes. Heat stress also activates hormone responses and alternative RNA splicing, all of which may contribute to thermotolerance. Heat stress is often studied by subjecting plants to step increases in temperatures; however, more recent studies have demonstrated that heat shock responses occur under simulated field conditions in which temperatures are slowly ramped up to more moderate temperatures. Heat stress responses, assessed at a molecular level, could be used as traits for plant breeders to select for thermotolerance.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Termotolerância/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Zea mays/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia
15.
Environ Res ; 195: 110782, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503412

RESUMO

Some scleractinian corals exhibit high thermal adaptability to climate changes, although the mechanism of their adaptation is unclear. This study investigated the adaptability of scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis to thermally variable reef environments by applying a nanopore-based RNA sequencing method to characterize different transcription responses that promote heat tolerance of P. damicornis. We identified 1414 novel genes and optimized 6256 mis-annotated loci. Based on full-length transcriptome data, we identified complex alternative polyadenylation and alternative splicing events, which can improve our understanding of the genome annotation and gene structures of P. damicornis. Furthermore, we constructed differentially expressed lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks, which may play a crucial role in the P. damicornis thermal adaptive response. KEGG function enrichment analysis revealed that P. damicornis from the high-temperature pool had a lower metabolic rate than that from the low-temperature pool. We hypothesize that metabolic readjustment, in the form of a lower metabolic rate, positively correlated with increased heat tolerance in P. damicornis in thermally variable reef environments. Our study provides novel insights into lncRNAs that promote thermally tolerance of scleractinian corals in the thermally variable reef environment, suggesting potential mechanisms for their adaptation to global warming in the future.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Nanoporos , Termotolerância , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Aquecimento Global , Termotolerância/genética
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109046, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445066

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis and the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial enteritis in humans. C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common species implicated in campylobacteriosis. Broilers and their products are considered the most important food sources of human infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in different reservoirs at the farm, and the permanence of this pathogen during four consecutive rearing periods. The samples were taken from the same house farm in the downtime period and during the last week of broiler rearing, prior to their slaughter during four consecutive cycles. Different reservoirs as potential sources of Campylobacter were analysed. The prevalence of Campylobacter in vectors was 23% in A. diaperinus larvae, 20% in wild birds, 13% in A. diaperinus adults, and 9% in flies; as regards fomites, the prevalence was 50% in workers' boots, 27% in litter, and 21% in feed, while in broilers it was 80%. Campylobacter jejuni was the most detected species (51%) in the samples analysed. In addition, some Campylobacter genotypes persisted in the house farm throughout consecutive rearing periods, indicating that those strains remain during downtime periods. However, our study could not identify the Campylobacter sources in the downtime periods because all the samples were negative for Campylobacter isolation. In addition, a remarkable finding was the effect of the use of enrofloxacin (as a necessary clinical intervention for flock health) in cycle 3 on the Campylobacter population. No Campylobacter could be isolated after that clinic treatment. Afterwards, we found a greater proportion of C. coli isolates, and the genotypes of those isolates were different from the genotypes found in the previous rearing periods. In conclusion, the effect of the use of enrofloxacin during the rearing period changed the Campylobacter species proportion, and this finding is particularly interesting for further evaluation. Furthermore, more studies should be conducted with the aim of detecting the Campylobacter sources between rearing periods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Reservatórios de Doenças , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Fazendas , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Campylobacter/fisiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Termotolerância
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 372-382, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444896

RESUMO

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are essential regulators of plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses. Inactivation of the auto-inhibitory domain (AID) of CDPKs provides the constitutive activity. This study investigated the effect of overexpressed native and constitutive active (AtCPK1-Ca) forms of the AtCPK1 gene on abiotic stress tolerance and the ROS/redox system in Rubia cordifolia transgenic callus lines. Overexpression of the native AtCPK1 increased tolerance to salinity and cold almost in two times, when AtCPK1-Ca - in three times compare to control culture. A more interesting effect of overexpression of the AtCPK1 and AtCPK1-Ca was observed for heat resistance. The native form of AtCPK1 increased resistance to heating by 45%, while the AtCPK1-Ca increased by 80%. At the same time, another type of mutation of the AID (AtCPK1-Na, not active) did not affect the tolerance of the cell culture to stresses. We suppose, in this process, the ROS/redox system might be involved. Levels of intracellular ROS, ROS-generating enzymes expression and activities (Rbohs, Prx) and ROS-detoxifying enzymes (SOD, Cat, Apx and Prx) changed in a coordinated manner and in strict interconnection, depending of the callus growth phase and correlated with improved stress tolerance caused by AtCPK1. Because overexpression of both the AtCPK1 and AtCPK1-Ca did not significantly change callus growth, we propose that inactivation of AID of the AtCPK1 or its ortholog, might be an interesting instrument for improvement of plant cells resistance to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Rubia , Tolerância ao Sal , Termotolerância , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rubia/genética , Rubia/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Termotolerância/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22329, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339840

RESUMO

Elucidation of temperature tolerance mechanisms in yeast is essential for enhancing cellular robustness of strains, providing more economically and sustainable processes. We investigated the differential responses of three distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, an industrial wine strain, ADY5, a laboratory strain, CEN.PK113-7D and an industrial bioethanol strain, Ethanol Red, grown at sub- and supra-optimal temperatures under chemostat conditions. We employed anaerobic conditions, mimicking the industrial processes. The proteomic profile of these strains in all conditions was performed by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS), allowing the quantification of 997 proteins, data available via ProteomeXchange (PXD016567). Our analysis demonstrated that temperature responses differ between the strains; however, we also found some common responsive proteins, revealing that the response to temperature involves general stress and specific mechanisms. Overall, sub-optimal temperature conditions involved a higher remodeling of the proteome. The proteomic data evidenced that the cold response involves strong repression of translation-related proteins as well as induction of amino acid metabolism, together with components related to protein folding and degradation while, the high temperature response mainly recruits amino acid metabolism. Our study provides a global and thorough insight into how growth temperature affects the yeast proteome, which can be a step forward in the comprehension and improvement of yeast thermotolerance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Proteoma/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Vinho/microbiologia , Anaerobiose/genética , Anaerobiose/fisiologia , Fermentação , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteômica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Temperatura , Termotolerância/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006971

RESUMO

The lily, a famous bulbous flower, is seriously affected by high temperatures, which affect their growth and production. To date, the signalling pathways and the molecular mechanisms related to heat response in Lilium have not been elucidated. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed in an important thermo-tolerant flower, L. longiflorum, and a thermo-sensitive flower, L. distichum. Lily seedlings were first exposed to heat stress at 42°C for different lengths of time, and the optimal time-points (2 h and 24 h) were selected for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Approximately 66.51, 66.21, and 65.36 Mb clean reads were identified from three libraries of L. longiflorum (LL_CK, LL_T2h and LL_T24h, respectively) and 66.18, 66.03, and 65.16 Mb clean reads were obtained from three libraries of L. distichum (LD_CK, LD_T2h and LD_T24h, respectively) after rRNA removing. A total of 34,301 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the database NCBI non-redundant protein (NR), Swiss-Prot proteins, InterPro proteins, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). In addition, 1,621 genes were differentially expressed in the overlapping libraries between LL_DEGs and LD_DEGs; of these genes, 352 DEGs were obviously upregulated in L. longiflorum and downregulated in L. distichum during heat stress, including 4-coumarate, CoA ligase (4CL), caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), peroxidase, pathogenesis-related protein 10 family genes (PR10s), 14-3-3 protein, leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase, and glycine-rich cell wall structural protein-like. These genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, and kinase signalling pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to validate the expression profiling of these DEGs in RNA-seq data. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study provide a comprehensive sequence resource for the discovery of heat-resistance genes and reveal potential key components that are responsive to heat stress in lilies, which may help to elucidate the heat signal transcription networks and facilitate heat-resistance breeding in lily.


Assuntos
Lilium/genética , Lilium/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Lilium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Termotolerância/genética , Termotolerância/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021997

RESUMO

The yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina nigrithorax (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Lepeletier 1836), is native to Southeast Asia and has been unintentionally introduced in France. The species is spreading in many areas of the world. The European Union has classified V. velutina as a species of concern because the hornet significantly affects beekeeping activities, mostly by preying honeybees (Apis mellifera) at beehive entrances. No current control method is simultaneously eco-friendly and effective. Here, we aimed to develop a greener technique for destroying V. velutina nests, inspired by a defense behavior used by the eastern honeybee (Apis cerana), the "heat ball". In the laboratory, we tested how V. velutina of different sexes, castes, and developmental stages responded to different heat exposure systems employing a range of temperature levels. Overall, the time of death decreased as temperature increased. Hornets died faster when the temperature was gradually increased than when it was instantaneously increased; larvae seemed to be more thermally tolerant. The most promising and potential technique for quickly destroying hornet nests may be steam injection, as the humid airflow system killed all hornets within 13 seconds, and therefore could be a good candidate for a green nest control method.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Feminino , França , Temperatura Alta , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Temperatura
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